Konkan

Konkan, also known as the Konkan Coast or Kokan, is a rugged section of the western coastline of India. It is a 720 kilometres (450 miles) long coastline. It consists of the coastal districts of the Western Indian states of Maharashtra, Goa, and the South Indian state of Karnataka. The ancient Saptakonkana is a slightly larger region. The region is known as Karavali in Karnataka.

Konkan Districts
Modern Districts of India forming the Konkan

Etymology

Deogad Beach in Sindhudurg district ,Konkan region Maharashtra, India
Deogad Beach in Sindhudurg district, Konkan region,Maharashtra

According to the Sahyadrikhanda of the Skanda Purana, Parashurama shot his arrow into the sea and commanded the Sea God to recede up to the point where his arrow landed. The new piece of land thus recovered came to be known as Sapta-Konkana, meaning "piece of earth", "corner of earth", or "piece of corner", derived from Sanskrit words: koṇa (कोण, corner) + kaṇa (कण, piece).[1][2] Xuanzang, the noted Chinese Buddhist monk, mentioned this region in his book as Konkana Desha; Varahamihira's Brihat-Samhita described Konkan as a region of India; and 15th century author Ratnakosh mentioned the word Konkandesha.[3]

Geography

Konkan extends throughout the western coasts of Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka.[3] It is bounded by the Western Ghats mountain range (also known as Sahyadri) in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west, the Mayura River in the north and the Gangavalli River in the south.

The Gangavali flows in the district of Uttara Kannada in present-day Karnataka. Its northern bank constitutes the southernmost portion of Konkan. The towns of Karwar, Ankola, Kumta, Honavar and Bhatkal fall within the Konkan coast. The exact identity of the Mayura River, the northern limits of the historic Konkan, is indeterminate.

Map of Hill-stations on Konkan belt
A schematic map of the Konkan belt in Maharashtra, showing hill stations and the roadways and railways connecting them

The largest city on the Konkan coast is Mumbai, the state capital of Maharashtra. It lies within the Konkan division, an administrative sub-division of Maharashtra which comprises all the coastal districts of the state. These are, from north to south[4]:

  1. Palghar district
  2. Thane district
  3. Mumbai Suburban district
  4. Mumbai City district
  5. Raigad district
  6. Ratnagiri district
  7. Sindhudurg district
  8. Goa
  9. Uttara Kannada
  10. Udupi
  11. Dakshina Kannada

Ethnology

Ethnic groups and communities found in the region which makes a larger Konkani community are the Vaishya Vani, Malvani, Aagri, Kunbi, Koli, Vadavali, Maratha, Bhandari, Goud Saraswath Brahmins, Daivadnya Brahmins, Kumbhar, Rajapur Saraswat Brahmins, Gabit, Padti, Chitpavan Brahmins, Brahmins, Kudaldeshkar Gaud Brahmins, Kuruba, Namdev Shimpi.

Tribal communities in Konkan include the Katkari, Konkana, Warli, Mahadev Koli and Kolcha in southern Gujarat, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, and Maharashtra's Palghar district. The Katkari are found in Raigad and Ratnagiri districts.

Minorities of Muslim community form Konkani Muslims, Bene Israel in Raigad district, Christians form East Indians in Mumbai, Goan Catholics in Goa, Karwari Catholics in Uttara Kannada, Mangalorean Catholics in Udupi and Dakshina Kannada

See also

Konkan Hotels

References

  1. ^ Shastri Gaytonde, Gajanan (ed.). Shree Scanda Puran (Sayadri Khandha) (in Marathi). Mumbai: Shree Katyani Publication.
  2. ^ Satoskar, B. D. Gomantak Prakruti ani Sanskruti. Part 1 (in Marathi). Shubhada Publication. p. 206.
  3. ^ a b Saradesāya, Manohararāya (2000). "The Land, the People and the Language". A History of Konkani Literature: From 1500 to 1992. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 1–14. ISBN 8172016646.
  4. ^ List of districts in Konkan division, http://www.swapp.co.in/site/indianstatedistrictlist.php?stateid=j1YKCtUvHkShwKBqk6iHow%3D%3D&divisionid=bRbHGKvCu7LMDJJGUsYuQA%3D%3D

External links

Chiplun railway station

Chiplun railway station is a train station on Konkan Railways. It is located just off NH 66 in the Konkan town of Chiplun. The preceding station on the line is Anjani railway station and the next station is Kamathe railway station.

