Konstantin Vladimirovich Rodzaevsky (Russian: Константи́н Влади́мирович Родзае́вский; 11 August 1907 – 30 August 1946) was the leader of the Russian Fascist Party, which he led in exile from Manchuria. Rodzaevsky was also the chief editor of the RFP paper "Nash Put'".
Konstantin Vladimirovich Rodzaevsky
11 August 1907
Blagoveshchensk, Russian Empire
|Died||30 August 1946 (aged 39)|
Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
|Political party||Russian Fascist Party|
Born in Blagoveshchensk (across the Amur from China) in a family of the Siberian middle-class, he fled the Soviet Union for Manchuria in 1925. In Harbin, Rodzaevsky entered the law academy and joined the Russian Fascist Organization. On May 26, 1931, he became the Secretary General of the newly created Russian Fascist Party; in 1934 the Party amalgamated with the Russian Fascist Organization of Anastasy Vonsyatsky, Rodzaevsky becoming its leader. He modeled himself on Benito Mussolini, and also used the Swastika as one of the symbols of the movement.
Rodzaevsky collected around himself personally selected bodyguards, and used symbolism of the former Russian Empire along with Russian nationalist symbols; like the Italian Blackshirts, the Russian Fascists wore black uniforms with black crossed belts; they were armed with weapons obtained from Japan's Imperial Japanese Army. They created an international organization of White émigrés with a central office in Harbin, the "Russian Far East Moscow", and links in twenty-six nations around the world. The most important of these international posts was in New York City.
Rodzaevsky had around 12,000 followers in Manchukuo. During the 2,600th anniversary of the founding of the Empire of Japan, Rodzaevsky, with a select group of people, paid his respects to Emperor Hirohito at the official celebration in the region.
The fascists installed a great swastika of neon light at their branch in Manzhouli (Manchouli), at least 3 km from the Soviet border. It was kept on all day and night to provide a show of power against the Soviet government. Rodzaevsky awaited the day when, leaving these signs on the Russian border, he would lead the White Anti-Soviet forces, joining White General Kislitsin and Japanese forces, into battle to "liberate the people of Russia from Soviet rule". Their main military acts involved the training of Asano Detachment, the all ethnic-Russian special forces in the Kwantung Army, organized for carrying out sabotage against Soviet forces in case of any Japanese invasion of Siberia and Russian Far East areas; Japan was apparently interested in creating a White Russian state in Outer Manchuria.
During World War II, Rodzaevsky tried to launch an open struggle against Bolshevism, but Japanese authorities limited the RFP’s activities to acts of sabotage in the Soviet Union. A notorious anti-Semite, Rodzaevsky published numerous articles in the party newspapers Our way and The Nation; he was also the author of the brochure "Judas’ End" and the book "Contemporary Judaisation of the World or the Jewish Question in the 20th Century".
At the end of the war, perhaps as a desperate attempt to avoid execution in case that he would be captured by the advancing Red Army, Rodzaevsky began to state that the Soviet regime under Joseph Stalin was evolving into a nationalist one. He gave himself up to Soviet authorities in Harbin in 1945, with a letter that shows striking similarities with the doctrines of National Bolshevism:
I issued a call for an unknown leader, ... capable of overturning the Jewish government and creating a new Russia. I failed to see that, by the will of fate, of his own genius, and of millions of toilers, Comrade J.V. Stalin, the leader of the peoples, had become this unknown leader
He returned to Russia, where he was promised freedom and a job in one of the Soviet newspapers. Instead, he was arrested (along with fellow party-member Lev Okhotin), tried, and sentenced to be shot. He was executed in a Lubyanka prison cellar.
In 2001, a book by Rodzaevsky, Zaveshchanie russkogo fashista ("The Last Will of a Russian fascist"), was published in Russia.
The All-Russian Fascist Organization (VFO) was a Russian white émigré group led by Anastasy Vonsyatsky. It was based in Putnam, Connecticut, United States and was founded on May 10, 1933.In 1934, in Yokohama, the Russian Fascist Party (RFP) and VFO attempted to merge into a new entity, the All-Russia Fascist Party. On April 3, 1934, representatives from both organisations signed a protocol number 1, which proclaimed the merger of RFP and VFO and the creation of the All-Russia Fascist Party (VFP). The new organisation was intended to connect the RFP's organizational structure with the financial resources of the VFO. April 26, 1934 in Harbin on 2-m (Unity) Congress of Russian Fascists happened formal association VFO and the RFP and the creation of the All-Russia Fascist Party.A full merger was quite problematic however, because Vonsyatsky was an opponent of anti-Semitism and considered the support base of the RFP – primarily Russian Cossacks and the monarchists – as an anachronism. In October–December 1934 there was a split between Konstantin Rodzaevsky and Anastasy Vonsyatsky. The Vonsyatsky group remained in the RFP, but later he refounded his party as the All-Russian National Revolutionary Party. The party remained a marginal feature. It was renamed several times, eventually assuming the name All-Russian National Revolutionary Toilers and Workers-Peasants Party of Fascists (Russian: Всероссийская национально-революционная трудовая и рабоче-крестьянская партии фашистов)In 1940 – December 1941, the cooperation of Konstantin Rodzaevsky and Anastasy Vonsyatsky resumed, interrupted with the start of Japanese-American War.
