Konrad von Preysing

Johann Konrad Maria Augustin Felix, Graf von Preysing Lichtenegg-Moos (30 August 1880 – 21 December 1950) was a German prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. Considered a significant figure in Catholic resistance to Nazism, he served as Bishop of Berlin from 1935 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1946 by Pope Pius XII.

His Eminence

Konrad von Preysing
Cardinal, Bishop of Berlin
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2006-0217, Berlin, Ansprache des neuen Bischofs Preysing
SeeBerlin
AppointedJuly 5, 1935
InstalledAugust 31, 1935
Term endedDecember 21, 1950
PredecessorNikolaus Bares
SuccessorWilhelm Weskamm
Other posts Cardinal Priest of S. Agata de' Goti
Orders
OrdinationJuly 29, 1912
ConsecrationOctober 28, 1932
by Jacobus von Hauck
Created cardinalFebruary 18, 1946
by Pius XII
RankCardinal Priest
Personal details
Birth nameJohann Konrad Maria Augustin Felix, Graf von Preysing Lichtenegg-Moos
BornAugust 30, 1880
DiedDecember 21, 1950 (aged 70)
Berlin, Germany
BuriedSt. Hedwig's Cathedral, Berlin
NationalityGerman
Previous postBishop of Eichstätt (1932-1935)
Styles of
Konrad von Preysing
External Ornaments of a Cardinal Bishop
Reference styleHis Eminence
Spoken styleYour Eminence
Informal styleCardinal
SeeBerlin

Early life and ordination

Preysing was born at the castle of Kronwinkel, near Landshut, to the nobles Kaspar von Preysing and his wife, Hedwig von Walterskirchen. His brothers, Albert and Joseph, also became priests. Preysing attended a Landshut gymnasium before entering the University of Munich in 1898. After studying at the University of Würzburg from 1901–02, he forfeited a diplomatic career for an ecclesiastical one.[1] He then obtained his doctorate in theology in 1913 from the Theological Faculty of Innsbruck, which he had entered in 1908. Preysing was ordained to the priesthood on 29 July 1912.

Secretary to the Cardinal

Preysing served as private secretary to Cardinal Franziskus von Bettinger, the Archbishop of Munich and Freising, until 1916. As the Cardinal's secretary, he attended the 1914 papal conclave that elected Pope Benedict XV. Preysing did pastoral work in the Archdiocese of Munich and Freising from 1916 to 1932. He was made a canon of the cathedral chapter on 1 April 1928, and an Honorary Chamberlain of His Holiness on 15 May 1914.

Nazi period

Bishop

On 9 September 1932, Preysing was appointed Bishop of Eichstätt by Pope Pius XI. He received his episcopal consecration on the following October 28 from Archbishop Jacobus von Hauck, with Bishops Matthias Ehrenfried and Sigmund Ow-Felldorf serving as co-consecrators, at Eichstätt. He was later named Bishop of Berlin on 5 July 1935, and installed as such on the following 31 August.

Resistance to Nazism

In 1933, Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany. A stern opponent of the Nazi regime, Preysing said "We have fallen into the hands of criminals and fools" when the party came to power.[2] Preysing was one of the most firm and consistent of senior Catholics to oppose the Nazis, and was loathed by Hitler, who said "the foulest of carrion are those who come clothed in the cloak of humility and the foulest of these Count Preysing! What a beast!".[3]

Preysing opposed the appeasing attitudes of Cardinal Adolf Bertram towards the Nazis. He spoke out in public sermons and argued the case for firm opposition at bishops' conferences. He sought to block the Nazi closure of Catholic schools and arrests of church officials. By early 1937, the church hierarchy in Germany, which had initially attempted to co-operate with the new government, had become highly disillusioned. In March, Pope Pius XI issued the Mit brennender Sorge ("With burning concern") encyclical. The Pope asserted the inviolability of human rights and expressed deep concern at the Nazi regime's flouting of the 1933 Reich concordat, its mistreatment of Catholics and abuse of Christian values.[4] He accused the government of "systematic hostility levelled at the Church" and of sowing "secret and open fundamental hostility to Christ and His Church".[5] Preysing was part of the five-member commission that prepared the anti-Nazi encyclical.[6][7]

In 1938, Preysing became one of the co-founders of the Hilfswerk beim Bischöflichen Ordinariat Berlin (Welfare Office of the Berlin Diocese Office). He extended care to both baptised and unbaptised Jews and protested the Nazi euthanasia programme.[7] In 1940, Preysing ordered that prayers be offered in all of his diocese's churches for thirty Confessing Church clerics who were arrested in Prussia.[8] While Preysing was protected from Nazi retaliation by his position, his cathedral administrator and confidant Bernard Lichtenberg, was not. Lichtenberg served at St. Hedwig's Cathedral from 1932, and was under the watch of the Gestapo by 1933, for his support of prisoners and Jews. He became a confidante of Bishop von Preysing from 1935. He ran Preysing's aid unit, the Hilfswerke beim Bischöflichen Ordinariat Berlin, which secretly gave assistance to those who were being persecuted by the regime. From 1938, Lichtenberg conducted prayers for the Jews and other inmates of the concentration camps, including "my fellow priests there". For preaching against Nazi propaganda and writing a letter of protest concerning Nazi euthanasia, he was arrested in 1941, sentenced to two years penal servitude, and died en route to Dachau Concentration Camp in 1943.[9][10]

Following Lichtenberg's arrest, Margarete Sommer reported to Preysing.[11] While working for the Welfare Office, Sommer coordinated Catholic aid for victims of racial persecution – giving spiritual comfort, food, clothing, and money. She gathered intelligence on the deportations of the Jews, and living conditions in concentration camps, as well as on SS firing squads, writing several reports on these topics from 1942.[11]

A January 1941 letter from Preysing to Pope Pius XII indicated that he was aware of the dire situation of European Jews and that he had been seeking help from the Holy See on the question.[12] In a sermon in March 1941, Preysing reaffirmed Pius XII's opposition to the killing of the sick or otherwise infirm on either economic or eugenical grounds.[13]