E. Sreedharan

Elattuvalapil Sreedharan is an Indian civil engineer and a retired IRSE officer popularly known as the "Metro Man". He is credited for changing the face of public transport in India with his leadership in building the Konkan Railway and the Delhi Metro while he served as the managing director of Delhi Metro between 1995 and 2012. He was awarded the Padma Shri by the Government of India in 2001, the Padma Vibhushan in 2008, the Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur in 2005 by the French government and was named one of Asia's Heroes by TIME magazine in 2003. Sreedharan was appointed by the former UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon to serve on the United Nations's High Level Advisory Group on Sustainable Transport (HLAG-ST) for a period of three years in 2015. He is also a member of Mata Vaishno Devi Shrine Board

Konkan, Burkina Faso

Konkan, Burkina Faso is a village in the Sidéradougou Department of Comoé Province in south-western Burkina Faso. The village has a population of 223.

Konkan Railway

The Konkan Railway (abbreviated KR and कोरे) is operated by Konkan Railway Corporation Limited, headquartered at CBD Belapur in Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra. The first passenger train ran on Konkan railway tracks on 20 March 1993 between Udupi and Mangalore. During its initial years of operation in the mountainous Konkan region, a spate of accidents prompted Konkan Railway to investigate new technologies. The anti-collision devices, the Sky Bus and RORO are a few of the innovations from Konkan Railway. It was the missing link between Mumbai, Maharashtra and Mangalore, Karnataka and the southwestern coastal cities of India. The 741 km (461 mi) line connects Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka states in India. The first train on the completed track was flagged off on January 26, 1998, the Republic Day of India.

Konkan Railway Corporation

Konkan Railway Corporation Limited (KRCL) is a Union Government Company headquartered at CBD Belapur in Navi Mumbai that operates Konkan Railway. The company started its full operations of trains on 26 January 1998.The first passenger train which ran on Konkan railway tracks on 20 March 1993 between Udupi and Mangalore. Konkan Railway Corporation is at the forefront of research and development of new technologies and concepts for Indian railways. During its initial years of operations in the mountainous Konkan region, a spate of accidents prompted Konkan Railway to investigate new technologies. The anti-collision devices, the Sky Bus and RORO are a few of the innovations from Konkan Railways.

Konkan division

Konkan division is one of the six administrative divisions of Maharashtra state in India. It comprises the Konkan region, which occupies the entire west coast of Maharashtra. The two districts in the state capital Mumbai also fall in Konkan division.

Konkani Muslims

Konkani Muslims (also known as Kokni Muslims) are a sub-ethnic group of the Konkani (Kokani) people living in the Konkan region of western India, who practise Islam. Muslims from the districts of Sindhudurg, Ratnagiri, Raigad, Mumbai city and suburb, and Thane are generally regarded as Kokani Muslims.

Kudal railway station

Kudal railway station is a train station near the town of Kudal in the Indian state of Maharashtra. Kudal station lies on the Konkan Railway zone of Indian Railways that runs along the west coast of India. Kudal is an important station in the Konkan region with several trains stopping here daily.

List of districts of Maharashtra

The Indian State of Maharashtra came into existence on 1 May 1960. It is also known as Maharashtra Day, initially with 26 districts. 10 new districts have been created since then, and currently the number of districts in the state is 36. These districts are grouped into five administrative divisions shown below.

Mumbai City district

Mumbai City District is a district of Maharashtra in Konkan Division. As a city district, it has no headquarters or subdivisions. It, along with the Mumbai Suburban District, makes up the metropolis of Mumbai. The city area is called the "island city" or South Mumbai or Old Mumbai. It extends from Colaba in the south to Mahim and Sion in the north. The city has an area of 157 km² and a population of 3,085,411.

Mumbai Suburban district

Mumbai Suburban District is a district of Maharashtra in Konkan Division. Its headquarters is in Bandra. It consists of three administrative subdivisions : Kurla, Andheri, and Borivali. The district along with Mumbai City district and other suburban communities make up the metropolis of Mumbai on Salsette Island. The district occupies an area of 446 km².This is the second smallest district of Maharashtra, and it administratively comes under Konkan Division.

