Kolhapur

Kolhapur (Kolhapur.ogg ) is a historic city of Maharashtra. It is the district headquarters of Kolhapur district. Prior to Indian Independence, Kolhapur was a nineteen gun salute princely state ruled by the Bhosale Chhatrapati (Bhosale royal clan) of the Maratha Empire.

Kolhapur

कोल्हापूर
City
New Palace at Kolhapur
New Palace at Kolhapur
Kolhapur is located in Maharashtra
Kolhapur
Kolhapur
Location in Maharashtra, India
Kolhapur is located in India
Kolhapur
Kolhapur
Kolhapur (India)
Coordinates: 16°41′30″N 74°14′00″E / 16.69167°N 74.23333°ECoordinates: 16°41′30″N 74°14′00″E / 16.69167°N 74.23333°E
Country India
StateMaharashtra
DistrictKolhapur
Founded byShilahara
Government
 • TypeMunicipal Corporation
 • BodyKMC
 • MayorShobha Bondre[1]
Area
 • City120 km2 (50 sq mi)
Elevation
545.6 m (1,790.0 ft)
Population
(2011)[3]
 • City5,49,236
 • RankIndia : 82nd
Maharashtra : 6th
 • Density4,600/km2 (12,000/sq mi)
 • Metro9,20,000
Demonym(s)Kolhapurkar, Kolhapuri
Official
 • LanguageMarathi
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
416001-15
Telephone code0231
Vehicle registrationMH-09
WebsiteOfficial site

History

Mahalaxmi of Kolhapur
Mahalakshmi, Hindu goddess

Scriptural records

Kolhapur is mentioned in the Devi Gita, the final and key chapter of the Devi-Bhagavata Purana, a special text of Shaktism. Kolhapur is noted as a place of Kollamma worship. In the text, Devi says,

"O King of Mountains! Still I am now telling something out of My affection to My Bhaktas. Hear. There is a great place of pilgrimage named Kollapura in the southern country. Here the Devi Ambabai always dwells."[5]
The famous Jyotiba temple is also located in the Kolhapur.

Kolhapur is famous in west Maharashtra for religious accounts.

Medieval era

The Shilahara family at Kolhapur was the latest of the three and was founded about the time of the downfall of the Rashtrakuta Empire. They ruled over southern Maharashtra; the modern districts of Satara, Kolhapur and Belagavi. Their family deity was the goddess Ambabai, whose blessing they claimed to have secured in their copperplate grants (Mahalakshmi-labdha-vara-prasada). Like their relatives of the northern branch of Konkan, the Shilaharas of Kolhapur claimed to be of the lineage of the Vidyadhara Jimutavahana. They carried the banner of golden Garuda. One of the many titles used by the Shilaharas was Tagarapuravaradhisvara, supreme sovereign ruler of Tagara.

The first capital of the Shilaharas was probably at Karad during the reign of Jatiga-II as known from their copper plate grant of Miraj and 'Vikramankadevacharita' of Bilhana. Hence sometimes they are referred as 'Shilaharas of Karad'. Later, although the capital was shifted to Kolhapur, some of their grants mention Valavada, and the hill fort of Pranalaka or Padmanala,(Panhala) as the places of royal residence. Even though the capital was shifted to Kolhapur, Karhad retained its significance during the Shilahara period. This branch rose to power the latter part of the Rashtrakuta rule and so, unlike the kings of the other two branches, those of this branch do not mention the genealogy of the Rashtrakutas even in their early grants. Later they acknowledged the suzerainty of the later Chalukya for some time. They had used Kannada as the official language as can seen from their inscriptions. This branch continued to hold the Southern Maharashtra from circa 940 to 1220.

From 940 to 1212 CE, Kolhapur was the centre of power of the Shilahara dynasty.[6] An inscription at Teradal states that the king Gonka (1020 - 1050 CE) was bitten by a snake then healed by a Jain monk. Gonka then built a temple to Lord Neminath, the twenty-second Jain tirthankara (enlightened being). Jain temples in and around Kolhapur from this era are called Gonka-Jinalya, after the king.

Around 1055 CE, during the reign of Bhoja I (Shilahara dynasty), a dynamic Acharya (spiritual guide) named Maghanandi (Kolapuriya), founded a religious institute at the Rupanarayana Jain temple (basadi). Maghanandi is also known as Siddhanta-chakravarti, that is, the great master of the scriptures. Kings and nobles of the Shilahara dynasty such as Gandaraditya I who succeeded Bhoja I, were disciples of Maghanandi.