Preysing also worked with leading members of the resistance Carl Goerdeler and Helmuth James Graf von Moltke.[6][7] Presying's Advent Pastoral Letters of 1942 and 1943 on the nature of human rights reflected the anti-Nazi theology of the Barmen Declaration of the Confessing Church, leading one to be broadcast in German by the BBC.[7] Preysing had contact with the Kreisau Circle German Resistance group.[14] Preysing later admitted that Hans Globke had become an official of the Interior Ministry through the German episcopate in order to serve as an agent for the German Resistance.[15] In 1944, Preysing met with and gave a blessing to Claus von Stauffenberg, in the lead up to the July Plot to assassinate Hitler, and spoke with the resistance leader on whether the need for radical change could justify tyrannicide.[6] Despite Preysing's open opposition, the Nazis did not dare arrest him and several months after the end of the war he was named a cardinal by Pope Pius XII.[7]

Post-war period

Stamps of Germany (Berlin) 1980, MiNr 624
Konrad von Preysing.

Cardinal

Pope Pius XII created Preysing Cardinal Priest of S. Agata de' Goti in the consistory of 18 February 1946; Angelo Roncalli, the nuncio to France, provided Preysing with the money for the trip to Rome.[16] At the ceremony, when another new cardinal remarked that their red hats would be suspended in their cathedrals following their deaths, Preysing responded, "Your Eminence forgets that I have no roof", as St. Hedwig's Cathedral had been bombed during World War II.

Anti-Communist

Preysing denounced the East German Communist National Front, which subsequently called him a "gladiator for American imperialism".[17]

Death

Preysing died in Berlin at age 70. He was buried in St. Hedwig's cemetery on 28 December 1950, but his remains were later transferred to the crypt of St. Hedwig's Cathedral on 12 February 1968.

Notes

Regarding personal names: Graf was a title before 1919, but now is regarded as part of the surname. It is translated as Count. Before the August 1919 abolition of nobility as a legal class, titles preceded the full name when given (Graf Helmuth James von Moltke). Since 1919, these titles, along with any nobiliary prefix (von, zu, etc.), can be used, but are regarded as a dependent part of the surname, and thus come after any given names (Helmuth James Graf von Moltke). Titles and all dependent parts of surnames are ignored in alphabetical sorting. The feminine form is Gräfin.

References

  1. ^ TIME Magazine. Milestones 1 January 1951
  2. ^ TIME Magazine. "The Roads to Rome", 7 January 1946
  3. ^ Richard Bonney Confronting the Nazi War on Christianity: the Kulturkampf Newsletters, 1936-1939; International Academic Publishers; Bern; 2009 ISBN 978-3-03911-904-2; pp. 29-30
  4. ^ Anton Gill; An Honourable Defeat; A History of the German Resistance to Hitler; Heinemann; London; 1994; p.58
  5. ^ William L. Shirer p234-5
  6. ^ a b c Anton Gill; An Honourable Defeat; A History of the German Resistance to Hitler; Heinemann; London; 1994; pp.58-59
  7. ^ a b c d e Konrad Graf von Preysing; German Resistance Memorial Centre, Index of Persons; retrieved at 4 September 2013
  8. ^ TIME Magazine. "German Martyrs", 23 December 1940
  9. ^ Anton Gill; An Honourable Defeat; A History of the German Resistance to Hitler; Heinemann; London; 1994; p.60
  10. ^ Bernhard Lichtenberg; German Resistance Memorial Centre, Index of Persons; retrieved at 4 September 2013
  11. ^ a b Margarete Sommer; German Resistance Memorial Centre, Index of Persons; retrieved at 4 September 2013
  12. ^ Pope Pius XII and the Holocaust
  13. ^ Goldhagen v. Pius XII Archived 2013-10-15 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ Anton Gill; An Honourable Defeat; A History of the German Resistance to Hitler; Heinemann; London; 1994; p.161
  15. ^ TIME Magazine. The Bureaucrat June 30, 1961
  16. ^ Pham, John-Peter. "Heirs of the Fisherman: Behind the Scenes of Papal Death and Succession". Oxford University Press, 2007
  17. ^ TIME Magazine. "The Hunt", m 27 February 1950

External links

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Johannes von Mergel, OSB
Bishop of Eichstätt
1932–1935
Succeeded by
Michael Rackl
Preceded by
Nikolaus Bares
Bishop of Berlin
1935–1950
Succeeded by
Wilhelm Weskamm
1880 in Germany

Events from the year 1880 in Germany.

Alfred Bengsch

Alfred Bengsch (September 10, 1921 – December 13, 1979) was a German Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Bishop of Berlin from 1961 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1967.

Basilica of St. Francis Xavier, Dyersville

The Basilica of St. Francis Xavier is a parish church in the Archdiocese of Dubuque located in Dyersville, Iowa, United States. The church was named in honor of the missionary Saint Francis Xavier. It was raised to the status of a Minor Basilica in 1956. The church and rectory were listed together on the National Register of Historic Places in 1999.

Bernhard Lichtenberg

The Blessed Bernhard Lichtenberg (3 December 1875 – 5 November 1943) was a German Roman Catholic priest and theologian, who died while in the custody of forces of the Third Reich. He has been awarded the title of Righteous among the Nations and has been beatified by the Catholic Church.

Cardinals created by Pius XII

Pope Pius XII (r. 1939–1958) created 56 cardinals in two consistories. On both occasions Pius tried to bring the membership of the College of Cardinals to 70, the maximum established by Pope Sixtus V in 1586. The death of one cardinal meant his first consistory brought the College to 69 members, but his second consistory, through the prompt addition of another name after a cardinal-designate died, brought the number of cardinals to 70.

Pius was elected in 1939 by a papal conclave in which 62 cardinals participated. The Second World War forced him to wait until 1946 to hold a consistory to create cardinals. He then waited seven years as the membership of the College fell to 46 before holding another consistory in 1953, and it had fallen to 55 when he died five and a half years later without holding another consistory.

