Koinon (Greek: Κοινόν, pl. Κοινά, Koina), meaning "common," in the sense of "public," had many interpretations, some societal, some governmental. The word was the neuter form of the adjective, roughly equivalent in the governmental sense to Latin res publica, "the public thing." Among the most frequent uses is "commonwealth," the government of a single state, such as the Athenian.
Frequent in the historical writings is a sense of "league" or "federation" an association of distinct city-states in a sympoliteia. As government of a league, koinon comprised such functions as defense, diplomacy, economics, and religious practices among its member states. The word was carried over to other political associations in mediaeval and modern Greek history.
In Epirus itself there had in ancient times existed the Koinon of the Molossians. There was a Lacedaemonian League, centred on Sparta and its old dominions for a period under Roman rule, a Koinon of the Macedonians, also under Roman rule. In modern Greek history, during the Greek War of Independence, a local self-government termed Koinon was set up in the islands of Hydra, Spetsai and Psara.
Some federations termed Koinon were:
The Acarnanian League (Ancient Greek: τὸ κοινὸν τῶν Ἁκαρνάνων, to koinon tōn Akarnanōn) was the tribal confederation, and later a fully-fledged federation (koinon), of the Acarnanians in Classical, Hellenistic, and early Roman-era Greece.Achaean League
The Achaean League (Greek: Κοινὸν τῶν Ἀχαιῶν, Koinon ton Akhaion 'League of Achaeans') was a Hellenistic-era confederation of Greek city states on the northern and central Peloponnese. The league was named after the region of Achaea in the northwestern Peloponnese, which formed its original core. The first league was formed in the fifth century BC. The second Achaean League was established in 280 BC. As a rival of Antigonid Macedon and an ally of Rome, the league played a major role in the expansion of the Roman Republic into Greece. This process eventually led to the League's conquest and dissolution by the Romans in 146 BC.
The League represents the most successful attempt by the Greek city states to develop a form of federalism, which balanced the need for collective action with the desire for local autonomy. Through the writings of the Achaean statesman Polybius, this structure has had an influence on the constitution of the United States and other modern federal states.Aetolian League
For the English football league, see Aetolian League (football).The Aetolian League (also transliterated as Aitolian League) was a confederation of tribal communities and cities in ancient Greece centered in Aetolia in central Greece. It was established, probably during the early Hellenistic era, in opposition to Macedon and the Achaean League. Two annual meetings were held at the Thermika and Panaetolika. It occupied Delphi from 290 BC and gained territory steadily until, by the end of the 3rd century BC, it controlled the whole of central Greece outside Attica and Boeotia. At its peak, the league's territory included Locris, Malis, Dolopes, part of Thessaly, Phocis, and Acarnania. In the latter part of its power, certain Greek city-states joined the Aetolian League such as the Arcadian cities of Mantineia, Tegea, Phigalia and Kydonia on Crete.During the classical period the Aetolians were not highly regarded by other Greeks, who considered them to be semi-barbaric and reckless. Their League had a complex political and administrative structure, and their armies were easily a match for the other Greek powers. However, during the Hellenistic period, they emerged as a dominant state in central Greece and expanded by the voluntarily annexation of several Greek city-states to the League. Still, the Aetolian League had to fight against Macedonia and were driven to an alliance with Rome, which resulted in the final conquest of Greece by the Romans.Ancient history of Cyprus
The ancient history of Cyprus shows a precocious sophistication in the neolithlic era visible in settlements such as at Choirokoitia dating from the 9th millennium BC, and at Kavalassos from about 7500 BC.
