Kolkata-class destroyer

The Kolkata class (Project 15A) are a class of stealth guided missile destroyers constructed for the Indian Navy. The class comprises three ships – Kolkata, Kochi and Chennai, all of which were built by Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) in India, and are the largest destroyers to be operated by the Indian Navy. Due to delays in their construction, and a problem found during the sea trials, the initial commissioning date of the first ship of the class had been pushed back from 2010 to 2014.[12] The final ship commissioned was Chennai, in November 2016.[13]

The destroyers are a follow-on of the Project 15 Delhi-class destroyers, but are considerably more capable due to major improvements in the design, the addition of substantial land-attack capabilities, and the fitting-out of modern sensors and weapons systems.[14]

INS Kolkata entering Mombasa, Kenya
INS Kolkata entering Mombasa, Kenya in September 2016
Class overview
Name: Kolkata class
Builders: Mazagon Dock Limited
Operators:  Indian Navy
Preceded by: Delhi class
Succeeded by: Visakhapatnam class
Built: 2003–2015
In commission: 2014–present
Planned: 3
Completed: 3
Active: 3
General characteristics
Type: Stealth guided missile destroyer
Displacement: 7,400 t (7,300 long tons; 8,200 short tons) full load[1]
Length: 163 m (534 ft 9 in)
Beam: 17.4 m (57 ft 1 in)
Draught: 6.5 m (21 ft 4 in)
Propulsion: Combined gas and gas system: 4 × Zorya-Mashproekt DT-59 reversible gas turbines[2][3]
Speed: 30 knots (56 km/h)
Range: 8,000 nmi (15,000 km) at 18 kn (33 km/h)
Complement: 40 officers and 350 ratings[4][5]
Sensors and
processing systems:
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
Armament:
Aircraft carried: 2 × Sea King or HAL Dhruv helicopters
Aviation facilities: Dual Enclosed hangar

Development

In 1986, the Cabinet Committee on Political Affairs (CCPA) approved a follow-on class of the earlier Project 15 Delhi-class destroyers. The aim was that the follow-on class would incorporate a higher level of air-defence, land attack, anti-submarine and anti-ship capabilities than the preceding class. However, the Indian Navy did not initially take up the option.[11] By the year 2000, the Indian Navy had redesigned the follow-on Kolkata class to incorporate even higher levels of technology (including modern stealth characteristics) and in May of that year, approval for the construction was given. Concept and function for Project 15A was framed by the navy's Directorate of Naval Design, while the detailed design was developed by Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL).[15][16][17]

Initially in 2008, the total program cost with long-term spare parts was expected to cost 3,800 crore (US$550 million),[15] but the construction costs escalated about 225%, and by 2011, cost of the program became 11,662 crore (US$1.7 billion), with each ship costing 3,900 crore (US$560 million).[18] The Defense Minister A. K. Antony cited the causes being the delay in supply of warship-grade steel by Russia, increase in costs of Russian specialists due to inflation during the build period, wage revision due from October 2003 and delay in finalisation of cost of weapons and sensors.[19][20] A Comptroller and Auditor General of India report published in 2010 blamed the Navy for delays, criticizing the late decisions for replacement of surface to air missile system with Barak, change of gun mount, inclusion of a sonar dome and modification of helicopter hangar to accommodate HAL Dhruv.[21][22]

Construction

P-15A Kolkata class hull unit
Hull of a 15A destroyer being built at Mazagon Docks.

Construction of three Kolkata-class ships was sanctioned by the Government of India in May 2000, and steel for the lead ship was cut in March 2003. Construction began in September 2003 at Mazagon Docks, Mumbai, with an initial expectation that the first of the class would be handed over to the navy by 2010. However, since then the Kolkata class has suffered consecutive delays, slow construction procedures and technical problems which saw the first ship of the class enter service during mid 2014. The delays in the construction programme have been attributed to persistent design changes made by the Indian Navy to incorporate new weapons systems and sensors, failure by a Ukrainian shipyard to deliver the ship's propellers and shafts and the contract later being awarded to a Russian firm,[23] and finally the delay in the delivery of the Barak 8 anti-air missiles, which are still in the final stages of completion with Israel Aerospace Industries and the Defence Research and Development Organisation.[24]

The Kolkata class are the largest destroyers ever to be constructed at Mazagon Docks, and as of 2013, all three ships of the class have been launched and are being fitted out.[25] Technical problems were found during the sea trials of the lead ship Kolkata, which delayed the project by six months to early 2014.[12]