He named one cardinal who later became pope, Pope John XXIII.

Catholic Church and Nazi Germany

Popes Pius XI (1922–39) and Pius XII (1939–58) led the Roman Catholic Church through the rise and fall of Nazi Germany. Around a third of Germans were Catholic in the 1930s. The Church in Germany had spoken against the rise of Nazism, but the Catholic aligned Centre Party capitulated in 1933 and was banned. In the various 1933 elections the percentage of Catholics voting for the Nazis party was remarkably lower than the average. Nazi key ideologue Alfred Rosenberg was banned on the index of the Inquisition, presided by later pope Pius XII. Adolf Hitler and several key Nazis had been raised Catholic, but became hostile to the Church in adulthood. While Article 24 of the NSDAP party platform called for conditional toleration of Christian denominations and the 1933 Reichskonkordat treaty with the Vatican purported to guarantee religious freedom for Catholics, the Nazis were essentially hostile to Christianity and the Catholic Church faced persecution in Nazi Germany. Its press, schools and youth organisations were closed, much property confiscated and around one third of its clergy faced reprisals from authorities. Catholic lay leaders were targeted in the Night of the Long Knives purge. The Church hierarchy attempted to co-operate with the new government, but in 1937, the Papal Encyclical Mit brennender Sorge accused the government of "fundamental hostility" to the church.

Among the most courageous demonstrations of opposition inside Germany were the 1941 sermons of Bishop August von Galen of Münster. Nevertheless, wrote Alan Bullock "[n]either the Catholic Church nor the Evangelical Church... as institutions, felt it possible to take up an attitude of open opposition to the regime". In every country under German occupation, priests played a major part in rescuing Jews, but Catholic resistance to mistreatment of Jews in Germany was generally limited to fragmented and largely individual efforts. Mary Fulbrook wrote that when politics encroached on the church, Catholics were prepared to resist, but that the record was otherwise patchy and uneven, and that, with notable exceptions, "it seems that, for many Germans, adherence to the Christian faith proved compatible with at least passive acquiescence in, if not active support for, the Nazi dictatorship".Catholics fought on both sides in the Second World War. Hitler's invasion of predominantly Catholic Poland ignited the conflict in 1939. Here, especially in the areas of Poland annexed to the Reich—as in other annexed regions of Slovenia and Austria—Nazi persecution of the church was intense. Many clergy were targeted for extermination. Through his links to the German Resistance, Pope Pius XII warned the Allies of the planned Nazi invasion of the Low Countries in 1940. From that year, the Nazis gathered priest-dissidents in a dedicated clergy barracks at Dachau, where 95 percent of its 2,720 inmates were Catholic (mostly Poles, and 411 Germans) and 1,034 priests died there. Expropriation of church properties surged from 1941.

The Vatican, surrounded by Fascist Italy, was officially neutral during the war, but used diplomacy to aid victims and lobby for peace. Vatican Radio and other media spoke out against atrocities. While Nazi antisemitism embraced modern pseudo-scientific racial principles, ancient antipathies between Christianity and Judaism contributed to European antisemitism. During the Nazi era, the Church rescued many thousands of Jews by issuing false documents, lobbying Axis officials, hiding them in monasteries, convents, schools and elsewhere; including in the Vatican and papal residence at Castel Gandolfo. The Pope's role during this period is contested. The Reich Security Main Office called Pius XII a "mouthpiece" of the Jews. His first encyclical, Summi Pontificatus, called the invasion of Poland an "hour of darkness", his 1942 Christmas address denounced race murders and his Mystici corporis Christi encyclical (1943) denounced the murder of the handicapped.

Catholic bishops in Nazi Germany

Catholic bishops in Nazi Germany differed in their responses to the rise of Nazi Germany, World War II, and the Holocaust during the years 1933–1945. In the 1930s, the Episcopate of the Catholic Church of Germany comprised 6 Archbishops and 19 bishops while German Catholics comprised around one third of the population of Germany served by 20,000 priests. In the lead up to the 1933 Nazi takeover, German Catholic leaders were outspoken in their criticism of Nazism. Following the Nazi takeover, the Catholic Church sought an accord with the Government, was pressured to conform, and faced persecution. The regime had flagrant disregard for the Reich concordat with the Holy See, and the episcopate had various disagreements with the Nazi government, but it never declared an official sanction of the various attempts to overthrow the Hitler regime. Ian Kershaw wrote that the churches "engaged in a bitter war of attrition with the regime, receiving the demonstrative backing of millions of churchgoers. Applause for Church leaders whenever they appeared in public, swollen attendances at events such as Corpus Christi Day processions, and packed church services were outward signs of the struggle of ... especially of the Catholic Church - against Nazi oppression". While the Church ultimately failed to protect its youth organisations and schools, it did have some successes in mobilizing public opinion to alter government policies.The German bishops initially hoped for a quid pro quo that would protect Catholic schools, organisations, publications and religious observance. While head of the Bishop's Conference Adolf Bertram persisted in a policy of avoiding confrontation on broader issues of human rights, the activities of Bishops such as Konrad von Preysing, Joseph Frings and Clemens August Graf von Galen came to form a coherent, systematic critique of many of the teachings of Nazism. Kershaw wrote that, while the "detestation of Nazism was overwhelming within the Catholic Church", it did not preclude church leaders approving of areas of the regime's policies, particularly where Nazism "blended into 'mainstream' national aspirations"—like support for "patriotic" foreign policy or war aims, obedience to state authority (where this did not contravene divine law); and destruction of atheistic Marxism and Soviet Bolshevism - and traditional Christian anti-Judaism was "no bulwark" against Nazi biological antisemitism. Such protests as the bishops did make about the mistreatment of the Jews tended to be by way of private letters to government ministers, rather than explicit public pronouncements. From the outset, Pope Pius XI, had ordered the Papal Nuncio in Berlin, Cesare Orsenigo, to "look into whether and how it may be possible to become involved" in the aid of Jews, but Orsenigo proved a poor instrument in this regard, concerned more with the anti-church policies of the Nazis and how these might effect German Catholics, than with taking action to help German Jews.By 1937, after four years of persecution, the church hierarchy, which had initially sought to co-operate with the new government, had become highly disillusioned and Pope Pius XI issued the Mit brennender Sorge anti-Nazi encyclical, which had been co-drafted by Cardinal Archbishop Michael von Faulhaber of Munich together, with Preysing and Galen and the Vatican Sectretary of State Cardinal Pacelli (the future Pope Pius XII). The encyclical accused the Nazis of sowing "secret and open fundamental hostility to Christ and His Church". The German Bishops condemned the Nazi sterilization law. In 1941, Bishop Clemens von Galen led protests against the Nazi euthanasia programme. In 1941, a pastoral letter of the German Bishops proclaimed that "the existence of Christianity in Germany is at stake", and a 1942 letter accused the government of "unjust oppression and hated struggle against Christianity and the Church". At the close of the war, the resistor Joseph Frings, succeeded the appeaser Adolf Bertram as chairman of the Fulda Bishops' Conference, and, along with Galen and Preysing, was promoted to Cardinal by Pius XII.