Kolhapur was the site of intense confrontation between rulers of the Western Chalukya Empire and the rulers of the Chola empire, Rajadhiraja Chola and his younger brother Rajendra Chola II. In 1052 CE, following the Battle of Koppam, the victor, Rajendra Chola II, marched on to Kolhapur and there he erected a jayastambha (victory pillar).[7]

Between 1109 and 1178 CE, the Kopeshwar temple to Lord Shiva was built by the Shilahara kings, Gandaraditya Chola, Vijayaditya and Bhoja II in Khidrapur, Kolhapur.

Kolhapur State

The state of Kolhapur was established by Tarabai in 1707 because of the succession dispute over the Maratha kingship. The Maratha throne was then governed by descendents of Tarabai. One of the prominent Kings was Rajarshi Shahu Maharaj (Shahu of Kolhapur). In his reign he promoted cost free education to people of all casts and fought against untouchability. The state was annexed by the British in the 19th century. After India's independence in 1947, the Maharaja of Kolhapur acceded to the Dominion of India on 14 August 1947 and merged with Bombay State on 1 March 1949. Kolhapur is sometimes found spelled as Colapore.[8] Often, Kolhapur is also referred as Dakshin Kashi (Dakshin in Hindi means South, Kashi is a holy city in Northern India) due to its rich religious history.[9]

Origin of name

According to the myth, Kolhapur was named after the demon Kolhasur. There are different stories behind the reason he was killed by the Goddess, but it was his dying wish to name the place where he was killed after him. Thus, Kolhapur comes from the name Kolhasur and, Pur which means a city.[10]

Geography

PanchgangaRiverAtKolhapur
The Panchganga river at Kolhapur

Kolhapur is an inland city located in south-west Maharashtra state, 228 km south of Pune, 615 km north-west of Bengaluru and 530 km west of Hyderabad. Within Maharashtra, Kolhapur's nearest cities and towns are Ichalkaranji (27 km), Kodoli (35 km), Peth-Vadgaon (15 km) Kagal (21 km), Sangli (49 km), Satara (115 km). Kolhapur has an elevation of 569 metres (1867 ft). It lies in the Sahayadri mountains in the Western Ghats.[11] Chandgad is the coolest place in the Kolhapur district. Tambraparni river dam is the spectacular place near Umgaon village.

Climate

Kolhapur's climate is a blend of coastal and inland elements common to Maharashtra. The temperature has a relatively narrow range between 10 °C to 35 °C. Summer in Kolhapur is comparatively cooler, but much more humid, than neighbouring inland cities. Maximum temperatures rarely exceed 38 °C and typically range between 33 and 35 °C. Lows during this season are around 24 °C to 26 °C.

The city receives abundant rainfall from June to September due to its proximity to the Western Ghats. The heavy rains often lead to severe flooding during these months. 2005 and 2006 were years when floods occurred. Temperatures are low in the rainy season and range between 19 °C and 30 °C.

Kolhapur experiences winter from November to February. The winter temperatures are warmer than other cities in Maharashtra such as Pune and Nashik. Lows range from 9 °C to 16 °C while highs are in the range of 26 °C to 32 °C due to its high elevation and being adjacent to the Western Ghats. Humidity is low in this season making the weather much more pleasant.

Climate data for Kolhapur
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 31
(88)
33
(91)
36
(97)
37
(99)
33
(91)
29
(84)
27
(81)
26
(79)
28
(82)
30
(86)
29
(84)
29
(84)
31
(87)
Average low °C (°F) 15
(59)
17
(63)
20
(68)
22
(72)
22
(72)
22
(72)
22
(72)
21
(70)
21
(70)
21
(70)
17
(63)
15
(59)
20
(68)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 4.3
(0.17)
0.5
(0.02)
6.1
(0.24)
26.9
(1.06)
46.2
(1.82)
140
(5.51)
338.3
(13.32)
181.6
(7.15)
101.6
(4.00)
103.6
(4.08)
40.6
(1.60)
5.6
(0.22)
995.9
(39.21)
Source: Government of Maharashtra
Kolhapur at night from Rankala
Kolhapur City at night from Rankala lake

Hydrology

The Panchaganga river originates in the Western Ghats. It has five tributaries which supply the city and surrounds: the Bhogavati, Tulsi, Kumbhi, Kasari and the Dhamani rivers. The Panchaganga is polluted with untreated domestic sewerage; industrial effluent; biomedical sewerage; agricultural chemical runoff; crematorium ash; and, religious offerings. Kolhapur has a number of lakes. The Rankala lake was once a stone quarry

Rankala Lake
Rankala Lake at morning

The Kalamba lake was built in 1873. These two lakes provide the city with domestic potable water.