Design and description

The Kolkata class share similar dimensions to the previous Delhi class, however they have 2,363 modifications which include major upgrades in weaponry, sensors and helicopter systems.[21] With a standard displacement of 6,800 t (6,700 long tons; 7,500 short tons) and a full-load displacement of 7,400 t (7,300 long tons; 8,200 short tons), they are the largest destroyers ever operated by the Indian Navy.[1] Some media reports have even given a full-load displacement of 7,500 t (7,400 long tons; 8,300 short tons).[26] These are the first stealth destroyers being built by India and marked a significant development in India's shipbuilding technology. The ships would incorporate modern weapons and sensors, and will have an advanced information warfare suite, an auxiliary control system with a sophisticated power distribution architecture, and modular crew quarters.[27]

The class have a length of 163 m (534 ft 9 in), a beam of 17.4 m (57 ft 1 in) and a draught of 6.5 m (21 ft 4 in). The ship's power and propulsion features a combined gas and gas system utilizing four DT-59 reversible gas turbines. This configuration allows the ship to reach speeds in excess of 30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph).[28] Aviation facilities include a large flight deck, which was re-designed to handle larger helicopters than the Delhi class, and an enclosed hangar for up to two maritime helicopters.[21]

ELM 2248 MF-STAR radar onboard INS Kolkata (D63) of the Indian Navy
The EL/M-2248 MF-STAR AESA is the primary radar of the Kolkata class

The primary radar sensor of the class is the EL/M-2248 MF-STAR multi-mission AESA.[6] It is also equipped with Thales LW-08 long range volume search radar and EL/M-2238 S-band STAR surveillance radar from Israel Aerospace Industries. A bow-mounted sonar HUMSA-NG (hull-mounted sonar array - new generation) are carried for sub-surface surveillance.

The ship's main air-defence armament is composed of four eight-cell vertical launching systems (VLS) allowing for up to thirty-two Barak 8 air defence missiles.[29] In addition, four AK-630 CIWS are fitted for close-in defence.

The Indian Navy destroyer INS Kolkata (D63) and the British Navy destroyer HMS Defender (D36) steam alongside the Ticonderoga-class guided-missile cruiser USS Antietam (CG 54) during an exercise
INS Kolkata and the British Royal Navy destroyer HMS Defender in the background during International Fleet Review 2016.

The supersonic BrahMos anti-ship and land-attack missiles are the primary offensive armament of the Kolkata class.[30] The BrahMos missiles are fitted into a 16-cell Universal Vertical Launcher Module (UVLM) allowing one missile per launch silo, and all 16 missiles can be fired in salvo.[31] Perhaps the most distinctive and noticeable armament of the Kolkata class is its 76 mm (3 in) naval gun located forward of the bridge. The 76 mm gun provides limited anti-shipping capability and anti-air capability in addition to its naval gun fire-support role for land based operations. For anti-submarine warfare, the Kolkata class are equipped with a torpedo launching system via four torpedo tubes and two RBU-6000 anti-submarine rocket launchers.[32] BEL's Electronic Modular Command & Control Applications (EMCCA) Mk4 provides combat management.[6]

Four million lines of codes have been written to develop the advanced combat management system onboard INS Kochi. The system is designed so that all the data about the surrounding threat comes in one place, along with analysis about the kind of threat. The system also advises the commanding officer about the kind of weaponry he should use to tackle the threat in real-time.[33] The ship is equipped with sophisticated digital networks, such as Asynchronous Transfer Mode based Integrated Ship Data Network (AISDN), Combat Management System (CMS), Automatic Power Management System (APMS) and Auxiliary Control System (ACS). The AISDN is the information highway on which data from all the sensors and weapon ride. The CMS is used to integrate information from other platforms using indigenous data-link system, to provide Maritime Domain Awareness. The intricate power supply management is done using APMS, and remote control and monitoring of machinery is achieved through the ACS.[34]