The Anschluss with Austria increased the number and percentage of Catholics within the Reich. A pattern of attempted co-operation, followed by repression was repeated. At the direction of Cardinal Innitzer, the churches of Vienna pealed their bells and flew swastikas for Hitler's arrival in the city on 14 March 1938. However, wrote Mark Mazower, such gestures of accommodation were "not enough to assuage the Austrian Nazi radicals, foremost among them the young Gauleiter Globocnik". Globocnik launched a crusade against the Church, and the Nazis confiscated property, closed Catholic organisations and sent many priests to Dachau. A Nazi mob ransacked Cardinal Innitzer's residence, after he had denounced Nazi persecution of the Church. In the Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany, the Church faced its most extreme persecution. But after the invasion, Nuncio Orsenigo in Berlin assumed the role of protector of the Church in the annexed regions, in conflict with his role of facilitating better relations with the German government, and his own fascistic sympathies. In 1939, five of the Polish bishops of the annexed Warthegau region were deported to concentration camps. In Greater Germany through the Nazi period, just one German Catholic bishop was briefly imprisoned in a concentration camp, and just one other expelled from his diocese.

Catholic resistance to Nazi Germany

Catholic resistance to Nazi Germany was a component of German resistance to Nazism and of Resistance during World War II. The role of the Church during the Nazi years was always, and remains however, a matter of much contention. Many writers, echoing Klaus Scholder, have concluded, "There was no Catholic resistance in Germany, there were only Catholics who resisted." The Vatican policy meant that the Pope never challenged Catholics to side either with National Socialism or with Catholic morality, and Pius XII was so adamant that Bolshevism represented the most terrible threat to the world that he remarked, 'Germany are a great nation who, in their fight against Bolshevism, are bleeding not only for their friends but also for the sake of their present enemies'. In a letter of autumn 1941 Pius XII wrote to Bishop Preysing, "We emphasise that, because the Church in Germany is dependent upon your public behaviour...in public declarations you are duty bound to exercise restraint" and "requires(d) you and your colleagues not to protest."From the outset of Nazi rule in 1933, issues emerged which brought the Church into conflict with the regime and persecution of the Church led Pope Pius XI to denounce the policies of the Nazi Government in the 1937 papal encyclical Mit brennender Sorge. His successor Pius XII faced the war years and provided intelligence to the Allies. Catholics fought on both sides in World War II and neither the Catholic nor Protestant churches as institutions were prepared to openly oppose the Nazi State.

An estimated one-third of German Catholic priests faced some form of reprisal from authorities and thousands of Catholic clergy and religious were sent to concentration camps. 400 Germans were among the 2,579 Catholic priests imprisoned in the clergy barracks at Dachau. While the head German bishop generally avoided confronting the regime, other bishops such as Preysing, Frings and Galen developed a Catholic critique of aspects of Nazism. Galen led Catholic protest against Nazi "euthanasia".Catholic resistance to mistreatment of Jews in Germany was generally limited to fragmented and largely individual efforts. But in every country under German occupation, priests played a major part in rescuing Jews. Israeli historian Pinchas Lapide estimated that Catholic rescue of Jews amounted to somewhere between 700,000 and 860,000 people - though the figure is contested. The martyrs St Maximilian Kolbe, Giuseppe Girotti and Bernhard Lichtenberg were among those killed in part for aiding Jews. Among the notable Catholic networks to rescue Jews and others were Hugh O'Flaherty's "Rome Escape Line", the Assisi Network and Poland's Żegota.

Relations between the Axis governments and the church varied. Bishops such as the Netherlands' Johannes de Jong, Belgium's Jozef-Ernest van Roey and France's Jules-Géraud Saliège issued major denunciations of Nazi treatment of Jews. Convents and nuns like Margit Slachta and Matylda Getter also led resistance. Vatican diplomats like Giuseppe Burzio in Slovakia, Filippo Bernardini in Switzerland and Angelo Roncalli in Turkey saved thousands. The nuncio to Budapest, Angelo Rotta, and Bucharest, Andrea Cassulo, have been recognised by Yad Vashem in Israel. The nationalist regimes in Slovakia and Croatia were pro-clerical, while in Slovene, Czech, Austrian and Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany, repression of the church was at its most severe and the Catholic religion was integral to much Polish resistance.

Franz Justus Rarkowski

Franz Justus Rarkowski, S.M. (June 8, 1873 – February 9, 1950) was the Catholic military bishop of Nazi Germany. The existence of such a role was provided for by the Reichskonkordat (1933), and Rarkowski had been acting head of the military chaplaincy since 1929, before he was officially consecrated on February 29, 1938 as episcopus castrensis. Rarkowski's title was translated into English as "Field Bishop of the German Army".The first draft of the Apostolic Brief to regulate the military chaplaincy was given to the German government on June 26, 1934. The brief was issued on September 19, 1935.