Rankala lake panorama
Rankala lake panorama

Governance

Kolhapur is governed by the Kolhapur Municipal Corporation (KMC). The city is divided into five wards, named with the letters A to E. The corporation provides services such as sewrage treatment and free cremation for residents and has made a number of improvements, for example, the Kolhapur Road Project;[12] the Anti-Encroachment Drive to stop unwanted building activity encroaching on the city's open space; and the Suvarna Jayanti Nagarotthan Project for improvement of roads and storm water management.[13] However KMC faces problems like expansion of civic limits of Kolhapur city which are not increased from 1972, due to the same this city fails to avail the benefits of various government schemes.

On 16 August 2017, Kolhapur Municipal and Regional Development Authority has been established. This authority is operating in Kolhapur city and 42 villages around Kolhapur city. This authority formed for the balanced development of Kolhapur city and the surrounding 42 villages.[14]

Demographics

As per the reports of 2011 Census of India, population of Kolhapur city is 5,49,236 and population of 'Kolhapur Municipal and Regional Development Authority' is 9,20,000.[14] Hinduism is majority religion in Kolhapur city with 83.89% followers. Islam is second most popular religion in city of Kolhapur with approximately 10.88% following it. In Kolhapur city, Christianity is followed by 0.96%, Jainism by 3.35%, Sikhism by 0.11% and Buddhism by 0.11%. Around 0.04% stated 'Other Religion', approximately 0.23% stated 'No Particular Religion'.[15]

Economy

Manufacturing Industry

The city particularly known for the Kolhapuri chappal, a hand-crafted buffalo leather slipper that is locally tanned using vegetable dyes. Kolhapuri slippers are sold on Mahadwar road.[16][17][18] Other handicrafts include: hand block printing of textiles; silver, bead and paste jewellery crafting; pottery; wood carving and lacquerware; brass sheet work and oxidised silver artwork;and lace and embroidery making.[19]

Kolhapur is also an industrial city with approximately 300 foundries producing exports with a value of 15 billion rupees per year.[20] A manufacturing plant of Kirloskar Oil Engines [KOEL] is set up in 5 star MIDC at Kagal near Kolhapur, besides this Raymond clothes plant is also located in the same industrial area. Kolhapur has two more industrial areas wiz. Gokul-Shirgaon MIDC, Shiroli MIDC & Udyamnagar is an industrial area in the city.

Tourism

Tourism is another source of revenue with about three million visitors to the city per year.[21] Kolhapur's attractions include:New Palace, world's first statue of Babasaheb Ambedkar at Bindu chowk, inaugurated on 7 December 1950, Rankala lake,the Tara Rani equestrian statue which stands on two of the horse's legs an 85 feet (26 m) idol of the Lord Ganesh at the Chinmaya mission (Top-Sambhapur). At the annual Dusshera procession, the Kolhapur Maybach car of the chhatrapatis of Kolhapur is displayed to the public.'The rankala lake is best place to visit in kolhapur.'

Film industry

On December 1, 1917, the Maharashtra Film Company was established in Kolhapur by Baburao Painter. The city has become the primary centre for the Marathi film industry. Kolhapur plays host to many film festivals, including the Kolhapur International Film Festival. Kolhapur has film city which is spread over 75-acre in Morewadi and was set up in 1984 by the state government. The objective of setting up film city was to provide infrastructural set-up to the Marathi film industry and provide all facilities, from shooting to post production, under one roof. The work of renovation and new locations of Kolhapur film city is going on. [22]

Malls

DYP City Mall, Kolhapur
DYP City Mall, Kolhapur
Reliance Mega Mall Kolhapur
Reliance Mega mall at Kolhapur

Cuisine

Kolhapuri misal paav
Kolhapuri Misal

Kolhapur cuisine is noted for special mutton dishes as well as Kolhapuri Misal And Kolhapuri Bhel.[23] The city lends its name to food products such as Kolhapuri Lavangi (chili peppers or Mirchi), Kolhapuri jaggery (cane juice concentrate), and Kolhapuri masala (spice mixture). Pandhara rassa, meaning white curry, is a soup like dish made from mutton stock, spices such as cinnamon, coriander, ginger and garlic, and coconut milk. It is used as a starter and also has medicinal uses for cough and throat ailments.[24] Kolhapur has two outlets of McDonald's, as well as a Domino's Pizza, Pizza Hut, Subway. Numerous cafes are also spread throughout the city.