The jurisdiction of Mumbai Suburban District is from Bandra to Dahisar, from Kurla (Chuna Bhatti) to Mulund and from Kurla up to Trombay Creek.

Mumbai Suburban District is one of the largest districts in the country by population. The current population is 9,332,481, according to the 2011 census, making it the fifth most populous district in India (out of 672). The Mithi River is the main river in the district.

Ratnagiri district

Ratnagiri district is one of the 36 districts of Maharashtra, India. Ratnagiri is the district headquarters of the district. The district is 11.33% urban. The district is bounded by the Arabian Sea to the west, Sindhudurg district to the south, Raigad district to the north and Satara, Sangli and Kolhapur districts to the east. This district is part of Konkan division.

Ratnagiri railway division

Ratnagiri railway division is one of the two railway divisions under Konkan Railway of Indian Railways. This railway division was formed on 26 January 1998 and its headquarter is located at Ratnagiri in the state of Maharashtra of India.

Ratnagiri railway division is another railway division under Konkan Railway headquartered at Mumbai. The Ratnagiri railway region extends over 480 kilometres (300 mi) from Roha to Sawantwadi in Maharashtra. Ratnagiri railway region an are headed by Regional Railway Manager.

Ratnagiri railway station

Ratnagiri railway station (RN) is a train station that serves the city of Ratnagiri in the Indian state of Maharashtra.

It is the one of the main railway stations of the Konkan Railway. The station has modern facilities like elevator and escalator. The station offers free Wi-Fi. All Konkan Railway trains halt at Ratnagiri. It is 7 km away from the city. It falls under the Ratnagiri railway division.

Sawantwadi Road railway station

Sawantwadi Road railway station is a train station on the Konkan Railway. It is at a distance of 363.880 km (226.1 mi) down from origin. The preceding station on the line is Zarap railway station and the next station is Madure railway station.

Sawarda railway station

Sawarda railway station is a station on Konkan Railway. It is at a distance of 146.302 kilometres (90.9 mi) down from origin at Roha station. The preceding station on the line is Kamathe railway station and the next station is Aravali railway station.

Shilahara

The Shilahara Dynasty (IAST: Śilāhāra; also Sinhara, Shailahara, Shrilara, or Silara) was a royal clan that established itself in northern and southern Konkan, present-day Mumbai and southern Maharashtra during the Rashtrakuta period.

They were split into three branches; one branch ruled North Konkan, the second South Konkan (between 765 and 1029), while the third ruled what is now known as modern districts of Satara, Kolhapur and Belgaum between 940 and 1215 after which they were overwhelmed by the Chalukya.

Ukshi railway station

Ukshi railway station is a station on Konkan Railway. The preceding station on the line is Sangameshwar railway station and the next station is Bhoke railway station. The station offers free Wi-Fi.

Western Coastal Plains

The Western Coastal Plains is a strip of coastal plain 50 kilometres (31 mi) in width between the west coast of India and the Western Ghats hills, which starts near the south of the Tapi River. The plains are located between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea. The plains begin at Gujarat in the north and end at Tamil Nadu in the south. It includes the states of Maharashtra, Goa ,Karnataka and Kerala. The region consists of three sections: the Northern part of the coast is called the Konkan (Mumbai-Goa), the central stretch is called the Kanara, while the southern stretch is referred to as the Malabar Coast. On its northern side there are two gulfs: the Gulf of Khambat and the Gulf of Kutch. The rivers along the coast form estuaries and provide conditions ideal for pisciculture. because of the presence of less coastal land in this part, it will be affected more by the global warming.

The northern portion of the west coast is called Konkan and the southern portion Malabar. The south Malabar or Kerala coast is broken and there are some lagoons. The north Malabar Coast is known as the Karnataka coast. Here the Sharavati River, before entering the plains, descends down a 275 m high cliff and forms the Gersoppa Falls.

The Western Coastal Plains extend 1,500 km from Cape Comorin in the south to Surat in north, the width ranging from 10 to 25 km from north to south, the Gujarat Plains the Konkan plains (Daman to Goa, 500 km), the Karnataka coastal plains (225 km south from Goa), and the Kerala coastal plains from Cannanore to Cape Comorin, 500 km make up the west coastal plains. The West Continental shelf is widest (350 km) off the coast of Bombay where the oil-rich Bombay High has become famous.

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