Index of World War II articles (K)

K-25

K-ration

K-class submarine (Soviet)

K is for Killing

K. P. K. Menon

Kōichi Kido

Kōichi Shiozawa

Kōki Hirota

Kōsō Abe

Kōsaku Aruga

Kōtarō Nakamura

KA-BAR

Ka-tzetnik

Kaarlo Mäkinen

Kabaty

Kabayama Sukenori

Kadam Kadam Badaye Ja

Kaethe Hoern

Kai Holst

Kai Winding

Kaija Mustonen

Kailash Nath Katju

Kaimingjie germ weapon attack

Kairyu-class submarine

Kaisenbun

Kaiser Shipyards

Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics

Kaiser Wilhelm Institute

Kaiserwald concentration camp

Kaiten

Kaj Aksel Hansen

Kaj Christiansen

Kaj Munk

Kaju Sugiura

Kakou Senda

Kakuji Kakuta

Kalagon Massacre

Kalev-class submarine

Kalevi Oikarainen

KALIBAPI

Kalinin Front

Kaliningrad K-5

Kalle Anttila

Kalmi Baruh

Kalmykian Voluntary Cavalry Corps

Kalonymus Kalman Shapira

Kamal Ram

Kamenets-Podolsky pocket

Kamianets-Podilskyi Massacre

Kamikaze-class destroyer (1922)

Kamikaze

Kamimura Hikonojō

Kaminski Brigade

Kammhuber Line

Kamp Amersfoort

Kamp Schoorl

Kampfbund

Kampfgeschwader 200

Kampfgeschwader 3

Kampfgeschwader 4

Kampfgeschwader 55

Kampfgruppe

Kampfmesser 42

Kan'in Haruhito

Kanchanaburi War Cemetery

Kanga Force

Kangaroo (armoured personnel carrier)

Kanichiro Tashiro

Kanji Ishiwara

Kankō Maru

Kansas World War II Army Airfields

Kantai kessen

Kantarō Suzuki

Kaoru Moto

Kapò

Kapo (concentration camp)

Karabiner 98k

Karamjeet Singh Judge

Karaya Quartet

Karel Čurda

Karel Ančerl

Karel Appel

Karel Destovnik Kajuh

Karel Doorman

Karel Kuttelwascher

Karel Miljon

Karel Nedvěd

Karel Pavlík

Karel Pešek

Karel Poláček

Karel Treybal

Karelia (historical province of Finland)

Karelian Fortified Region

Karelian Front

Karen Magnussen

Karim Ghani

Karl-Friedrich Höcker

Karl-Friedrich Merten

Karl-Gottfried Nordmann

Karl-Heinz Greisert

Karl-Heinz Moehle

Karl-Heinz Schnibbe

Karl-Jesko von Puttkamer

Karl-Lothar Schulz

Karl-Maria Demelhuber

Karl Albrecht

Karl Allmendinger

Karl Allmenröder

Karl Auer (SS officer)

Karl August Nerger

Karl Barth

Karl Bendetsen

Karl Brandt (Nazi physician)

Karl Dönitz

Karl Decker

Karl Dietrich Bracher

Karl Eberhard Schöngarth

Karl Ehrenbolger

Karl Eibl

Karl Emil Schäfer

Karl Ernst Krafft

Karl Ernst Rahtgens

Karl Ernst

Karl Fiehler

Karl Frenzel

Karl Friedrich Eichhorn

Karl Friedrich von dem Knesebeck

Karl Fritzsch

Karl Gebhardt

Karl Genzken

Karl Gerland

Karl Gorath

Karl Gröger

Karl Hanke

Karl Hass

Karl Haushofer

Karl Heinz Bremer

Karl Henke

Karl Hermann Frank

Karl Herxheimer

Karl Hess

Karl Holz (Gauleiter)

Karl Jäger

Karl Kaufmann

Karl Koller (general)

Karl Löffler

Karl Löwith

Karl Laforce

Karl Lange (Nazi persecutee)

Karl Leib

Karl Lennart Oesch

Karl Linnas

Karl Litzmann

Karl Magnus Wegelius

Karl Malden

Karl Mander Gravell

Karl Maria Wiligut

Karl Mauss

Karl Mayr

Karl Metzger

Karl Mobius

Karl Otto Koch

Karl Plagge

Karl Röderer

Karl Rankl

Karl Richter (sport shooter)

Karl Ruberl

Karl Ruprecht Kroenen

Karl Sack

Karl Schnörrer

Karl Schranz

Karl Silberbauer

Karl Staaf

Karl Stotz

Karl Targownik

Karl Taylor Compton

Karl von Oberkamp

Karl Weinrich

Karl Wolff

Karla Mayer

Karlrobert Kreiten

Karol Świerczewski

Karol Chmiel

Karol Marian Pospieszalski

Karol Piegza

Karol Rómmel

Karol Sidor

Karol Szwedowski

Karpaty Army

Kasi Maru

Kastner train

Kasuga-class cruiser

Katō Tomosaburō

Kataoka Shichirō

Katarapko (Wood Camp)

Katarina Matanović-Kulenović

Katayama Detachment

Kate ter Horst

Katherine Rawls

Kathie Lee Gifford

Kathleen Best

Kathleen McKane Godfree

Katori-class battleship

Katori-class cruiser

Katoucha Niane

Katsu Kaishū

Katsuo Takaishi

Katsura Tarō

Katyń (film)

Katya Budanova

Katyn massacre

Katyusha (song)