Rajabhaubhel
Dummy 19 W

Media and telecommunication

Kolhapur's main newspaper is the Pudhari.[25] Other Marathi language newspapers include Sakaal, Maharashtra Times (Kolhapur edition), Loksatta, Lokmat, Kesari, Saamna , Tarun Bharat, and Punyanagari.

The English language dailies include The Times of India (Kolhapur edition), The Indian Express, Business Standard and The Economic Times.

The Hindi language daily is the Lokmat Times.

Kolhapur's FM radio services include Tomato FM (94.3 MHz), Radio Mirchi (98.3 MHz), Radio City (95 MHz), Big FM(92.7 MHz) and All India Radio FM (102.7 MHz).

Kolhapur has three multiplexes - PVR Cinemas in DYP city mall, Parvati Multiplex and INOX at Reliance Mega Mall.

The city has also held live concerts of KK, Arijit Singh, Avdhoot Gupte, and Kapil Sharma.

Sports

A number of sports are played in Kolhapur. Wrestling and football are the most played sports in the city.[26] Current Status of Wrestling

In January 2013, the Indian women's football team hosted a training camp and played a demonstration game against representatives from the Netherlands in Kolhapur.[27] There is also a tradition of wrestling in Kolhapur.[26]

Rajarshi Shahu Stadium is a football stadium in Kolhapur. Khasbag Wrestling Stadium is a national wrestling stadium in Kolhapur.

Kolhapur has given many elite sports personalities to the nation like Khashaba Dadasaheb Jadhav, who won a bronze medal at the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki. He was one of the first athletes from India to win a medal in the Olympics. B.B. Nimbalkar (former Ranji cricketer), Suhas Khamkar (Mr. Asia, Winner), Virdhawal Khade (Indian Olympian in swimming), Jaysingrao Kusale (Indian shooter), Tejaswini Sawant (Indian shooter), Dadu Chowgule (Rustum-e-hind), Rucha Pujari (chess - Woman International Master) and many more. Aniket Jadhav who played the FIFA under 17 was from Kolhapur.

Volleyball is also played widely in places like Panhala, Kagal, Murgud, and Kurundwad.

Transport

Railway

Kolhapur railway station
Kolhapur railway station

The Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj Terminus links Kolhapur via rail to India's major cities with express services to Pune, Mumbai, Bengaluru and New Delhi. A daily shuttle service connects Kolhapur with the main rail hub of Miraj on the Central Railway main line. A new railway route between Miraj and Vaibhavwadi has been confirmed, which will connect kolhapur and many other cities to the west coast of India.[28]

Road

Kolhapur is located on National Highway 4 and National Highway 204. The city has three state transport bus stands: Central Bus Stand (CBS), Rankala Bus Stand and Sambhajinagar Bus Stand. Kolhapur Municipal Transport (KMT) provides local bus services. Central government granted 78 buses for KMT under Jnnurm. The CBS of Kolhapur is the busiest bus stand in western Maharashtra with more than 50,000 commutators a day.

National Highway-4 kolhapur
National Highway 4 near the city

Airport

Kolhapur's domestic airport, also known as Chhatrapati Rajaram Maharaj Airport, is located 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) south east of the city at Ujalaiwadi.

There is daily flight service between kolhapur to bengaluru and kolhapur to Hyderabad.

The nearest international airports to Kolhapur are Pune International Airport and Goa International Airport.

Education

Kolhapur has educational institutions for engineering, medicine, and agriculture. Shivaji University is located in Kolhapur city. There are international schools and a pre-IAS training centre. The pre-IAS training centre is in Rajaram college campus. The admissions to pre-IAS centre are allotted purely on merit in entrance exam. The city attracts students form all over India and Africa.

