Korea Aerospace Research Institute

The Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) established in 1989, is the aeronautics and space agency of Republic of Korea(South Korea). Its main laboratories are located in Daejeon, in the Daedeok Science Town. KARI's vision is to continue building upon indigenous launch capabilities, strengthen national safety and public service, industrialize satellite information and applications technology, explore the moon, and develop environmentally-friendly and highly-efficient cutting-edge aircraft and core aerospace technology. Current projects include the KSLV-2 launcher. Past projects include the 1999 Arirang-1 satellite. The agency was founded in 1989. Prior to South Korea's entry into the IAE in 1992, it focused primarily on aerospace technology.

Korea Aerospace Research Institute
한국항공우주연구원
KARI logo
AbbreviationKARI
MottoAerius Spatium [1]
FormationOctober 10, 1989
HeadquartersDaejeon,
Republic of Korea
Administrator
Cho Gwang-rae (조광래)
Naro Space Center
Parent organisation
National Research Council of Science & Technology
Budget
688.8 billion; $583 million
FY2016
[2]
WebsiteKARI
KARI seal
Seal of KARI

Background

KARI began on October 10, 1989 as a national aerospace research institute with the purpose of contributing to sound development of the national economy and enhancement of people's lives through a new exploration, technological advancement, development, and dissemination in the field of aerospace science and technology.[3]

KARI began in 1989 to develop its own rockets. It produced the KSR-I and KSR-II, one and two-stage rockets in the early 1990s.

In December 1997 it began development of a LOX/kerosene rocket engine. KARI wished to develop satellite launch capability. A test launch of the KSR-III took place in 2002.

Timeline

  • 1989.10 Establishment of KARI affiliated to KIMM(Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials)
  • 1990.12 Cornerstone – Laying ceremony for the building of the institute
  • 1992.07 Authorized as the Inspection Agency, designated by the AIDP Law
  • 1992.10 Completion of construction of the research building complex
  • 1993.04 Experimental Aircraft Kachi Development
  • 1993.06.09 Launch of Single-stage Sounding Rocket (KSR-I)
  • 1993.09 EXPO Unmanned Airship Development
  • 1995. Korea launched its first communications satellite named Koreasat * 1996.11 Independent organization as KARI, an Incorporated Foundation
  • 1997.03 Twin-engine composite Aircraft Development
  • 1997.04 Authorized as the Type Certification Agency, designated by the Aviation Law
  • 1998.06 Launch of Two-stage Sounding Rocket (KSR-II)
  • 1999.01 Change of Type Certification Agency
  • 1999.12 Launch of Korea Multiple Purpose Satellite (KOMPSAT I) also known as Arirang I
  • 2001.01 Change of name to Korea Aerospace Research Institute
  • 2001.09 Canard Aircraft Development
  • 2002.11 Launch of Liquid-propellant Rocket (KSR-III)
  • 2003.05 Cornerstone – laying ceremony for the Aircraft Flight Test Center
  • 2003.08 Cornerstone – laying ceremony for the NARO Space Center
  • 2003.09 Launch of STSAT (Science and Technology Satellite)-1[4]
  • 2003.10 Multi-Purpose Stratosphere unmanned-airship Development
  • 2004.10 Completion of Jeju island Tracking Station
  • 2005.01 Installation of South pole ground station
  • 2006.07 Launch of Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite (KOMPSAT 2) also known as Arirang II
  • 2008.03 Transfer to KRCF(Korea Research Council of Fundamental Science o& Technology
  • 2008.04 The first Korean astronaut
  • 2008.12 Medium Aero stats Development
  • 2009.06 Completion of NARO Space center
  • 2009.08 The 1st launch of Korea's 1st space launch vehicle KSLV-1
  • 2010.06 Launch of COMS
  • 2010.06 The 2nd launch of Korea's 1st space launch vehicle KSLV-1
  • 2011.11 Smart UAV Development
  • 2012.05 Launch of Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite(KOMPSAT)-3
  • 2012.06 Korean Utility Helicopter Surion Development
  • 2013.01 The 3rd launch of Korea's 1st space launch vehicle KSLV-1
  • 2013.08 Launch of Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite (KOMPSAT)-5
  • 2013.11 STSAT(Science and Technology Satellite)-3 Development
  • 2013.12 4KC-100 Development
  • 2014.05 OPV Development
  • 2014 Research on lunar exploration cooperation began
  • 2015.03 Launch of Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite (KOMPSAT)-3A
  • 2015.08 EAV-3 development
  • 2015.12 The completion of KSLV-II’s engine combustion test facility
  • 2016.12 Designated as a National Space Development Agency