Ships of the class

INS Kolkata (D63) commissioning ceremony 5
INS Kolkata commissioning ceremony
Name Pennant Yard No. Builder Laid Down Launched Commissioned Homeport Status
INS Kolkata D63 701[35]:4 Mazagon Dock Limited 26 September 2003[36] 30 March 2006[37][38] 16 August 2014[39] Mumbai Active
INS Kochi D64 702[35] 25 October 2005[40] 18 September 2009[40] 30 September 2015[41]
INS Chennai D65 703[42] 21 February 2006[43] 1 April 2010[25] 21 November 2016[13]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "INS Kolkata". indiannavy.nic.in. Indian Navy. Archived from the original on 16 June 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  2. ^ Siddiqui, Huma (5 October 2015). "INS Kochi turbocharged". The Financial Express. Archived from the original on 4 February 2018.
  3. ^ Bedi, Rahul (18 August 2014). "India commissions first-of-class destroyer Kolkata". IHS Jane's Navy International. Archived from the original on 21 August 2014.
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 June 2016. Retrieved 5 May 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ "INS Kochi commissioned at Mumbai | Indian Navy". indiannavy.nic.in. Archived from the original on 3 August 2016. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
  6. ^ a b c d "Country's most potent indigenous warship joins service this month". SP's Naval Forces. 8 June 2014. Archived from the original on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  7. ^ "Bharat Electronics Ltd. awards LW08 contract to Thales". Thalesgroup.com. 2 July 2008. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2010.
  8. ^ a b Som, Vishnu (29 September 2015). "Inside India's New and Deadliest Warship". NDTV. Archived from the original on 18 July 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  9. ^ "Indian Navy successfully test fires Long Range Barak 8 missile from INS Kolkata".
  10. ^ Bedi, Rahul (29 September 2015). "India commissions second Kolkata-class destroyer". IHS Jane's Defence Weekly. Archived from the original on 2 October 2015. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  11. ^ a b Kolkata-class destroyer Archived 4 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine GlobalSecurity.org
  12. ^ a b "Navy's ongoing hunt for heavy torpedoes leads to delay in modernisation process". India Today. 10 June 2013. Archived from the original on 17 July 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  13. ^ a b "Guided Missile Destroyer INS Chennai Joins the Indian Navy" (Press release). Indian Navy. 21 November 2016. Archived from the original on 21 November 2016. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
  14. ^ Toshi Yoshihara; James Holmes. James R. Holmes (ed.). Strategy in the second nuclear age : power, ambition, and the ultimate weapon. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. p. 143. ISBN 1589019288. Archived from the original on 3 March 2018.
  15. ^ a b Shukla, Ajai (15 April 2008). "World-class warships at Indian prices". Business Standard. Archived from the original on 14 May 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2010.
  16. ^ Bhatt, Arunkumar (27 September 2003). "Mazagon Dock lays keel of destroyer". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 2 April 2010.
  17. ^ "Mazagon Dock Annual Report" (PDF). Mdlindia.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 December 2007. Retrieved 2 April 2010.
  18. ^ Ajai Shukla (2 May 2014). "INS Kolkata, navy's most powerful warship, to be delivered next month". Business-standard. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
  19. ^ "Indian warships' costs escalate over 225%". StratPost. 5 September 2011. Archived from the original on 14 May 2014. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  20. ^ "Delay in Indigenous Warship Projects of Navy". Press Information Bureau. 3 August 2011. Archived from the original on 14 May 2014. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  21. ^ a b c Shukla, Ajai (20 August 2012). "Dangerous consequences of warships built in India". Rediff News. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  22. ^ "Report No. 32 of 2010 - Performance Audit of Indigenous Construction of Indian Naval Warships" (PDF). Comptroller and Auditor General of India. p. 41. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 February 2018.
  23. ^ Shukla, Ajai (1 April 2009). "Russia steps in to bail out sinking Project 15-A". Business Standard. Archived from the original on 22 September 2010. Retrieved 2 April 2010.
  24. ^ Shukla, Ajai (20 August 2012). "Navy's wavering delaying warships by years". Business Standard. Archived from the original on 13 April 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  25. ^ a b "India's 3rd indigenous naval destroyer launched". CNN-News18. 1 April 2010. Archived from the original on 3 February 2018. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  26. ^ "Navy gets its largest destroyer". The Hindu. 13 July 2014. Archived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
  27. ^ "INS Chennai adds to Naval might". Zee News. 1 April 2010. Archived from the original on 5 June 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
  28. ^ "Project 15-A destroyer, INS Kochi To be launched on 18 Sep 2009". PIB. Archived from the original on 21 July 2012. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
  29. ^ Som, Vishnu (16 August 2014). "On INS Kolkata, PM is Only Partially Correct". NDTV. Archived from the original on 8 June 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2015. At the moment, she is designed to carry only 32 Barak surface-to-air missiles...
  30. ^ "First test of BrahMos land-attack variant from the sea". India today. 5 March 2008. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  31. ^ "BrahMos missile test-fired from warship INS Kolkata". The Times of India. 9 June 2014. Archived from the original on 9 June 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  32. ^ "Project 15-A Improved Delhi / VIshakhapattanam / DDGHM Kolkata". Global Security. Archived from the original on 4 April 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
  33. ^ "INS Kochi is proof India good at integrating different systems on one platform". sunday guardian. Archived from the original on 9 October 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
  34. ^ "INS Kochi commissioned at Mumbai | Indian Navy". indiannavy.nic.in. Archived from the original on 3 June 2016. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
  35. ^ a b "Annual Report 2014–2015" (PDF). mazagondock.in. Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 August 2016.
  36. ^ Bhatt, Arunkumar (27 September 2003). "Mazagon Dock lays keel of destroyer". The Hindu. The Hindu Group.
  37. ^ Rasquinha, Reagan Gavin (1 April 2006). "Queen of the high seas". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2010.
  38. ^ Bhatt, Arunkumar (1 April 2006). "A lethal combination of stealth and strength". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 2 April 2010.
  39. ^ Pandit, Rajat (16 August 2014). "PM Modi inducts India's largest indigenously built warship INS Kolkata". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 4 February 2018.
  40. ^ a b Ved, Mahendra (8 October 2015). "Make in India at Indian Navy". The Hans India. Archived from the original on 23 February 2018.
  41. ^ "INS Kochi, largest India-made warship, commissioned". The Times of India. TNN. 30 September 2015. Archived from the original on 4 February 2018.
  42. ^ "Annual Report 2016–2017" (PDF). mazagondock.in. Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited. p. 14. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  43. ^ Commodore Stephen Saunders, ed. (2016). "India". Jane's Fighting Ships 2016–2017 (119th ed.). Coulsdon: Jane's Information Group. p. 346. ISBN 978-0710631855.

