Kolonai (Ancient Greek: αἱ Κολωναί, romanizedhai Kolōnai; Latin: Colonae) was an ancient Greek city in the south-west of the Troad region of Anatolia. It has been located on a hill by the coast known as Beşiktepe ('cradle hill'), about equidistant between Larisa to the south and Alexandreia Troas to the north. It is 3.3 km east of the modern village of Alemşah in the Ezine district of Çanakkale Province, Turkey.[1] Its name in Ancient Greek is the plural form of κολώνη (kolōnē), 'hill, mound', a common name for promontories with hills on them in the Eastern Mediterranean.[2] It is not to be confused with Lampsacene Kolonai, a settlement situated in the hills above Lampsacus in the north-east of the Troad.[3]

αἱ Κολωναί
Kolonai is located in Turkey
Shown within Turkey
LocationAlemşah, Çanakkale Province, Turkey
Coordinates39°41′23″N 26°9′48″E / 39.68972°N 26.16333°ECoordinates: 39°41′23″N 26°9′48″E / 39.68972°N 26.16333°E
Founded7th century BC

Daës of Kolonai

The obscure local historian Daës of Kolonai (Δάης ὁ Κολωναεύς) is the only literary figure from Kolonai who is known. As a writer of local history he can date no earlier than the late 5th century BC, and as a citizen of Kolonai he must date before c. 310 BC when Kolonai became synoecized with Alexandreia Troas; his floruit is therefore likely to have been in the 4th century BC.[4] The Augustan geographer Strabo provides the only information on Daës in a brief quotation from his work on the history of Kolonai: "Daës of Kolonai says that the temple of Apollo Killaios was first founded in Kolonai by the Aeolians who sailed from Greece".[5] The cult of Apollo Killaios was local to the southern Troad and Lesbos and is first mentioned in Homer's Iliad.[6] The reference to the foundation of Kolonai by Aeolians indicates both that the inhabitants of Kolonai in the 4th century BC considered themselves to be ethnically Aeolian and that Daës' work dealt with the early history of his polis. The Aeolian identity of 4th-century BC Kolonai is independently confirmed by the legends on their coins which were spelt in the Aeolic Greek dialect.[7]


In Greek mythology, the king of Kolonai during the Trojan Wars was Cycnus. He was killed on the first day of the Trojan Wars by Achilles. This story does not appear in the Iliad, but does in the Cypria, which is thought to have been composed slightly later than the Iliad in the latter half of the 7th century BC.[8] Cycnus appears on two separate occasions in Pindar, suggesting that by the early 5th century BC the myth had some currency.[9] The mid-1st century BC historian Diodorus Siculus related a story about Cycnus which he attributed to the inhabitants of Tenedos, an island not far north of Kolonai, in which Cycnus' son Tennes founded Tenedos and gave it has name.[10] A similar connection between the mythical king of Kolonai and the foundation of Tenedos was made two centuries later by the travel writer Pausanias.[11]


Pottery finds suggest that Kolonai was inhabited in prehistoric times, but it is unknown whether there was any continuity between these period of its settlement and the Greek period.[12] Greek ceramic material appears on the site from the 7th century BC, marking its foundation as a Greek settlement.[13] At the period in which Daës of Kolonai was writing (probably the 4th century BC), the inhabitants of Kolonai thought they had been founded by Aeolian Greeks.[14] Given that Lesbos was also ethnically Aeolian and Kolonai was one of the so-called Actaean cities which Athens took from Mytilene following the end of the Mytilenean revolt in 427 BC, it is likely that Mytilene founded Kolonai and subsequently controlled it.[15] A corrupt passage of the geographer Strabo suggests instead that Kolonai belonged to the peraia of Tenedos, but there is now a consensus among consensus that the manuscripts should refer to it belonging to the peraia of Lesbos.[16]

References to Kolonai in written sources from Classical Antiquity are extremely rare. The Spartan general Pausanias may have fled from Byzantium to Kolonai in 478 BC if it is this Kolonai rather than 'Lampsacene' Kolonai which is meant by Thucydides.[17] Following the end of Mytilenaean control in 427 BC, it became part of the Delian League, and in 425/424 BC is recorded as paying a tribute of 1,000 drachmas, relatively small compared to the 3 talents which its neighbour Larisa paid in the same year.[18]

In 399 BC Kolonai was forcibly reincorporated into the Persian Empire by the local dynast Mania, but in the following year it was freed again by the Spartan general Dercyllidas.[19] During the 4th century BC the city minted coins depicting a head of Athena on the obverse. Its relationship with neighbouring Larisa is unclear throughout the Classical period, but appears to be one of semi-dependence.[20] In c. 310 BC Kolonai is thought to have been part of the synoecism with Antigoneia Troas, at which point the settlement is presumed to have been abandoned.[21]


