The Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) established in 1989, is the aeronautics and space agency of Republic of Korea. Its main laboratories are located in Daejeon, in the Daedeok Science Town. KARI's vision is to continue building upon indigenous launch capabilities, strengthen national safety and public service, industrialize satellite information and applications technology, explore the moon, and develop environmentally-friendly and highly-efficient cutting-edge aircraft and core aerospace technology. Current projects include the KSLV-2 launcher. Past projects include the 1999 Arirang-1 satellite. The agency was founded in 1989. Prior to South Korea's entry into the IAE in 1992, it focused primarily on aerospace technology.
|Korea Aerospace Research Institute|
|Motto||Aerius Spatium |
|Formation||October 10, 1989|
Republic of Korea
|Cho Gwang-rae (조광래)|
|Naro Space Center|
|National Research Council of Science & Technology|
|₩ 688.8 billion; $583 million|
KARI began on October 10, 1989 as a national aerospace research institute with the purpose of contributing to sound development of the national economy and enhancement of people's lives through a new exploration, technological advancement, development, and dissemination in the field of aerospace science and technology.
KARI began in 1989 to develop its own rockets. It produced the KSR-I and KSR-II, one and two-stage rockets in the early 1990s.
KARI is also developing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, high-altitude airships, a next-generation multi-purpose helicopter project, next- generation medium satellite, and a lunar exploration project. In addition, several satellites, including the KOMPSAT (also known as Arirang) Series, the COMS (Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite), and the STSAT (Science and Technology Satellite), are developed, operated, or under development by KARI. On January 30, 2013, they launched a satellite into space from their own soil for the first time.
KSLV-1 launched on August 25, 2009. It was originally a cluster indigenous liquid KSR-III rockets with a solid propellant to form a multistage launcher. However, KARI experienced more difficulties than expected in SLV development, because it required much stronger propellant power than KSR-III possessed to launch a satellite into orbit. After several failed attempts, KARI turned to Russia's Khrunichev Design Bureau for assistance in developing a liquid-propellant rocket engine for the KSLV-1 as well as for cooperation in the construction of the launch facility at the Naro Space Center. KSLV-1 was transformed into a two-stage launcher, 33 m high with a maximum diameter of 2.9 m. It has a mass of 140 tons at lift-off. The first stage of the launcher was derived from the Russian URM-1 (Universal Rocket Module) developed by Khrunichev. The second stage of the launcher was a solid Kick Motor developed by Korea, which includes the Inertial Navigation System; the power, control, and flight safety systems; plus the nose fairing. KSLV-1 was the most prominent project of the whole South Korean space development program and was successfully launched in late January 2013. South Korea is planning to launch its next rocket KSLV-2 by year 2019. The first stage of its rocket will have 4 clustered engines, each of which will have a 75 metric ton thrust. It was announced that KARI has already developed few prototypes of a 75 metric ton thrust engine.
The Test Launch Vehicle (TLV) is a two stages rocket used to test the performance of the 75-tons and 7-tons thrust rocket engines that will power the KSLV-2. The TLV is 25.8 meters in length, 2.6 meters in diameter, and with a mass of 52.1 tons. The main-stage Kerolox engine is fully gimballed. 
|Thrust||75 metric tons|
|Dry Mass||38 tons|
The first TLV was launched from the Naro Space Center in Goheung, South Jeolla Province. The main objective of the first suborbital flight was for the single-stage rocket's main engine to burn 140 seconds, reaching a 100 km altitude before splashing down in the sea between Jeju Island and Okinawa Island.
The maiden flight was first delayed from October 25, 2018, for two months, due to abnormal readings detected in the rocket propellant pressurization system. The test flight was then rescheduled for November 28, 2018, at 16:00 KST(UTC+9). No payload is to be placed into orbit.
The launch of the first TLV while deemed successful with its main engine burning for 151 seconds in a 10 minute flight, was not broadcast live. After reaching a maximum suborbital altitude of 209 kilometers, the rocket stage hit the ocean 429 kilometers southeast of Jeju.
KSLV-3 was initially designed to launch geostationary satellites of 6 tons, and to enter service in 2023. Due to the development of the Small launch vehicle (SSLV), KSLV-III is changed to GEO-SLV, whith a payload of 3t to GEO.
The core stage will powered by four KRE-90 engines of 90 tons thrust, plus four liquid boosters each with a KRE-90 engine. The second stage will be powered by a KRE-90V staged combustion cycle engine.
KRE-010V, the Korean staged combustion cycle engine of 10 tons thrust had a 100 second burn test on December 6th, 2018. It will be used as the upper stage (3rd stage) engine of KSLV-III.
|Vacuum Thrust (tonf)||8-10|
|Vacuum Specific Impulse, Isp (s)||>350|
|Preburner Pressure (bar)||>200|
|Combustion Chamber Pressure (bar)||>80|
|Engine Cycle||Staged Combustion|
|Operation Time (s)||>600|
KSLV-4 was expected to carry the 64-tons class space station's modules. KSLV-4 scheduled to enter service in 2028 (updated plan). Due to the development of the Small launch vehicle (SSLV), KSLV-IV will be no longer be developed.
By 2025 it should be able to put a payload of less than 500kg to LEO.
On November 12, 2018, the South Korean government was discussing with its American counterparts, on its plan to develop solid-fuel space vehicles, and comparable to the Japanese Epsilon rocket in performance.
As part of the national space promotion plan, the Korean lunar exploration program (KLEP) is to develop the first lunar probe in Korea and secure the necessary base technology for lunar exploration, such as orbit, lander, science payload, and deep space telecommunication. The first stage is the development of experimental orbit lines which will be carried out to secure core technology for space exploration establishment of deeps space networked, and international joint development of payloads. The second stage, the unmanned lunar orbiter and lander are developed and launched as Korean launch vehicle. The lunar probe will be equipped with mission equipment for analyzing the environment of the moon and exploring resources such as scientific payloads, space internet, nuclear energy, and rover. Korea has secured about 70% of the core technologies needed for lunar exploration.
In December 2016, KARI signed a lunar exploration technical cooperation with NASA which increased the possibility of exploration success greatly. A Korean Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO) is to be followed by a Korean Lunar Explorer (KLE) which constitutes and orbiter and a lander unit equipped with a small rover with a mass of approximately 20 kg. The Key goals of the Korean lunar mission are the investigations of lunar geology and space environment, exploration of lunar resources, and testing of future space and planetary exploration technology which will assist in future human activities on the moon and beyond. The exploration is expected to begin in 2020.
KASS is the Korean model of satellite-based augmented systems (SBAS), a technology that is capable of reducing GPS error to less than 3m. Korea is expected to become the only seventh country in the world to own an SBAS, beginning in July 2020. This technological achievement is a prerequisite for Korea joining the G7.
Korea Multiple-Purpose Satellite- 3A (KOMPSAT-3A) was launched on 25 March 2015, on a Dnepr-1 launch vehicle from the Jasny Kombarovsky site in Russia. The purpose of the KOMPSAT-3A is to enable us to take advantage of geographical information systems (GIS) in environmental, agricultural, and oceanographic sciences, and to facilitate natural hazards. The KOMPSAT-3A is equipped with two distinctive sensors, a high-resolution multi-spectral (MS) optical sensor, namely the Advanced Earth Image Sensor System-A (AEISS-A), and the Scanner Infrared Imaging System (SIIS).
In late 2011, KARI unveiled its tiltrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that can fly at around 400 km/hr.