External links

Video links
Bangalore (disambiguation)

Bangalore is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka.

Bangalore may also refer to:

Bangalore (region), a region consisting the Bangalore Urban and Rural districts

Bangalore (1791 ship) was built at Newcastle in 1791 and wrecked in 1799

Bangalore (1792 ship) was built at Calcutta and was wrecked in the Flores Sea in 1802

Bangalore (1843 ship) was built at Jersey and made two voyages transporting convicts to Australia

Bangalore (1866 ship) foundered in 1908

SS Bangalore (1867 ship), a steamer belong to the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company

SS Bangalore (1928 ship), a steamer belong to the Hain Steamship Company

Bangalore-class destroyer or Kolkata-class destroyer, a class of stealth destroyer built for the Indian Navy

Bangalore torpedo, an explosive charge placed on the end of a long, extendable tube

Bangalored, a neologism related to offshoring

Bangalore, a racehorse that finished unplaced in the 1842 Grand National

EL/M-2248 MF-STAR

The EL/M-2248 MF-STAR is a multifunction active electronically scanned array naval radar system developed by IAI Elta for maritime installation on warships. It is capable of tracking both air and surface targets and providing fire control guidance. MF-STAR is an acronym of Multi-Function Surveillance, Track And Guidance Radar.

Guided missile destroyer

A guided-missile destroyer is a destroyer designed to launch guided missiles. Many are also equipped to carry out anti-submarine, anti-air, and anti-surface operations. The NATO standard designation for these vessels is DDG. Nations vary in their use of destroyer D designation in their hull pennant numbering, either prefixing or dropping it altogether. The U.S. Navy has adopted the classification DDG in the American hull classification system.

In addition to the guns, a guided-missile destroyer is usually equipped with two large missile magazines, usually in vertical-launch cells. Some guided-missile destroyers contain powerful radar systems, such as the United States’ Aegis Combat System, and may be adopted for use in an anti-missile or ballistic-missile defense role. This is especially true of navies that no longer operate cruisers, so other vessels must be adopted to fill in the gap.

INS Chennai (D65)

INS Chennai (D65) is the third ship of the Kolkata-class stealth guided missile destroyers of the Indian Navy. She was constructed at Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) located in Mumbai. INS Chennai is the last of the three ships built under the code name Project 15A. INS Chennai has on its seal a Bull symbolizing the Jallikattu festival celebrated in Tamil Nadu from where the ship associates its heritage. On 17 April 2017, INS Chennai was dedicated to the city of Chennai in presence of its Chief Minister K. Palanisamy. INS Chennai, along with INS Sunayna was sent to the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman in June 2019 to protect Indian shipping interests amid tensions in the Strait of Hormuz.