Aerospace developments

KSLV-1 Naro Replica
Actual-sized replica of KSLV-1 Naro at public exhibition area of Naro Space Center.

KARI is also developing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, high-altitude airships, a next-generation multi-purpose helicopter project, next- generation medium satellite, and a lunar exploration project. In addition, several satellites, including the KOMPSAT (also known as Arirang) Series, the COMS (Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite), and the STSAT (Science and Technology Satellite), are developed, operated, or under development by KARI. On January 30, 2013, they launched a satellite into space from their own soil for the first time.[5]

Mission and Major Functions

  • Perform basic and applied studies in aerospace technology
  1. Development of leading-edge technology aircraft, aircraft evaluation and testing, and support of national development projects
  1. Research and development of comprehensive system and core technology of aircraft, satellite, and space launch vehicle
  1. Support national aerospace development policy establishment, distribution, and diffusion of aerospace technology information
  1. Development and KSLV(Korea Launching of Space Launch Vehicles) and Operation of Space Center
  • Perform government-delegated tasks and support policy development
  1. Development of technology for assuring aerospace safety and quality, and maintenance of legal quality certification and internationally recognized certification systems
  2. Establishment and support of the National Aerospace Development Policy and dissemination of knowledge on aerospace technology
  • Support industries and transfer technology
  1. Joint utilization of testing facilities and equipment with industries and academia, and training of scientists and engineers
  2. Transfer of technology from research and development and provisions for commercialization support

Space Launch Vehicles

KSLV-1 and KSLV-2

KSLV-1 launched on August 25, 2009. It was originally a cluster indigenous liquid KSR-III rockets with a solid propellant to form a multistage launcher. However, KARI experienced more difficulties than expected in SLV development, because it required much stronger propellant power than KSR-III possessed to launch a satellite into orbit.[6] After several failed attempts, KARI turned to Russia's Khrunichev Design Bureau for assistance in developing a liquid-propellant rocket engine for the KSLV-1 as well as for cooperation in the construction of the launch facility at the Naro Space Center. KSLV-1 was transformed into a two-stage launcher, 33 m high with a maximum diameter of 2.9 m. It has a mass of 140 tons at lift-off. The first stage of the launcher was derived from the Russian URM-1 (Universal Rocket Module) developed by Khrunichev. The second stage of the launcher was a solid Kick Motor developed by Korea, which includes the Inertial Navigation System; the power, control, and flight safety systems; plus the nose fairing. KSLV-1 was the most prominent project of the whole South Korean space development program and was successfully launched in late January 2013.[6] South Korea is planning to launch its next rocket KSLV-2 by year 2019. The first stage of its rocket will have 4 clustered engines, each of which will have a 75 metric ton thrust. It was announced that KARI has already developed few prototypes of a 75 metric ton thrust engine.

KSLV-2 TLV

The Test Launch Vehicle (TLV) is a two stages rocket used to test the performance of the 75-tons and 7-tons thrust rocket engines that will power the KSLV-2. The TLV is 25.8 meters in length, 2.6 meters in diameter, and with a mass of 52.1 tons. The main-stage Kerolox engine is fully gimballed. [7][8]

Fuel RP-1/LOX[9]
Thrust 75 metric tons
Specific Impulse 298s
Height 2.9m
Diameter 2m
Wet Mass 52.1t[9]
Dry Mass 38 tons
Height 25.8m
Diameter 2.6m
Stages 1
Engine KRE-075