Katyusha rocket launcher

Katzenberger Trial

Katzmann Report

Kaufering concentration camp

Kaunas Ghetto

Kaunas Offensive Operation

Kaunas pogrom

Kawachi-class battleship

Kawaguchi Detachment

Kawakami Soroku

Kawamura Kageaki

Kawamura Sumiyoshi

Kawanishi Baika

Kawanishi H6K

Kawanishi H8K

Kawanishi K-200

Kawanishi N1K

Kawasaki Ki-100

Kawasaki Ki-102

Kawasaki Ki-147 I-Go Type1 - Ko Air to Surface Radio Guidance Missile

Kawasaki Ki-32

Kawasaki Ki-56

Kawasaki Ki-60

Kawasaki Ki-61

Kawasaki Ki-96

Kayaba Ka-1

Kazimierz Bartel

Kazimierz J. Kasperek

Kazimierz Kierzkowski

Kazimierz Leski

Kazimierz Moczarski

Kazimierz Prószyński

Kazimierz Pużak

Kazimierz Sakowicz

Kazimierz Skorupka

Kazimierz Szosland

Kazimierz Zarankiewicz

Kazimierz Zdziechowski

Kazimir Hnatow

Kazumi Onishi

Kazuo Mizutani

Kazuo Otani

Kazuo Sakamaki

Kazushige Ugaki

Kb wz. 98a

Kbk wz. 1929

Kbsp wz. 1938M

Kea Bouman

Kedyw

Kees Kist

Kees Rijvers

Kees Verkerk

Kehlsteinhaus

Keiji Nakazawa

Keiji Shibazaki

Keisuke Fujie

Keisuke Okada

Keith Arbuthnott, 15th Viscount of Arbuthnott

Keith B. McCutcheon

Keith Douglas

Keith Elliott

Keith Joseph

Keith L. Ware

Keith Mant

Keith Miller

Keith Moffatt

Keith Park

Keith Truscott

Keizō Komura

Keller E. Rockey

Kellogg-Briand Pact

Kelly's Heroes

Kempeitai East District Branch

Kempeitai

Ken Adam

Ken Albers

Ken Case

Ken Farnes

Ken Kavanaugh

Ken Reardon

Ken Wallis

Kendall Carl Campbell

Kenji Doihara

Kenji Hatanaka

Kenji Yanagiya

Kenkichi Ueda

Kenkichi Yoshizawa

Kenneth A. Walsh

Kenneth Arthur Noel Anderson

Kenneth Bainbridge

Kenneth Campbell

Kenneth Cecil Bunch

Kenneth Claiborne Royall

Kenneth Cummins

Kenneth D. Bailey

Kenneth E. Gruennert

Kenneth H. Dahlberg

Kenneth Hart Muir

Kenneth Horsfield

Kenneth Jacobs

Kenneth Kendall

Kenneth Konstam

Kenneth Lockwood

Kenneth M. Taylor

Kenneth Martin Willett

Kenneth Nichols

Kenneth Noland

Kenneth R. Harding

Kenneth S. Stern

Kenneth Shelley

Kenneth Smith

Kenneth Stonehouse

Kenneth Thomson, 2nd Baron Thomson of Fleet

Kenneth W. Durant

Kenneth Walker

Kenneth Wolstenholme

Kennkarte

Kenny Bowen

Kent Battle of Britain Museum

Kent Courtney

Kent Lee

Kenzo Oshima

Kerberos & Tachiguishi

Kerberos Panzer Cop

Kerberos Panzer Jäger

Kerberos saga characters

Kerberos saga chronicles

Kerberos Saga Rainy Dogs

Kerberos saga

Kerch-Eltigen Operation

Kerestinec prison

Kermit Beahan

Kermit Roosevelt

Kerrville Municipal Airport

Kesago Nakajima

Kesternich (World War II)

Ketil Askildt

Kevin Fagan (doctor)

Kevin Hatchi

Kevin Stoney

Keystone Heights Airport

Khaibakh massacre

Khaled Abdul-Wahab

Khaled Kasab Mahameed

Khalid Abdul Muhammad

Kharkov offensive operation

Khatyn massacre

Khorloogiin Choibalsan

KhTZ-16

Ki Aldrich

Kibei

Kichisaburō Nomura

Kidnapping of Polish children by Germany

Kidnapping of Polish children by Nazi Germany

Kielce cemetery massacre

Kiev Archive Museum of Transitional Period

Kigoshi Yasutsuna

Kii-class battleship

Kiichi Hasegawa

Kiichiro Higuchi

Kijiro Nambu

Kilauea-class ammunition ship

Kilo-class submarine

Kilometer Zero

Kim Malthe-Bruun

Kim Suk-won

Kimberley Plan

Kimon Georgiev

Kindertransport (play)

Kindertransport

King-Byng Affair

King George V-class battleship (1939)

King Michael's Coup

King of the Texas Rangers

King Rat (1962 novel)

King Rat (film)

Kingdom Identity Ministries

Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)

Kingdom of Montenegro (1941-1944)

Kingdom of Shadows

Kingman Airport and Industrial Park

Kings Go Forth

Kinmel Park Riots

Kinoaki Matsuo

Kirchenkampf

Kiril Dojčinovski

Kirill Meretskov

Kirino Toshiaki

Kirk Douglas

KIS (weapon)

Kiss Me Goodnight, Sergeant Major

Kite-class minesweeper

Kitsuju Ayabe

Kittelbach Pirates

Kitty Hart-Moxon

Kiyohide Shima

Kiyokazu Abo

Kiyonao Ichiki

Kiyoshi Itō

Kiyoshi K. Muranaga

Kiyoshi Katsuki

Kiyoshi Ogawa

Kiyotake Kawaguchi

Kiyoto Kagawa

KJ-1 AEWC

KJ-2000

Kjesäter

KKK auxiliaries

Klamath Falls Airport

Klaus Barbie

Klaus Bargsten

Klaus Bonhoeffer

Klaus Bonsack

Klaus Fuchs

Klaus Hildebrand

Klaus Kinski

Klaus Neumann

Klaus von Pape

Klavdiya Shulzhenko

Kleagle

Klement Gottwald

Klemm Kl 151

Klemm Kl 35

Klemm Kl 36

Kleo Pleyer

Klim (Red Cross)