Periods of Cyprus's ancient history from 1050 BC have been named according to styles of pottery as follows:
Cypro-Geometric I: 1050-950 BC
Cypro-Geometric II: 950-850 BC
Cypro-Geometric III: 850-700 BC
Cypro-Archaic I: 700-600 BC
Cypro-Archaic II: 600-475 BC
Cypro-Classical I: 475-400 BC
Cypro-Classical II: 400-323 BCThe documented history of Cyprus begins in the 8th century BC. The town of Kition, now Larnaka, recorded part of the ancient history of Cyprus on a stele that commemorated a victory by Sargon II (722–705 BC) of Assyria there in 709 BC. Assyrian domination of Cyprus (known as Iatnanna by the Assyrians) appears to have begun earlier than this, during the reign of Tiglath-Pileser III (744–727 BC), and ended with the fall of the Neo Assyrian Empire in 609 BC, whereupon the city-kingdoms of Cyprus gained independence once more. Following a brief period of Egyptian domination in the sixth century BC, Cyprus fell under Persian rule. The Persians did not interfere in the internal affairs of Cyprus, leaving the city-kingdoms to continue striking their own coins and waging war amongst one another, until the late-fourth century BC saw the overthrow of the Persian Empire by Alexander the Great.
Alexander's conquests only served to accelerate an already clear drift towards Hellenisation in Cyprus. His premature death in 323 BC led to a period of turmoil as Ptolemy I Soter and Demetrius I of Macedon fought together for supremacy in that region, but by 294 BC, the Ptolemaic kingdom had regained control and Cyprus remained under Ptolemaic rule until 58 BC, when it became a Roman province. During this period, Phoenician and native Cypriot traits disappeared, together with the old Cypriot syllabic script, and Cyprus became thoroughly Hellenised. Cyprus figures prominently in the early history of Christianity, being the first province of Rome to be ruled by a Christian governor, in the first century, and providing a backdrop for stories in the New TestamentApo koinou construction
In linguistics, an apo koinou construction is a blend of two clauses through a lexical word which has two syntactical functions, one in each of the blended clauses. The clauses are connected asyndetically.
Usually the word common to both sentences is a predicative or an object in the first sentence and a subject in the second one. Such constructions are not grammatical in standard modern English, but may serve stylistic functions, such as conveying through written dialogue that a character is uneducated. In many cases, the second clause of such a construction may be seen as a relative clause whose relative pronoun has been dropped, which in English is not generally grammatical when the relative pronoun is the subject of its clause.
The term 'apo koinou' is from two Greek words: the preposition apo 'from'; and koinou, the genitive singular of the neuter adjective koinon 'common'.Balaites
The Balaites (Ancient Greek: Βαλαιτάι) were an ancient Illyrian tribe known from inscriptions, otherwise unmentioned by the ancient written sources. The most important archaeological finding related to them is a public memorial carved of chalkstone (so-called chalkoma) that conveys the thankful message to a certain poliperarchon Aristen of Parmenon on behalf of the koinon of the Balaites. The text provides a list of the Hellenistic political institutions of the Balaites, the ecclesia and the presbyters, whereas the prytaneis and the tamia (tax collector) are even mentioned by name. The social organization of the Balaites suggests a developed Hellenistic community which, according to the scholars, might have been located within the radius of cultural influence of Apollonia, the Greek polis on the Illyrian coast, most likely close to the Amantians' or the Bylliones' territory. Neritan Ceka raised the likelihood that the ancient fortifications near the modern-day Gurëzeza or Klos might have been belonging to the Balaites.Byllis
Byllis (Ancient Greek: Βύλλις) or Bullis or Boullis (Βουλλίς) was an ancient city located in the region of Illyria. The remains of Byllis are situated north-east of Vlorë, 25 kilometers from the sea in Hekal, Fier County, Albania.
Stephanus of Byzantium mentions Byllis as a seaside city (erroneously) in Illyria and its foundation legend, according to which the city was built by Myrmidons under Neoptolemus, returning from the Trojan War, a tradition confirmed by numismatics.The city, although a Greek speaking settlement was located on the territory of the Illyrian tribe of Bylliones. The later were first attested in the mid-4th century BC, in the description of the geographer Pseudo-Scylax, and also asking the oracle of Dodona to which god they should sacrifice in order to ensure the safety of their possessions. The archaeological attestation of the city is possible as far back as the second half of the 4th century BC and was later conquered by Pyrrhus. According to another view, Byllis was founded by king Pyrrhus of Epirus.