The first TLV was launched from the Naro Space Center in Goheung, South Jeolla Province. The main objective of the first suborbital flight was for the single-stage rocket's main engine to burn 140 seconds, reaching a 100 km altitude before splashing down in the sea between Jeju Island and Okinawa Island.[10]

The maiden flight was first delayed from October 25, 2018, for two months, due to abnormal readings detected in the rocket propellant pressurization system.[11] The test flight was then rescheduled for November 28, 2018, at 16:00 KST(UTC+9). No payload is to be placed into orbit.[12]

The launch of the first TLV while deemed successful with its main engine burning for 151 seconds in a 10 minute flight,[13] was not broadcast live.[14] After reaching a maximum suborbital altitude of 209 kilometers, the rocket stage hit the ocean 429 kilometers southeast of Jeju.[15]

KSLV-3

KSLV-3 was initially designed to launch geostationary satellites of 6 tons, and to enter service in 2023.[16][17] Due to the development of the Small launch vehicle (SSLV), KSLV-III is changed to GEO-SLV, whith a payload of 3t to GEO.[18]

Development

The core stage will powered by four KRE-90 engines of 90 tons thrust, plus four liquid boosters each with a KRE-90 engine. The second stage will be powered by a KRE-90V staged combustion cycle engine.

KRE-010V, the Korean staged combustion cycle engine of 10 tons thrust had a 100 second burn test on December 6th, 2018. It will be used as the upper stage (3rd stage) engine of KSLV-III.[19]

Item Value
Vacuum Thrust (tonf) 8-10
Vacuum Specific Impulse, Isp (s) >350
O/F Ratio 2.5-2.6
Preburner Pressure (bar) >200
Combustion Chamber Pressure (bar) >80
Ignition/Starts >3
Propellants LOX/Kerosene
Engine Cycle Staged Combustion
Mass (Kg) <280
Operation Time (s) >600

KSLV-4

KSLV-4 was expected to carry the 64-tons class space station's modules. KSLV-4 scheduled to enter service in 2028 (updated plan).[20][21][22] Due to the development of the Small launch vehicle (SSLV), KSLV-IV will be no longer be developed.

Small launch vehicle (SSLV)

By 2025 it should be able to put a payload of less than 500kg to LEO.

Solid-fuel launcher

On November 12, 2018, the South Korean government was discussing with its American counterparts, on its plan to develop solid-fuel space vehicles, and comparable to the Japanese Epsilon rocket in performance.[23]

Korean Lunar Exploration Program

In December 2016, KARI signed a lunar exploration technical cooperation with NASA which increased the possibility of exploration success greatly. The Korean Lunar Exploration Program (KLEP) is divided in two phases.[24][25] Phase 1 incorporates the launch and operation of a lunar orbiter called Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO), which will be the first lunar probe by South Korea,[26] meant to develop and enhance South Korea's technological capabilities, as well as map natural resources from orbit. Phase 2 will include a lunar obiter, a lunar lander, and a rover[27] to be launched together on a KSLV-II South Korean rocket from the Naro Space Center,[28][24] in 2025.[29][30]

Satellite Navigation

KASS is the Korean model of satellite-based augmented systems (SBAS), a technology that is capable of reducing GPS error to less than 3m. Korea is expected to become the only seventh country in the world to own an SBAS, beginning in July 2020.[31] This technological achievement is a prerequisite for Korea joining the G7.[32]

Korea Multiple- Purpose Satellite-3A

Korea Multiple-Purpose Satellite- 3A (KOMPSAT-3A) was launched on 25 March 2015, on a Dnepr-1 launch vehicle from the Jasny Kombarovsky site in Russia. The purpose of the KOMPSAT-3A is to enable us to take advantage of geographical information systems (GIS) in environmental, agricultural, and oceanographic sciences, and to facilitate natural hazards. The KOMPSAT-3A is equipped with two distinctive sensors, a high-resolution multi-spectral (MS) optical sensor, namely the Advanced Earth Image Sensor System-A (AEISS-A), and the Scanner Infrared Imaging System (SIIS).[33]

Smart Tilt Rotor UAV

In late 2011, KARI unveiled its tiltrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that can fly at around 400 km/hr.