Kliment Voroshilov tank

Kliment Voroshilov

Klooga concentration camp

Kloran

Kléber (Paris Métro)

Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross

Knighthood in the Independent State of Croatia

Knights of the White Camelia

Know Your Ally: Britain

Know Your Enemy: Japan

Knud Børge Martinsen

Knud Degn

Knut Hamsun

Knut Haugland

Knut Haukelid

Knut Rød

Knut Schmidt-Nielsen

Ko-hyoteki-class submarine

Ko Willems

Koča Popović

Kočevski Rog massacre

Kobylisy Shooting Range

Kodama Gentarō

Koji Ariyoshi

Koko Tanimoto-Kondo

Kokoda (film)

Kokoda Front Line

Kokoda Track campaign

Kokura

Kokusai Ku-7

Kokusai Ku-8

Kolberg (film)

Kolesnikov-Tsibin KC-20

Koli Point action

Kolkau

Kolmannen valtakunnan vieraana

Kommando Nowotny

Kommando

Kompanieführer

Komsomolets armored tractor

Konfederacja Narodu

Kong Xianrong

Kongō-class battlecruiser

Kongsberg Colt

Konrāds Kalējs

Konrad Dannenberg

Konrad Guderski

Konrad Henlein

Konrad Hirsch

Konrad Huber

Konrad Lorenz

Konrad Nonn

Konrad Rudnicki

Konrad Stäheli

Konrad von Preysing

Konstantin Feoktistov

Konstantin Hierl

Konstantin Leselidze

Konstantin Muraviev

Konstantin Pankov

Konstantin Rakutin

Konstantin Rodzaevsky

Konstantin Rokossovsky

Konstantin von Neurath

Konstantinos Davakis

Konstantinos Koukidis

Konstantinos Logothetopoulos

Konstanty Troczyński

Koolama

Korczak (film)

Korechika Anami

Korematsu v. United States

Koreshige Inuzuka

Korherr Report

Korpsabteilung

Korpsführer

Korsun-Cherkassy Pocket

Kortelisy

Koshirō Oikawa

Kosovo Operation (1944)

Kosta Mušicki

Kosta Pećanac

Kotoku Sato

Kotwica

Košice attack

Kouji Sakai

Kristian Løken

Krøkebærsletta

Krafft Arnold Ehricke

Krag-Jørgensen

Kragujevac massacre

Kraków-Płaszów concentration camp

Kraków Army

Kraków Cavalry Brigade

Kraków District

Kraków Ghetto

Kraków Uprising (1944)

Kranji War Cemetery

Krasny Kavkaz

Kreisau Circle

Kremenets

Kriegsmarine

Kriegsschule

Kriminalpolizei

Kristallnacht

Kristiansand Airport, Kjevik

Kristoffer Nilsen

Kronach Lorin

Kronprinz Wilhelm

Kronshtadt-class submarine chaser

Krsto Zrnov Popović

Krupp K5

Krupp Protze

Krupp Trial

Krystyna Skarbek

Krzyż Oświęcimski

Krzysztof Kamil Baczyński

Krzyz Walecznych

Ksawery Wyrozemski

Károly Bartha

Károly Fogl

Károly Kárpáti

Ku Klux Klan

Kuban Shield

Kubuś

Kuehn Family

Kugelblitz

Kugelpanzer

Kuma-class cruiser

Kumiko Sato

Kuniaki Koiso

Kuomintang

Kure Naval Arsenal

Kure Naval District

Kuroda Kiyotaka

Kuroki Tamemoto

Kurt-Bertram von Döring

Kurt Becher

Kurt Blome

Kurt Bühligen

Kurt Brändle

Kurt Daluege

Kurt Diebner

Kurt Dittmar

Kurt Doerry

Kurt Franz

Kurt Freiherr von Liebenstein

Kurt Gerron

Kurt Gerstein

Kurt Grasshoff

Kurt Gruber

Kurt Hahn

Kurt Herbert Adler

Kurt Huber

Kurt Jahn

Kurt Julius Goldstein

Kurt Knispel

Kurt Kuhlmey

Kurt Mahler

Kurt Meyer (Panzermeyer)

Kurt Nehrling

Kurt Plenzat

Kurt Sanderling

Kurt Schlosser

Kurt Schmitt

Kurt Schneider (aviator)

Kurt Schneider

Kurt Student

Kurt Tank

Kurt Ubben

Kurt von Hammerstein-Equord

Kurt von Ruffin

Kurt von Schleicher

Kurt von Tippelskirch

Kurt Vonnegut

Kurt Wahle

Kurt Weill

Kurt Welter

Kurt Wüthrich

Kurt Wolff (aviator)

Kurt Zeitzler

Kustaa Pihlajamäki

Kusunose Yukihiko

Kuzma Nikolaevich Derevyanko

Kvænangen concentration camp

KW-line

Kwacho Hironobu

Kwantung Army

Kyūjō Incident

Kyushu J7W

Kyushu K11W

Kyösti Karhila

KZ - Nebenlager Bretstein

KZ Gusen

Kåre Olav-Berg

Jakob Weis

Jakob Weis (13 May 1879, Ommersheim, Saarpfalz - 18 March 1948, Zweibrücken) was a priest in the Diocese of Speyer, who also worked as a prison chaplain. During the First World War he became the army chaplain to the 12th Bavarian Infantry Division and Catholic pastoral care advisor to the Armee-Oberkommando Mackensen. From 1918 to 1920 he voluntarily joined soldiers in their internment so as to continue his pastoral care.

Margarete Sommer

Margarete (Grete) Sommer (July 21, 1893 – June 30, 1965) was a German Catholic social worker and lay Dominican. During the Holocaust, she helped persecuted Jewish citizens, keeping many of them from deportation to death camps.

Michael Rackl

Michael Rackl (31 October 1883 – 5 May 1948) was Roman Catholic Bishop of Eichstätt from 1935 until his death in 1948.