Agriculture colleges

  • Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth - Govt. College of Agriculture
  • Dr. D Y Patil College of Agriculture

Engineering and technology colleges

  • CSIBER (Chattrapati Shahu Institute for Business Education and Research)
  • Department of Technology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur
  • Sanjay Ghodawat Institutes, Kolhapur
  • Government Polytechnic, Kolhapur
  • Institute of Civil and Rural Engineering, Gargoti[29]
  • KIT College of Engineering
  • Bharati Vidyapeeth's College of Engineering, Kolhapur
  • Vivekanand College - Dr. Bapuji Salunkhe's Institute
  • Genesis Institute of Technology
  • Sanjeevan Knowledge City's College of Engineering & Technology
  • D. K. T. E. Society's Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji
  • Ashokrao Mane Group of Institution's College of Engineering & Technology
  • T. K. I. E. T. College (Warana group)
  • Bhima Institute (Dhananjay Mahadik group)
  • Dr. J. J. Magdum College, Jaysingpur
  • Sharad Institute of Technology
  • Shahaji Raje College
  • New Polytechnic, Unchgaon
  • D. Y. Patil college of Engineering and Technology, Kolhapur
  • Sant Gajanana Maharaj Rural Polytechnic Mahagaon

Medical colleges

  • Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj Government Medical College
  • D. Y. Patil Medical College
  • Tatyasaheb Kore Dental College and Research Centre
  • Mary Wanless Hospital and Homeopathy Medical College, Kolhapur
  • Venutai Yashwantrao Chavan Homoeopathic Medical College, Kolhapur
  • Kedari Redekar Homeopathic College, Gadhinglaj
  • Yashwant Ayurvedic Medical College, Kodoli

Nursing colleges

  • Padmashree D. Y. Patil College of Nursing, Kolhapur
  • Yashwant College Of Nursing, Kodoli
  • Savitribai Phule College Of Nursing, Kolhapur
  • Dr J J Magdum Institute Of Nursing Education, Jaysingpur

Pharmacy colleges

  • Rajarshri Shahu Chhatrapati Institute of Pharmacy[30]
  • Bharati Vidyapeeth College of Pharmacy
  • Dr. J. J. Magdum College of Pharmacy
  • Tatyasaheb Kore College of Pharmacy
  • K. D. C. C. Institute of Pharmacy
  • College of Pharmacy, Peth Vadgaon
  • Sant Gajanan Maharaj College of Pharmacy
  • Vasantidevi Patil Institute of Pharmacy, Kodoli

Law colleges

  • Shahaji Law College
  • Bharati Vidyapeeth New Law College

Polytechnic colleges

  • TKIET Polytechnic, Warananagar
  • DKTE'S Yashwantrao Chavan Polytechnic, ICHALKARANJI
  • Government Polytechnic, Kolhapur
  • Sanjay Ghodawat Polytechnic, Kolhapur
  • Ashokrao Mane Polytechnic, Wathar Tarf Vadgaon
  • Ashokrao Mane Polytechnic, Save
  • Sharad Institute of Iechnology Polytechnic, YADRAV
  • D.Y Patil Polytechnic
  • Government Polytechnic, Kolhapur
  • New Polytechnic
  • Institute of Civil and Rural Engineering, Gargoti
  • sant gajanan maharaj rural polytechnic, Mahagoan
  • Shree Datta Polytechnic College, Shirol
  • DR.BAPUJI SALUNKHE INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
  • VIVEKANAND COLLEGE KOLHAPUR

Other colleges

  • The New College, Kolhapur
  • Rajaram College Kolhapur
  • Gopal Krishana Gokhale College
  • Kamla College (girls' college), Kolhapur
  • Mahaveer College, Kolhapur
  • DRK (commerce college) college, Kolhapur
  • Shahu College, Kadamvadi, Kolhapur
  • KMC College, Gangavesh, Kolhapur

Languages

Kolhapur has distinct way with using Marathi language which can be cited to the princely rule over the population which has brought certain masculinity to the language. e.g. One will find that women too use male gender while using language. Names are shortened in a unique way to make the utterance faster. e.g. शंकर becomes शंक्रोबा. Language here have some Kannada influence too. Some phrases are very popular with youth too e.g. ‘काय भावा’, ‘नाद नाही करायचा,’ ‘काटा कीर्रर्र’, ‘खटक्यावर बोट, जाग्यावर पल्टी' The Hindi and English are also spoken.[31]

See also

Further reading

"The Imperial Gazetteer of India." Oxford at Clarendon Press, 1909 Volume 15. p380 - 387. Accessed at Digital South Asia Library at University of Chicago, Illinois, 7 April 2014.