See also

References

  1. ^ Latin for "Aerospace" "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2007-11-08.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ "기관별 경영공시 한국항공우주연구원". alio.go.kr. Archived from the original on 2016-06-24. Retrieved 2016-05-25.
  3. ^ Greeting address. (2016). Korea Aerospace Research Institute. retrieved from https://www.kari.re.kr/eng/sub01_01.do
  4. ^ "History". Korea Aerospace Research Institute. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
  5. ^ "South Korea launches rocket weeks after NKorea". The San Diego Union-Tribune. January 30, 2013. Retrieved 2013-02-01.
  6. ^ a b An, H. (2013). Seeking independence in space: South korea's space program (1958–2010). Quest: History Of Spaceflight, 20(2), 34–51.
  7. ^ 10 Sep 2018 (2018-09-10). "한국항공우주연구원 on Twitter: "올 10월로 다가올 #시험발사체 조립 장면 타임랩스 영상으로 만나 보시죠!… "". Twitter.com. Retrieved 2019-01-10.
  8. ^ "사진 > KARI IMAGE >". www.kari.re.kr. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  9. ^ a b https://i.servimg.com/u/f48/19/39/35/83/scree261.jpg
  10. ^ 김한주 (28 November 2018). "S. Korea to test launch space rocket engine". Yonhap News Agency. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  11. ^ "S. Korea delays test launch of space rocket engine". English.yonhapnews.co.kr. 2018-10-17. Retrieved 2019-01-10.
  12. ^ 한국항공우주연구원 (13 November 2018). "11월 28일, 한국형발사체 '누리호'의 엔진시험을 위한 시험발사체 발사가 추진될 예정입니다.pic.twitter.com/9eOHhufcym". twitter.com. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  13. ^ 김한주 (28 November 2018). "(2nd LD) Space rocket engine burn time test meets target goal". Yonhap News Agency. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  14. ^ 한국항공우주연구원 (27 November 2018). "#시험발사체 발사 성공! 발사 모습을 영상으로 공개합니다.pic.twitter.com/lTkonvL7ax". twitter.com. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  15. ^ 김한주 (28 November 2018). "(2nd LD) S. Korea successfully tests space rocket engine". Yonhap News Agency. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  16. ^ http://penpal.kjclub.com/kr/exchange/theme/read.php?tname=exc_board_65&uid=341142&fid=341142&thread=1000000&idx=1&page=1&number=218281
  17. ^ http://www.kjclub.com/UploadFile/exc_board_66/2013/12/24/kslv-3.png
  18. ^ News, S. Korean Spaceflight (10 December 2018). "These were the previous concepts of KSLV-III & KSLV-IV. Both were heavy launchers. However, it changed due to the development of the Small launch vehicle (SSLV). KSLV-IV will be no longer in development, and KSLV-III changed to GEO-SLV, which can carry 3t to GEO. (name TBD.)pic.twitter.com/6gy1427iih". twitter.com. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  19. ^ News, S. Korean Spaceflight (8 December 2018). "Specification of "KRE-010V", the Korean staged combustion cycle engine which had a 100 second burn test on December 6th. It will be used as the upper stage (3rd stage) engine of KSLV-III (GEO Launch Vehicle). Rendering of KSLV-III (TBD) also included.pic.twitter.com/EDApBiriZ5". twitter.com. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  20. ^ http://www.kjclub.com/UploadFile/exc_board_66/2013/12/24/kslv-4.png
  21. ^ http://www.kjclub.com/UploadFile/exc_board_65/2013/02/02/asdf.jpg
  22. ^ http://www.kjclub.com/UploadFile/exc_board_53/2013/11/27/PYH2013112608480001300_P2_59_20131126175004.jpg
  23. ^ 이치동 (12 November 2018). "(LEAD) S. Korea in talks with U.S. over solid-fuel rocket development". Yonhap News Agency. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  24. ^ a b Korean Lunar Exploration Program. Korean Aerospace Research Institute (KARI). Accessed on 25 January 2019.
  25. ^ SpaceX selected to assist 2020 South Korean lunar orbiter voyage. Lee Keun-young, Hankyoreh. 30 December 2017.
  26. ^ KPLO. Lunar Exploration Program. Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI). Accessed on 25 January 2019.
  27. ^ Korean Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO) Status Update. (PDF) Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI). 10 October 2017.
  28. ^ South Korea's first lunar mission planned for 2020. Emily Lakdawalla, The Planetary Society. December 7, 2017.
  29. ^ Pak, Han-pyol (1 July 2013). "핵전지 실은 한국형 로버 … 지구서 우주인터넷 통해 조종". 중앙일보. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
  30. ^ Kim, Jack (20 November 2007). "South Korea eyes moon orbiter in 2020, landing 2025". Reuters. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  31. ^ "Satellite Navigation > R&D >". www.kari.re.kr. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  32. ^ "KOREA AEROSPACE RESEARACH INSTITUTE". www.kari.re.kr. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  33. ^ Yeom, J., Hwang, J., Jung, J., Lee, K., & Lee, C. (2017). Initial Radiometric Characteristics of KOMPSAT-3A Multispectral Imagery Using the 6S Radiative Transfer Model, Well-Known Radiometric Tarps, and MFRSR Measurements. Remote Sensing, 9(2), 1. doi:10.3390/rs9020130