Born in Rittershof, Rackl was ordained a priest on 29 June 1909 at the age of 25 in Eichstätt by Cardinal Konrad von Preysing.

On 4 November 1935, aged 52, Rackl was appointed Bishop of Eichstätt, where he remained until his death at age 64 on 21 December 1935. During the Second World War, Rackl allowed British Officers in a local prisoner-of-war camp to use the Bishopric's printing press to produce a camp magazine entitled "Touchstone", which was notable for including three ghost stories by Alan Noel Latimer Munby.

He was a priest for almost 39 years and a bishop for 12 years.

Pope Pius XII's 1942 Christmas address

Pope Pius XII's 1942 Christmas address was a speech delivered by Pope Pius XII over Vatican Radio on Christmas 1942. It is notable for its denunciation of the extermination of people on the basis of race, and followed the commencement of the Nazi Final Solution program to exterminate the Jews of Europe. The significance of the denunciation is a matter of scholarly debate.

Rescue of Jews by Catholics during the Holocaust

During the Holocaust, the Roman Catholic Church played a role in the rescue of hundreds of thousands of Jews from being murdered by the Nazis. Members of the Church, through lobbying of Axis officials, provision of false documents, and the hiding of people in monasteries, convents, schools, among families and the institutions of the Vatican itself, saved hundreds of thousands of Jews. The Israeli diplomat and historian Pinchas Lapide estimated the figure at between 700,000 and 860,000, although the figure is contested.The Catholic Church itself faced persecution in Hitler's Germany, and institutional German Catholic resistance to Nazism centered largely on defending the Church's own rights and institutions. Broader resistance tended to be fragmented and led by individual effort in Germany, but in every country under German occupation, priests played a major part in rescuing Jews. Aiding Jews met with severe penalty and many rescuers and would-be rescuers were killed including St Maximilian Kolbe, Giuseppe Girotti and Bernhard Lichtenberg who were sent to the concentration camps.

In the prelude to the Holocaust, Popes Pius XI and Pius XII preached against racism and war in encyclicals such as Mit brennender Sorge (1937) and Summi Pontificatus (1939). Pius XI condemned Kristallnacht and rejected the Nazi claim of racial superiority, saying instead there was only "a single human race". His successor Pius XII employed diplomacy to aid the Jews, and directed his Church to provide discreet aid. While the overall caution of his approach has been criticised by some, his 1942 Christmas radio address denounced the murder of "hundreds of thousands" of innocent people on the basis of "nationality or race" and he intervened to attempt to block Nazi deportations of Jews in various countries. When the Nazis came for Italy's Jews, some 4715 of the 5715 Jews of Rome found shelter in 150 Church institutions, 477 in the Vatican itself and he opened his Castel Gandolfo residence, which took in thousands.

Catholic bishops in Germany sometimes spoke out on human rights issues, but protests against anti-Jewish policies tended to be by way of private lobbying of government ministers. After Pius XII's 1943 Mystici corporis Christi encyclical (which condemned the killing of the disabled amid the ongoing Nazi euthanasia program), a joint declaration from the German bishops denounced the killing of "innocent and defenceless mentally handicapped, incurably infirm and fatally wounded, innocent hostages, and disarmed prisoners of war and criminal offenders, people of a foreign race or descent". Resistor priests active in rescuing Jews include the martyrs Bernard Lichtenberg and Alfred Delp, and laywomen Gertrud Luckner and Margarete Sommer used Catholic agencies to aid German Jews, under the protection of Bishops such as Konrad von Preysing.

In Italy, the popes lobbied Mussolini against anti-Semitic policies, while Vatican diplomats, among them Giuseppe Burzio in Slovakia, Filippo Bernardini in Switzerland and Angelo Roncalli in Turkey rescued thousands. The nuncio to Budapest, Angelo Rotta, and Bucharest, Andrea Cassulo, have been recognised by Yad Vashem. The Church played an important role in the defence of Jews in Belgium, France, and the Netherlands, encouraged by the protests of leaders such as Cardinal Jozef-Ernest van Roey, Archbishop Jules-Géraud Saliège, and Johannes de Jong. From his Vatican office, Monsignor Hugh O'Flaherty operated an escape operation for Jews and Allied escapees. Priests and nuns of orders like the Jesuits, Franciscans and Benedictines hid children in monasteries, convents and schools. Margit Slachta's Hungarian Social Service Sisterhood saved thousands. In Poland, the unique Żegota organisation also rescued thousands and Mother Matylda Getter's Franciscan Sisters sheltered hundreds of Jewish children who escaped the Warsaw Ghetto. In France, Belgium, and Italy, Catholic underground networks were particularly active and saved thousands of Jews, particularly in northern Italy where groups like the Assisi Network were active, and in southern France.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Eichstätt

The Diocese of Eichstätt is a diocese of the Catholic Church in Bavaria. Its seat is Eichstätt, and it is subordinate to the archbishop of Bamberg. The diocese was erected in 745; from the Middle Ages until 1805, it was a state of the Holy Roman Empire. The current Bishop of Eichstätt is Dr. Gregor Maria Hanke, OSB; formerly the Abbot of the Benedictine Abbey of Plankstetten, he was named to the See by Pope Benedict XVI on 14 October 2006, and he was consecrated at the Cathedral of Eichstätt on 2 December 2006. The diocese covers an area of 6,025 km², with 48,9% (as per 31 Dez. 2006) just under half of the population is catholic.

Sant'Agata de' Goti, Rome

Sant'Agata dei Goti is a church in Rome, Italy, dedicated to the martyr Saint Agatha. It is the diaconia assigned to Cardinal Raymond Leo Burke, patron of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta.

St. Hedwig's Cathedral

St. Hedwig's Cathedral (German: Sankt-Hedwigs-Kathedrale) is a Roman Catholic cathedral on the Bebelplatz in Berlin, Germany. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Berlin.

Wilhelm Weskamm

Wilhelm Weskamm (13 May 1891 – 21 August 1956) was a German prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Bishop of Berlin from 1951 until his death.

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