Commune and town
Location in Niger
|Time zone||UTC+1 (WAT)|
|Official name||Complexe Kokorou-Namga|
|Designated||17 June 2001|
The nobles of Kokoro village are Songhay people, who trace their ancestry in the male line to Askia Mohammed Toure. They came to Kokoro in the early part of the 18th century. When French colonists reached Kokoro in 1899, the local people cooperated with them, paying taxes and providing laborers. This cooperation brought prosperity, and the Kokoro people helped the French to establish the market at Mehanna on the Niger river. However, on the death of the old Kokoru chief in 1964, the French appointed a non-noble merchant in his place, instead of appointing his natural successor. The local people still resent this decision.
The large, shallow and brackish Kokoro wetland lies in an ancient valley surrounded by sand-dunes, granite outcrops and flat-topped hills. At one time, the valley may have drained into the Niger River to the northeast, but it now has no outlet. The wetland contains water from 7–12 months of each year, and at times is 13 km long and 2,100 ha in area. Rainfall varies greatly from year to year. At the western end there is a tree-covered flood-plain. The wetland is an important ecological zone on the African-Eurasian flyway, and has been designated a Ramsar site. Although government-owned, it may be used by the local population under supervision. The wetland is used heavily for cattle grazing in the dry season, which may be damaging the plant life. It was stocked with fish in 1986, but the only surviving species is the lungfish Protopterus annectens, which caught with nets and lines by the local people. Sand dunes threaten the northern border of the wetland, and have been the target of a dune-fixation program.
This is the List of Wetlands of International Importance as defined by the Ramsar Convention for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands, recognizing the fundamental ecological functions of wetlands and their economic, cultural, scientific, and recreational value. As of 2019 there are 2,341 Ramsar Sites, covering 252,479,417 hectares.
The Convention establishes that "wetlands should be selected for the list on account of their international significance in terms of ecology, botany, zoology, limnology or hydrology." Over the years, the Conference of the Contracting Parties has adopted more specific criteria interpreting the Convention text.
The complete list of Wetlands of International Importance is accessible from the Ramsar website.List of national parks of Niger
Niger is home to a number of national parks and protected areas, including two UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserves. The protected areas of Niger normally have a designation and status determined by the Government of Niger. Further, fourteen sites also have international designations, applied by UNESCO and the Ramsar Convention on wetlands protection. Protected lands in Niger are managed by a number of authorities, and the areas of authority and structure have changed a number of times since independence. Some of the first reserves, parks, and protected areas were designated under French Colonial rule and much of the legal regime is based on these colonial laws. Niger is also party to a number of international agreements and participates in international ecological, conservation, and resource management programs with its neighbors, region, and worldwide.Transboundary protected area
A transboundary protected area (TBPA) is an ecological protected area that spans boundaries of more than one country or sub-national entity. Such areas are also known as transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs) or peace parks.TBPAs exist in many forms around the world, and are established for various reasons. The preservation of traditional animal migration patterns, ensuring sufficient food and water sources for population growth, is a critical reason for the creation of TBPAs. However, TBPAs also encourage tourism, economic development and goodwill between neighbouring countries, as well as making it easier for indigenous inhabitants of the area to travel.Wildlife of Niger
The wildlife of Niger is composed of its flora and fauna. The wildlife protected areas in the country total about 8.5 million hectares (21 million acres), which is 6.6% of the land area of the country, a figure which is expected to eventually reach the 11% percent target fixed by the IUCN with addition of more areas under the reserve category. The dama gazelle (Gazella dama or Nanger dama) has become a national symbol. Under the Hausa name meyna or ménas the dama appears on the badge of the Niger national football team, who are popularly called the Ménas.There are 136 mammal species in Niger, of which 2 are critically endangered, 2 are endangered, 9 are vulnerable, and 1 is near-threatened. One of the species listed for Niger can no longer be found in the wild. Bird Life International has reported 528 species of birds of which three are globally threatened and one is an introduced species; many species may be yet to be discovered in the rich avifauna seen here in spite of thin vegetation.Conservation of wildlife is ensured by laws and regulations enacted by the Government of Niger, which has enforced a permanent ban on hunting so that animals such as lions, hippos and giraffes are safe in the wild. The arrival of Abdim's storks (Ciconia abdimiiis) heralds the impending monsoon season giving a signal to farmers to till the land for agricultural operations.The Iullemeden, an aquifer rich in ground water resources, underlies Niger and its neighbors Mali and Nigeria and is being closely monitored; these countries are jointly attempting to stop its overexploitation, which is causing not only lowering of ground water levels but also the reduction of storage in the Lake Chad and perennial flows of the Niger River on which wildlife of the country is largely dependent.