  1. ^ Cook (1973) 216–17.
  2. ^ LSJ s.v. κολώνη; Apion ap. Apollodorus, Lexicon p. 102; Bürchner RE XI (1922) s.v. Kolona, Kolonai, Kolone, coll. 1109–10.
  3. ^ Strabo 13.1.19, Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri 1.12.6. Cf. Bürchner RE XI (1922) s.v. αἱ Κολωναί (3) col. 1110, who, however, reduplicates the passages from his entry on Kolonai in the southern Troad for 'Lampsacene' Kolonai, even when context indicates that one and not the other is meant.
  4. ^ Schwartz (1901).
  5. ^ Strabo 13.1.62 = K. Müller, Fragmenta Graecorum Historicorum IV.376.
  6. ^ Strabo 13.1.62 lists a series of cults, rivers, and places known as Killa or Killaios in this region; Homer, Iliad 1.38.
  7. ^ Coin legend: ΚΟΛΟΝΑΩΝ (KOLONAŌN, 'of/belonging to Kolonai'). Dialect: Hodot (1990) 95-6. Coins (c. 400 - c. 310 BC): B.V. Head, Historia Numorum2 543, SNG Cop. Troas 276–81.
  8. ^ Cypria in EGF, p.19.
  9. ^ Pindar, Olympian 2.82 (476 BC), Isthmian 5.39 (478 BC). For his invulnerability, see Sophocles, Poemenes fr. 500 Aristotle, Rhetoric 1396b17, Palaephatus, 'On Cycnus' in De Incredibilibus 11, Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3.31, Ovid, Metamorphoses 12.70-145, Tzetzes on Lycophron, Alexandra 232.
  10. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheke 5.83.
  11. ^ Pausanias 10.14.1-4.
  12. ^ Cook (1973) 218, 220.
  13. ^ Cook (1973) 217.
  14. ^ See above, Daës of Kolonai.
  15. ^ Carusi (2003) 35-7.
  16. ^ Cook (1973) 197-8, Carusi (2003) 36, Radt (2008) 497.
  17. ^ Thucydides 1.131.1, Nepos, Pausanias 3.3, Themistoclis Epistulae 14 (ed. Hercher). 'Lampsacene' Kolonai is certainly much closer: c. 200 km vs. c. 290 km. Simon Hornblower, the most recent commentator on Thucydides (on which the other two sources are based), assumes without question that Kolonai near Larisa is meant: Hornblower (1991) 217.
  18. ^ IG I3 71.III.135. The name of Kolonai is restored, as only the first letter survives. Kolonai is not mentioned in the next list which survives, that for 422/421 BC: IG I3 77.IV.14-27.
  19. ^ Xenophon Hellenica 3.1.13, 16, Diodorus Siculus 14.38.3.
  20. ^ Carusi (2003) 35-6.
  21. ^ Cook (1973) 220.


  • E. Schwartz, RE IV (1901) s.v. Daës, col. 1982.
  • L. Bürchner, RE XI (1922) s.v. αἱ Κολωναί (2), coll. 1100.
  • J.M. Cook, The Troad (Oxford, 1973) 216-21.
  • R. Hodot, Le dialecte éolien d'Asie: la langue des inscriptions, VIIe s. a.C.-IVe s. p.C. (Paris, 1990).
  • S. Hornblower, A Commentary on Thucydides Vol. 1 (Oxford, 1991).
  • C. Carusi, Isole e Peree in Asia Minore (Pisa, 2003) 35-7.
  • S. Mitchell, 'Kolonai' in M.H. Hansen and T.H. Nielsen (eds.), An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis (Oxford, 2004) no. 782.
  • S. Radt, Strabons Geographika: mit Übersetzung und Kommentar Vol. VII (Göttingen, 2008).

Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).


Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.


Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.

Colonae (Antiochis)

Colonae or Kolonai (Ancient Greek: Κολωναί) was a deme in ancient Attica, originally of the phyle of Antiochis, but later in the phylae of Antigonis (307/6 – 224/3 BCE) and Ptolemais (after 224/3 BCE).

Its site is tentatively located near modern Varnava Tower.

Colonae (Attica)

Colonae or Kolonai (Ancient Greek: Κολωναί) may refer to either of two demoi of ancient Attica:

Colonae (Antiochis), of the phyle of Antiochis, and later of Antigonis and Ptolemais

Colonae (Leontis), of the phyle of Leontis

Colonae (Hellespont)

Colonae or Kolonai (Ancient Greek: Κολωναί) was a town in the ancient Troad near Lampsacus on the Hellespont. It was founded by the Milesians.Its site is located about 2 miles (3.2 km) northwest of modern Beyçayırı, Turkey.

Colonae (Leontis)

Colonae or Kolonai (Ancient Greek: Κολωναί) was a deme in ancient Attica of the phyle of Leontis, sending two delegates to the Athenian Boule..Its site is tentatively located near modern Michaleza.


Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.


The butterfly genus Cycnus is now synonymized with Panthiades.In Greek mythology, multiple characters were known as Cycnus (Ancient Greek: Κύκνος) or Cygnus. The literal meaning of the name is "swan", and accordingly most of them ended up being transformed into swans.