After the U.S. entry into World War II in 1942 Anastasy Vonsyatsky was arrested by the FBI, after which the party ceased to exist.Anastasy Vonsiatsky
Anastasy Andreyevich Vonsyatsky (Russian: Анаста́сий Андре́евич Вонся́цкий, Polish: Anastazy Wąsiacki; June 12, 1898 – February 5, 1965), better known in the United States as Anastase Andreivitch Vonsiatsky, was a Russian anti-Bolshevik émigré and fascist leader based in the United States from the 1920s.
He became a naturalized American citizen while leading a splinter far-right organization, the Russian National Revolutionary Labor and Workers Peasant Party of Fascists. The headquarters of the RFO were based in Putnam, Connecticut. Vonsyatsky was charged with the support of secret contacts with agents of Nazi Germany and arrested by the FBI in 1942, following the United States' entry into war with Germany and Japan. Released early from prison in 1946, Vonsyatsky lived out the remainder of his life in the United States. He died in St. Petersburg, Florida, in 1965.Argentine Patriotic League
The Argentine Patriotic League (Liga Patriótica Argentina) was a Nacionalista paramilitary group, officially created in Buenos Aires on January 16, 1919, during the Tragic week events. Presided over by Manuel Carlés, a professor at the Military College and the Escuela Superior de Guerra, it also counted among its members the deputy Santiago G. O'Farrell (1861-1926). The League was merged into the Argentine Civic Legion in 1931. The Argentine Patriotic League formed part of a larger movement of patriotic leagues active in Chile and Argentina during the early 20th century.Blueshirts (Falange)
The Blueshirts (Spanish: Camisas Azules) was the Falangist paramilitary militia in Spain. The name refers to the blue uniform worn by members of the militia. The colour blue was chosen for the uniforms in 1934 by the FE de las JONS because it was, according to José Antonio Primo de Rivera, "clear, whole, and proletarian," and is the colour typically worn by mechanics, as the Falange sought to gain support among the Spanish working class. In Francoist Spain the Blueshirts were officially reorganized and officially renamed the Falange Militia of the FET y de las JONS in 1940.Crypto-fascism
Crypto-fascism is the secret support for, or admiration of, fascism. The term is used to imply that an individual or group keeps this support or admiration hidden to avoid political persecution or political suicide. The common usage is "crypto-fascist", one who practices this support.Fascio
Fascio (pronounced [ˈfaʃʃo]; plural fasci) is an Italian word literally meaning "a bundle" or "a sheaf", and figuratively "league", and which was used in the late 19th century to refer to political groups of many different (and sometimes opposing) orientations. A number of nationalist fasci later evolved into the 20th century Fasci movement, which became known as fascism.Fascist Union of Youth
The Fascist Union of Youth (Russian: Союз Фашистской Молодёжи, Soyuz Fashistskoy Molodyozhi) was the youth organization of the Russian Fascist Party. It was founded in 1936 in Harbin, Manchukuo, which consisted of all automatic members of the organizations VFP from ages 16 to 25.Ideology and tactics of the Union is entirely determined by ideology and tactics of the Russian Fascist Party.
Admission to the Union was carried out automatically: all members of the organization VFP appropriate age, regardless of gender. Members of the Union remained part of the VFP.The Union was divided into two groups, Junior and Senior, each of which had two levels, Second Level (Young Fascist) and First Level (Avangardisty). Members had to pass certain exams to advance to a higher level. Those who successfully passed to the second stage of the Union were enrolled in the Stolypin Fascist Academy.