External links

Arirang-1

Arirang-1 or Arirang I is an unmanned artificial satellite created by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute and launched by a US rocket on December 21, 1999. This was the first satellite built primarily by South Korean engineers, although previous foreign-built satellites had been launched by Korean companies. It carries a surveillance camera able to distinguish objects with a diameter of 6.6 meters. It takes its name from the popular Korean folk song Arirang.

The satellite was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California on a Taurus rocket. It had been built in Daedeok Science Town in Daejeon, South Korea. The parts were shipped in three stages from Korea to California by First Express International, a Korean shipping firm.The Arirang-1 was succeeded by the Arirang-2 in 2006. Additional satellites in the series are planned.

On January 6, 2008, the Korea Aerospace Research Institute reported that they had lost contact with the satellite. It is suspected to have had a malfunction that has affected power generation.

Chollian

Chollian, (Korean, lit. Thousand Li View) also known as Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite 1 (COMS-1), is a South Korean satellite which was launched in June, 2010. It will be operated by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute, who will use it for communication, oceanography, and meteorological observation.

COMS-1 was constructed by EADS Astrium, and is based on the Eurostar-3000S satellite bus, bringing together ESA-made heritage from Meteosat and lessons learned from Eurostar satellites respectively. It has a mass of 2,460 kilograms (5,420 lb), and carries transponders broadcasting in the D/E and K bands of the NATO-defined spectrum, or the L/S and Ka bands of the IEEE-defined spectrum respectively. Its single solar array is expected to generate a minimum of 2.5 kilowatts of power.COMS-1 was launched by Arianespace using an Ariane 5ECA carrier rocket lifting off from ELA-3 at the Guiana Space Centre in Kourou, French Guiana. The first attempt to launch it occurred on 23 June 2010, however the launch was scrubbed due to a problem with one of the rocket's subsystems. A subsequent attempt on 24 June was also scrubbed, due to a problem with the pressurisation of the rocket's fuel tanks. The launch occurred at 21:41 UTC on 26 June 2010. The Saudi Arabian Arabsat-5A satellite was launched by the same rocket, with a SYLDA adaptor being used to separate the spacecraft. Arabsat-5A was mounted atop the SYLDA, with COMS-1 underneath it.Following launch, COMS-1 separated into a geosynchronous transfer orbit. It will use an apogee motor to raise itself into geosynchronous orbit. Once it reaches this orbit, it will undergo testing before beginning operations at a longitude of 128.2 degrees East. Its mission is scheduled to last seven years, however the satellite has a design life of ten years.