INS Imphal

INS Imphal is the third ship of the Visakhapatnam-class stealth guided-missile destroyers of the Indian Navy. She is being constructed at Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) and has been launched on 20 April 2019. The ship is expected to get commissioned by 2023. The ship was named in recognition of the Indian soldiers who fought in Battle of Imphal during World War II. It is the first Indian Navy ship named after a city in Northeast India.

INS Kochi

INS Kochi (D64) is the second ship of the Kolkata-class stealth guided-missile destroyers built for the Indian Navy. She was constructed at Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) located in Mumbai. After undergoing extensive sea trials, she was commissioned to Indian Navy service on 30 September 2015. INS Kochi has been built under the code name of Project 15 Alpha.

INS Kolkata

INS Kolkata is the lead ship of the Kolkata-class stealth guided-missile destroyers of the Indian Navy. She was constructed at Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL), and was handed over to the navy on 10 July 2014 after completing her sea trials. The ship was officially commissioned by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in a ceremony held on 16 August 2014.

INS Mormugao

INS Mormugao is the second ship of the Visakhapatnam-class stealth guided-missile destroyers of the Indian Navy. She is being constructed at Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL), and has been launched on 17 September 2016. The ship is expected to get commissioned by 2022.

INS Visakhapatnam

INS Visakhapatnam is the lead ship of the Visakhapatnam-class stealth guided-missile destroyers of the Indian Navy. She is being constructed at Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL), and has been launched on 20 April 2015. The ship is expected to be commissioned by 2021.

List of destroyers of India

In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, manoueverable, long-distance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers. Seventeen destroyers have served, or currently serve, in the Indian Navy. The navy operates 11 guided-missile destroyers from three classes: Kolkata class, Delhi class, and Rajput class. Six other destroyers (three R class and three Hunt class) have been decommissioned and scrapped.Although destroyers were introduced during the early 20th century and were widely used by the end of World War II, India had none until 1949. The R-class INS Ranjit, built in the United Kingdom, was the first destroyer commissioned in the Indian Navy. Two more R-class ships were later commissioned. Three Hunt-class destroyers were commissioned in 1953 to succeed the R-class destroyers. These ships (all of which were built in the United Kingdom) were decommissioned by 1976, with the Hunt-class INS Godavari the last.During the 1980s, India signed an agreement with the Soviet Union for five guided-missile destroyers, built under Rajput class. The first ship (INS Rajput) of the class was commissioned on 30 September 1980. All five Rajput-class ships are still in active service. The Rajput class was succeeded by the Delhi class, with INS Delhi, Mysore and Mumbai commissioned in 1997, 1999 and 2001 respectively. The Delhi-class destroyers, built in India, were succeeded by the Kolkata class in 2014. The three Kolkata-class ships have been commissioned in 2014–2016, with INS Chennai being the last. An improvement of the Kolkata-class, INS Visakhapatnam (part of the Visakhapatnam class), was introduced in April 2015 and will reportedly be commissioned by the end of 2018. Three more vessels are planned as part of the Visakhapatnam class.

List of ship launches in 2006

The list of ship launches in 2006 includes a chronological list of all ships launched in 2006.

List of ship launches in 2009

The list of ship launches in 2009 includes a chronological list of ships launched in 2009.

Project 17A-class frigate

The Project 17A-class frigate is a follow-on of the Project 17 Shivalik-class frigate for the Indian Navy. A total of seven ships will be built at Mazagon Dock and GRSE. The construction of the first ship started in 2017 and the first ship is expected to delivered by 2022. The anticipated cost for each vessel is above ₹4,000 crore (US$579 million) and the total deal is expected to be worth more than ₹6,400 crore (US$926 million). The vessel will incorporate the latest stealth features.