The Union had cultural, educational, dramatic and philosophical circles, as well as sewing and language schools. The military and political sections were the most important ones in the Union. Structural units of the Union were branches of the Department of the VFP. The head of the Union was appointed by the Head of the VFP and the remaining leaders were appointed by the head of the Union.Fashist
Fashist (Russian: Фашистъ, 'Fascist') was a Russian fascist publication, issued from Putnam, Connecticut, United States. It was published by Anastasy Vonsyatsky. Fashist was distributed among Russian exiles around the world.Lev Okhotin
Lev Pavlovich Okhotin (Russian: Лев Па́влович Охоти́н; 1911–1948) was a member of the Supreme Council of the Russian Fascist Party, founded by exiles in Manchuria.Nash Put' (newspaper)
Nash Put (Russian: Наш Путь, Our Way) was a daily newspaper founded by Konstantin Rodzaevsky on 3 October 1933, that was issued in Harbin (1933–41) and Shanghai (1941-1943). The newspaper was the official organ of the Russian Fascist Party. Nash Put' was published until July 1943. The newspaper promoted Christian Orthodoxy, nationalism and fascism. Estimated circulation was 4,000. The paper was edited by Konstantin Rodzaevsky from 1933 to 1943. There was also a publishing house, "Izdatel'stvo gazety Nash Put'" (Russian: «Издательство газеты „Наш Путь“», "Publisher of the newspaper Our Way"). In 1936 it published Vladimir Kislitsin's memoirs In the fires of the Civil War: Memoires.National Fascist Party (Argentina)
The National Fascist Party of Argentina (Partido Nacional Fascista) was a fascist political party formed in 1923. In 1932, a group broke away from the party to form the Argentine Fascist Party, which eventually became a mass movement in the Córdoba region of Argentina.Russian Fascist Organization
Russian Fascist Organization (RFO) was the name adopted by a Russian émigré group active in Manchuria before World War II.
The RFO was formed in 1925 by members of the Law Faculty at Harbin Normal University. Under the leadership of Prof. N.I. Nikiforov, it looked to Italian fascism for inspiration and produced the 'Theses of Russian Fascism' in 1927. The RFO smuggled some propaganda into the Soviet Union, although this was brought to the attention of China who banned the group from publishing such works. In 1931 the RFO absorbed into the newly founded Russian Fascist Party (RFP) under the leadership of Konstantin Rodzaevsky.Russian Fascist Party
The Russian Fascist Party (RFP) (Russian: Российская фашистская партия), sometimes called the All-Russian Fascist Party, was a minor Russian émigré movement that was based in Manchukuo during the 1930s and 1940s.Simon Kaspé
Simon Kaspé (died 1933) was a Jewish resident of Harbin, Manchuria, who was kidnapped, ransomed, tortured and murdered by a gang of fascist Russian criminals under the influence of Konstantin Rodzaevsky. The half-hearted investigation into his death by the Japanese authorities, who were attempting to court the White Russian community as local enforcers and for their Anti-Communist sentiments, sparked anti-Japanese sentiment among the Jewish community of Manchukuo, and the flight of nearly 70% of the Jews of Harbin.Simon Kaspé was the son of Joseph Kaspé, owner of Harbin's Hôtel Moderne along with most of the city's cinemas and theaters. Joseph Kaspé fled persecution in Russia, moving to Harbin in 1907. Originally stateless, he obtained French citizenship both for himself and his family. Simon grew up in Harbin, but studied for a time at the Paris Conservatory and was an accomplished pianist.The Last Will of a Russian Fascist
The Last Will of a Russian Fascist (Russian: Завещание русского фашиста, Zaveshchanie russkogo fashista) is a reprint edition published in 2001 of a book by Konstantin Rodzaevsky, the leader of the All-Russia Fascist Party. Circulation of the book was 12,000 copies, of which 5,000 were a first-edition volume with illustrations, and the remainder were a second-edition volume without illustrations.Tropical fascism
In African political science, tropical fascism is a type of post-colonial state which is either considered fascist or is seen to have strong fascist tendencies. Gnassingbé Eyadéma dictator of Togo and leader of the Rally of the Togolese People, Mobutu Sese Seko dictator of Zaire and leader of the Popular Movement of the Revolution and Idi Amin dictator of Uganda have all been considered an example of tropical fascism in Africa. The Coalition for the Defence of the Republic and larger Hutu Power movement, a Hutu ultranationalist and supremacist movement that organized and committed the Rwandan Genocide aimed at exterminating the Tutsi people of Rwanda, has been regarded as a prominent example of tropical fascism in Africa. Pol Pot and The Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia has been called a tropical fascist regime, as they officially renounced communism in 1981.Union of Fascist Little Ones
The Union of Fascist Little Ones (Russian: Союз фашистских крошек, Soyuz fashistskikh kroshek) was a youth organization of the Russian Fascist Party. It was founded by Russian immigrants in 1934 in Harbin, China. It was open to "Russian boys and girls who believe in God, love Russia and respect labor".
The Union's declared goal was "saving Russian children from the streets and denationalization impact, raising them for future Russia in the Fascist spirit of religion and nationalism". The Union's members were Russian emigrant children aged between 3 and 10. Their parent's letter affirming agreement was all that was needed to secure membership.Young Egypt Party (1933)
The Young Egypt Party (Arabic: حزب مصر الفتاة, Misr El-Fatah) was an Egyptian political party.
Russian fascism to 1945
|Newspapers and magazines|