External links

References

  1. ^ "Shobha Bondre's election as the mayor of Kolhapur". marathibhaskar (in Marathi). 2018-05-25. Retrieved 2018-05-30.
  2. ^ a b "कोल्हापूरसाठी प्राधिकरण -Maharashtra Times". 17 August 2017.
  3. ^ http://www.demographia.com/db-worldua.pdf
  4. ^ "Census of India : Provisional Population Totals Paper 2 of 2011 : India (Vol II)".
  5. ^ Chatterji H. P. "Devi Gita, the vow and the sacred places of the Devi." Archived 12 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine. The Devi Gita (Song of the Goddess), excerpt from Srimad Devi Bhagawatam, translated by Vijnanananda (Hari Prasanna Chatterji), 1921, chapter 38 verse 3 - 10. "O King of Mountains! Still I am now telling something out of My affection to My Bhaktas. Hear. There is a great place of pilgrimage named Kolhapura in the southern country. Here the Devi Ambabai always dwells. The second place is Mahur, Maharashtra|Matripura in the Sahyadri mountain; here the Devi Renuka dwells."
  6. ^ Bhavan B. V. "Temples and legends of Maharashtra." 1962 volume 97.
  7. ^ Sastri K. A. N. "The CōĻas." 1935 p256 - 257 (University of Madras, 2000).
  8. ^ Hertslet's Commercial Treaties. Great Britain: Foreign Office, Great Britain. 1900. p. 1167. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  9. ^ "Explore These Top 9 Places in Kolhapur". CashKaro.
  10. ^ "Mythology". Ambabai Mahalaxmi Kolhapur. Retrieved 2018-02-19.
  11. ^ "Kolhapur" Google Maps.
  12. ^ "Kolhapur Road Project." Government of India website. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  13. ^ "Kolhapur Nagarothan Abhiya." Kolhapur Municipal Corporation website. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  14. ^ a b "कोल्हापूरसाठी प्राधिकरण". Maharashtra Times. 17 August 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  15. ^ "Kolapur City Population Census 2011 - Maharashtra". www.census2011.co.in. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  16. ^ "Kolhapuri chappal to set foot in new markets". Indian Express. 13 June 2000. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  17. ^ "Kolhapuri chappals come easy on the pocket now." IBN Live website 17 July 2007. Accessed 21 October 2013.
  18. ^ "Government unveils new trade policy". Indian Express. 5 June 2012. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  19. ^ "Maharashtra development report." Government of India Planning Commission report. Academic Foundation, 2007 ISBN 8171885403, 9788171885404 Accessed 8 April 2014.
  20. ^ "MIDC to acquire 1,000 acres for Kagal park." Business Standard, 20 December 2006.
  21. ^ "Kolhapur Municipal Corporation draft." Urban India government website, PDF document p10.
  22. ^ Piyush Bhusari (7 February 2017). "Phase 1 work of Kolhapur Chitranagari to be completed by April end". Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  23. ^ Bhandare S.G. (2014) Ethnic Meat Products: India and Pakistan. In: Carrick Devine & Michael Dikeman, editors-in-chief. Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences 2e, Vol. 1, Oxford: Elsevier; pp. 538-542. ISBN 1741791553, 9781741791556 p183. Accessed at Google Books 7 April 2014.
  24. ^ Devine C. and Dikeman M. "Encyclopaedia of meat sciences." Elsevier, 2014. second edition in three volumes. p540. ISBN 0123847346, 9780123847348.
  25. ^ "Pudhari." E papers land.com. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  26. ^ a b "Hanuman's Army: Kushti Wrestlers." Reportage at Getty Images website. 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  27. ^ "Indian women to play exhibition games against Netherlands". Press Trust of India. 16 January 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  28. ^ "Centre sanctions Rs 250 crore for Kolhapur-Vaibhavwadi rail route". Times of India. TNN. 12 February 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  29. ^ "Institute of Civil and Rural Engineering, Gargoti".
  30. ^ "Rajarshri Shahu Chhatrapati Institute of Pharmacy". www.rscpharmacy.org.
  31. ^ "बेधडक वळणाची कोल्हापुरी बोली". Maharashtra Times. 1 April 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.

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