RBU-6000

The RBU-6000 Smerch-2 (Реактивно-Бомбовая Установка, Reaktivno-Bombovaja Ustanovka; reaction engine-bomb installation & Смерч; waterspout) is a 213 mm caliber Soviet anti-submarine weapon rocket launcher. It is similar in principle to the Royal Navy Hedgehog system used during the Second World War. The system entered service in 1960-61 and is fitted to a wide range of Russian surface vessels. It consists of a horseshoe shaped arrangement of twelve launch barrels, that are remotely directed by the Burya fire control system (that can also control the shorter ranged RBU-1000). It fires RGB-60 unguided depth charges. The rockets are normally fired in salvos of 1, 2, 4, 8 or 12 rounds. Reloading is automatic, with individual rounds being fed into the launcher by the 60UP loading system from a below deck magazine. Typical magazine capacity is either 72 or 96 rounds per launcher. It can also be used as a shore bombardment system.

The RPK-8 system is an upgrade of the RBU-6000 system, firing the 90R rocket, which is actively guided in the water. This allows it to home in on targets at depths of up to 1,000 meters. The warhead is a 19.5 kg shaped charge, which enables it to punch through the hulls of submarines. It can also be used against divers and torpedoes. System response time is reported to be 15 seconds and a single-salvo has a kill probability of 0.8. RPK-8 entered service in 1991 and mounted on Project 1154 and 11356 frigates. Serial production of the upgraded 90R1 rocket was launched in 2017.

RBU-6000 were the most widespread anti-submarine rocket launchers in the Soviet Navy, used on many ship classes.

Stealth ship

A stealth ship is a ship which employs stealth technology construction techniques in an effort to ensure that it is harder to detect by one or more of radar, visual, sonar, and infrared methods.

These techniques borrow from stealth aircraft technology, although some aspects such as wake and acoustic signature reduction (Acoustic quieting) are unique to stealth ships' design. Though radar cross-section (RCS) reduction is a fairly new concept many other forms of masking a ship have existed for centuries or even millennia.

Varunastra (torpedo)

The Varunastra is an Indian advanced heavyweight anti-submarine torpedo, developed by Naval Science and Technological Laboratory of the DRDO for the Indian Navy.

The ship launched variant of Varunastra torpedo was formally inducted in the Indian navy by defence minister Manohar Parrikar on 26 June 2016. The minister in his speech said that the government is in favor of exporting the torpedo to friendly nations including Vietnam. With some minor modifications the submarine variant of the torpedo is to be test fired shortly. The Indian Navy plans to produce 73 of these torpedoes for its use.

Vertical launching system

A vertical launching system (VLS) is an advanced system for holding and firing missiles on mobile naval platforms, such as surface ships and submarines. Each vertical launch system consists of a number of cells, which can hold one or more missiles ready for firing. Typically, each cell can hold a number of different types of missiles, allowing the ship flexibility to load the best set for any given mission. Further, when new missiles are developed, they are typically fitted to the existing vertical launch systems of that nation, allowing existing ships to use new types of missiles without expensive rework. When the command is given, the missile flies straight up long enough to clear the cell and the ship, and then turns on course.

A VLS allows surface combatants to have a greater number of weapons ready for firing at any given time compared to older launching systems such as the Mark 13 single-arm and Mark 26 twin-arm launchers, which were fed from behind by a magazine below the main deck. In addition to greater firepower, VLS is much more damage tolerant and reliable than the previous systems, and has a lower radar cross-section (RCS). The U.S. Navy now relies exclusively on VLS for its guided missile destroyers and cruisers.

The most widespread vertical launch system in the world is the Mark 41, developed by the United States Navy. More than 11,000 Mark 41 VLS missile cells have been delivered, or are on order, for use on 186 ships across 19 ship classes, in 11 navies around the world. This system currently serves with the US Navy as well as the Australian, Danish, Dutch, German, Japanese, New Zealand, Norwegian, South Korean, Spanish, and Turkish navies, while others like the Greek Navy preferred the similar Mark 48 system.The advanced Mark 57 vertical launch system is used on the new Zumwalt-class destroyer. The older Mark 13 and Mark 26 systems remain in service on ships that were sold to other countries such as Taiwan and Poland.

When installed on an SSN (nuclear-powered attack submarine), a VLS allows a greater number and variety of weapons to be deployed, compared with using only torpedo tubes.

Visakhapatnam-class destroyer

The Visakhapatnam class (Project 15B) is a class of stealth guided missile destroyers currently under construction for the Indian Navy. The class comprises four ships - Visakhapatnam, Mormugao, Imphal and Porbandar all of which are being built by the Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) in India, and will be the largest destroyers to be operated by the Indian Navy.The destroyers are an improved version of the Kolkata-class (Project 15A) and will feature enhanced stealth characteristics. The first ship is expected to enter service in 2021.

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