Cycnus, son of Ares.

Cycnus, king of Kolonai.

Cycnus, friend of Phaethon.

Cycnus, son of Apollo.Cycnus, one of the suitors of Penelope.

Cycnus, son of King Eredion of Achaea, who, in one version, seduced Leda and made her mother of triplets: the Dioscuri and Helen. In all other sources, she had these children by Zeus who approached her in the shape of a swan (kyknos).

Cycnus, a blunder for Guneus in the manuscript of Hyginus' Fab. 97 (list of the Achaean leaders against Troy).According to Pseudo-Eratosthenes and Hyginus' Poetical Astronomy, the constellation Cygnus was the stellar image of the swan Zeus had transformed into in order to seduce Leda or Nemesis.

Cycnus of Kolonai

In Greek mythology, Cycnus (Ancient Greek: Κύκνος means "swan") or Cygnus, was the king of the town of Kolonai in the southern Troad.


In Ancient Greece, a deme or demos (Greek: δῆμος) modern Municipality was a suburb or a subdivision of Athens and other city-states. Demes as simple subdivisions of land in the countryside seem to have existed in the 6th century BC and earlier, but did not acquire particular significance until the reforms of Cleisthenes in 508 BC. In those reforms, enrollment in the citizen-lists of a deme became the requirement for citizenship; prior to that time, citizenship had been based on membership in a phratry, or family group. At this same time, demes were established in the main city of Athens itself, where they had not previously existed; in all, at the end of Cleisthenes' reforms, Athens was divided into 139 demes to which one should add Berenikidai, established in 224/223 BC, Apollonieis (201/200 BC) and Antinoeis (126/127). The establishment of demes as the fundamental units of the state weakened the gene, or aristocratic family groups, that had dominated the phratries.A deme functioned to some degree as a polis in miniature, and indeed some demes, such as Eleusis and Acharnae, were in fact significant towns. Each deme had a demarchos who supervised its affairs; various other civil, religious, and military functionaries existed in various demes. Demes held their own religious festivals and collected and spent revenue.Demes were combined with other demes from the same area to make trittyes, larger population groups, which in turn were combined to form the ten tribes, or phylai of Athens. Each tribe contained one trittys from each of three regions: the city, the coast, and the inland area.


Hisarlik (Turkish: Hisarlık, "Place of Fortresses"), often spelled Hissarlik, is the modern name for an ancient city in modern day located in what is now Turkey (historically Anatolia) near to the modern city of Çanakkale. The unoccupied archaeological site lies approximately 6.5 km from the Aegean Sea and about the same distance from the Dardanelles. The archaeological site of Hisarlik is known in archaeological circles as a tell. A tell is an artificial hill, built up over centuries and millennia of occupation from its original site on a bedrock knob.

It is believed by many scholars to be the site of ancient Troy, also known as Ilion.

Larisa (Troad)

Larisa (Ancient Greek: Λάρισα, romanized: Larisa), or Larissa, was an ancient Greek city in the south-west of the Troad region of Anatolia. Its surrounding territory was known in Greek as the Λαρισαῖα (Larisaia). It has been located on a small rise by the coast now known as Limantepe, about 3.5 km from the village of Kösedere to the north-east and 3 km from the village of Babadere to the east, in the Ayvacık district of Çanakkale province, Turkey. As with other Greek toponyms containing the consonantal string -ss-, spellings that drop one 's' exist alongside those that retain both in the ancient literary sources. Larisa in the Troad should not be confused with 'Aeolian' Larisa, near Menemen, or with 'Ionian' Larisa in İzmir province.


Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.


Neandreia (Ancient Greek: Νεάνδρεια), Neandrium or Neandrion (Νεάνδριον), also known as Neandrus or Neandros (Νέανδρος), was a Greek city in the south-west of the Troad region of Anatolia. Its site has been located on Çığrı Dağ, about 9 km east of the remains of the ancient city of Alexandria Troas in the Ezine district of Çanakkale province, Turkey (based on the work of John Manuel Cook). The site was first identified as Neandreia by Frank Calvert in 1865 and Joseph Thacher Clarke in 1886 and was first excavated by the German architect Robert Koldewey when he excavated in 1889.

Pausanias (general)

Pausanias (Greek: Παυσανίας; died c. 470 BC) was a Spartan regent, general, and war leader for the Greeks who was suspected of conspiring with the Persian king, Xerxes I, during the Greco-Persian Wars. What is known of his life is largely according to Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War, together with a handful of other classical sources.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.


Tyana (Ancient Greek: Τύανα; Hittite Tuwanuwa) was an ancient city in the Anatolian region of Cappadocia, in modern Kemerhisar, Niğde Province, Central Anatolia, Turkey. It was the capital of a Luwian-speaking Neo-Hittite kingdom in the 1st millennium BC.

Üçayaklı ruins

The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.

Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia


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