Daedeok Science Town

Daedeok Innopolis, formerly known as Daedeok Science Town, is the research and development district in the Yuseong-gu district in Daejeon, South Korea. Daedeok Innopolis grew out of the research cluster established by President Park Chunghee in 1973 with the opening of the KAIST. Over 20 major research institutes and over 40 corporate research centers make up this science cluster. Over the last few years, a number of IT venture companies have sprung up in this region, which has a high concentration of Ph.Ds in the applied sciences. There are 232 research and educational institutions to be found in Daejeon, many in the Daedeok region, among them the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute and the Korea Aerospace Research Institute. The "town" will provide a core for the International Science and Business Belt.

The Daedeok Innopolis logo was created by the industrial design company INNO Design in Palo Alto, USA.

Goheung County

Goheung County (Goheung-gun) is a county in Jeollanam-do Province, South Korea.

Index of Korea-related articles (K)

This is a partial list of Korea-related topics beginning with K. For Korean words starting with ㄱ, see also under G.

Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee

The Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) is an inter-governmental forum whose aim is to co-ordinate efforts to deal with debris in orbit around the Earth founded in 1993.

KAI KUH-1 Surion

The KAI KUH-1 Surion is a twin-engine, transport utility helicopter developed primarily by Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI), Agency for Defense Development (ADD) and Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) jointly with Eurocopter. In 2006, the research and development phase of the Korea Helicopter Project - Korea Utility Helicopter (KHP-KUH), costing around 1.3 trillion won ($1.2 billion), was launched by the Agency for Defense Development. In 2012, full-scale production of the Surion commenced; KAI has been designated as the principal manufacturer of the type.An initial force of around 245 Surions have been ordered by the Republic of Korea Army to replace their aging fleets of UH-1H utility helicopters and 500MD light utility helicopters, which have been in service for decades. KAI shall also construct civilian and law enforcement variants of the helicopter.In 2017, the Surion was the centerpiece of an embezzlement scandal involving parent company KAI, the South Korean Ministry of National Defense and its Defense Acquisition Program Administration.

KPLO

KPLO may refer to:

KPLO-TV, a television station (channel 13 digital) licensed to Reliance, South Dakota, United States, rebroadcasting KELO-TV

KPLO-FM, a radio station (94.5 FM) licensed to Reliance, South Dakota, United States

Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter, the first lunar exploration mission by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute.

KSLV-II

KSLV-II, also known as Nuri (누리), is South Korea's second carrier rocket and the successor of KSLV-1. This three-stage rocket is entirely developed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI), and planned launched into space in 2021. All stages will use indigenously developed rocket engines. The South Korean government is setting SpaceX as a role model, especially in making cheaper and reliable rockets for commercial launch service. The goal is to launch a 1,500 kg payload into a 600–800 km low Earth orbit (LEO) and 2,600 kg into a 300 km LEO.

Kari

Kari or KARI may refer to:

Kari or curry, a pan-Asian variety of dishes made of spices and/or herbs

Kari Motor Speedway, Coimbatore

Kari (moon), a natural satellite of Saturn

Kari (music), a technique in shakuhachi music

Kari (name), real and fictional people with the given name, nickname or surname

Kari Suomalainen

Kari, Jhunjhunu, a village in Rajasthan, India

Kari, Tchériba, a village in Mouhoun Province, Burkina Faso

Kari, Tikamgarh, a town in Madhya Pradesh, India

Kari, Iran, a village in Bushehr Province, Iran

Kari-ye Bozorg ("Greater Kari"), a village in Ardabil Province, Iran

Kari people, also Cari, Aka-Kari or Aka-Cari, a tribe in the Andaman Islands, India

Kari language, also Cari, Aka-Kari or Aka-Cari, spoken by the Kari people

Kari language, a Bantu language spoken in Africa

Kári, son of Fornjót, the personification of wind in Norse mythology

KARI or the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute

KARI (AM), an AM radio station broadcasting on 550, licensed to Blaine, WA

Karo-kari (honor killings against women are Kari)

Korea Aerospace Research Institute

Ko San

Ko San (born October 19, 1976) is CEO and founder of TIDE Institute and ATEAM Ventures.

Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology Satellite 4

The Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology Satellite 4 (Kaistsat 4) is an ultraviolet telescope in a satellite. It is funded by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute, and was launched on 27 September 2003 into an Earth orbit with a height between 675 and 695 km.

Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter

The Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO) is a planned lunar orbiter by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) of South Korea. The orbiter, its science payload and ground control infrastructure, are technology demonstrators. The orbiter will also be tasked with surveying lunar resources such as water ice, uranium, helium-3, silicon, and aluminium, and produce a topographic map to help select future lunar landing sites.

The mission is planned to be launched in December 2020 on a Falcon 9 rocket.

Naro Space Center

Naro Space Center is a South Korean spaceport in South Jeolla's Goheung County, operated by the state-run Korea Aerospace Research Institute.

The spaceport is located about 485 km (300 mi) south of Seoul. It includes two launch pads, a control tower, rocket assembly and test facilities, facilities for satellite control testing and assembly, a media center, an electric power station, a space experience hall and a landing field. It supported 4 launches, and will also support the KSLV-II launch in 2021, and SSLV launches in 2025.

STSAT-2A

STSAT-2A (Science and Technology Satellite 2A) was a satellite launched by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI), the national space agency of South Korea, from the Naro Space Center in Goheung County, South Jeolla using the Naro-1 (KSLV-1) rocket.The 100-kilogram (220 lb) satellite carried a Lyman-alpha Imaging Solar Telescope (LIST) as well as Satellite laser ranging (SLR) payload.The Satellite Technology Research Center (SaTReC) developed STSAT-2A as a sun observation, satellite laser ranging and engineering and technology demonstration sponsored by the Ministry of Science and Technology. It was expected to be operational for about two years, and was scheduled to be launched between 2005 and 2007.The Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) instrument was intended to measure the orbit of STSAT-2A, in order to investigate variations in its orbit.It was a followup to STSAT-1, which was launched using a Kosmos-3M rocket on September 27, 2003. Originally a Dual-channel Radiometers for Earth and Atmosphere Monitoring (DREAM) Microwave radiometer was intended as the principal payload of STSAT-2A for an expected launch in 2007. The Laser Retro-reflector Array (LRA) was described as an early expected payload for STSAT-2A which would consist of nine retro-reflectors in a mechanical casing.STSAT-2A has three missions, the indigenous research and development to place a satellite into low orbit, development of indigenous spacecraft, and the ability to develop scientific payloads.STSAT-2A was launched on the maiden flight of the Naro-1 rocket, which lifted off the Naro Space Centre, on the southern coast of South Korea at 08:00 GMT on 25 August 2009. The launch failed to place STSAT-2 into orbit after half of the payload fairing failed to separate. This resulted in the second stage being too heavy to reach orbit, and it fell back to Earth along with the satellite. Further investigation is ongoing. A second satellite, STSAT-2B, was launched on June 10, 2010, but the launch vehicle failed again.

STSAT-2B

STSAT-2B, or Science and Technology Satellite 2B, was a South Korean satellite which was lost in the failure of the second flight of the Naro-1 carrier rocket. It was to have been operated by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute, and was intended to demonstrate technology for future spacecraft. The satellite had a mass of 100 kilograms (220 lb), and was expected to operate for at least two years.STSAT-2B was originally intended to operate alongside a second spacecraft, STSAT-2A; however STSAT-2A was lost in 2009 after the payload fairing of its carrier rocket failed to separate, leaving the rocket unable to achieve orbit.

STSAT-2C

STSAT-2C, or Science and Technology Satellite 2C, or Naro Science Satellite(ko:나로과학위성) is a South Korean satellite which was launched in 2013. It is operated by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute, and is intended to demonstrate technology for future spacecraft. The satellite has a mass of 100 kilograms (220 lb), and is expected to operate for less than a year.STSAT-2C was launched at 07:00 UTC on 30 January 2013, on the third flight of the Naro-1 carrier rocket, with a Russian first stage derived from the Angara and a South Korean second stage. Liftoff occurred from the Naro Space Centre, and the rocket successfully deployed the satellite into at 292-by-1,511-kilometre (181 by 939 mi) low Earth orbit inclined at 80.3 degrees. The launch marked the first successful flight of the Naro-1, which had previously failed to launch STSAT-2A in 2009 and STSAT-2B in 2010.

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