Byllis received sacred Greek envoys, known as theoroi during the early 2nd century BC, indicator of the city's Greek character.Chalcidian League
The Chalcidian League (Greek: Κοινόν τῶν Χαλκιδέων, Koinon tōn Chalkideōn, "League of the Chalcidians"), also referred to as the Olynthians or the Chalcidians in Thrace (Χαλκιδεῖς ἐπί Θρᾴκης, Chalkideis epi Thrakēs) to distinguish them from the Chalcidians in Euboea, was a federal state that existed on the Chalcidice peninsula, on the shores of the northwest Aegean Sea, from around 430 BCE until it was destroyed by Philip II of Macedon in 348 BCE.Epirote League
The Epirote League (Northwest Greek: Κοινὸν Ἀπειρωτᾶν, Koinòn Āpeirōtân; Attic: Κοινὸν Ἠπειρωτῶν, Koinòn Ēpeirōtôn) was an ancient Greek coalition, or koinon, of Epirote tribes.Euboean League
The Euboean League (Ancient Greek: τὸ κοινὸν τῶν Εὐβοιέων, to koinon tōn Euboieōn) was a federal league (koinon) of the cities of Euboea in ancient Greece, extant from the 3rd century BC to the 2nd or 3rd century AD.
The League is first attested during the reign of Demetrios Poliorketes (r. 294–288 BC), but is not mentioned again until from 194 BC on. Based on its coinage, it survived until well into the Roman Empire, possibly as late as the provincial reorganization under Diocletian (r. 284–305). It was a full federation (sympoliteia) of city-states, with its own boule and ecclesia, federal laws, common coinage (although the member cities continued to mint their own coins), and the right to grant proxenia. The League was headed by an official called hegemon, whose name featured on federal coinage.Eurymenae (Epirus)
Eurymenae or Eurymenai (Ancient Greek: Έυρυμεναί) was a Greek city of Molossis in ancient Epirus of the tribe of the Arktanoi. It belonged to the Molossian koinon.
Its site is tentatively located near the modern Kastritsa.Ionian League
The Ionian League (ancient Greek: Ἴωνες, Íōnes; κοινὸν Ἰώνων, koinón Iōnōn; or κοινὴ σύνοδος Ἰώνων, koinē sýnodos Iōnōn; Latin: commune consilium), also called the Panionic League, was a confederation formed at the end of the Meliac War in the mid-7th century BC comprising twelve Ionian cities (a dodecapolis, of which there were many others).
These were listed by Herodotus as
Miletus, Myus, and Priene, all in Caria (a region in Asia Minor) and speaking the same dialect;
Ephesus, Colophon, Lebedus, Teos, Clazomenae and Phocaea, in Lydia and-or the region known today as Ionia (both also in Asia Minor, Lydia extending inland much farther relative to Ionia), speaking another dialect;
Chios (island) and Erythrae (Asia Minor), with a common dialect; and
Samos (island), with its own dialect.After 650 BC Smyrna, an originally Aeolic city, was invited to diminish Aeolis and increase Ionia by joining the league, which it did.
One of our earliest historical sources, the Histories of Herodotus, and early inscriptions refer to the legally constituted body customarily translated by "league" as "the Ionians" in the special sense of the cities incorporated by it. One therefore reads of the cities, council or decisions "of the Ionians." Writers and documents of the Hellenistic Period explicitly use the term koinon ("common thing") or synodos ("synod") of the Ionians, and by anachronism apply it to the early league when they mention it.
The league was dissolved a few times and reconstituted a few times and in between its actual power varied. Under the Roman empire it was allowed to issue its own coinage under the name koinon Iōnōn on one side with the face of the emperor on the other.Koinon of Macedonians
The Koinon of the Macedonians (Greek: Κοινόν Μακεδόνων) was a commonwealth institution or a confederation of all Macedonian communities united around the king, resembling earliest Greek koina. Epigraphic evidence ranges from the 3rd century BC to the Roman period.Koinon of the Zagorisians
The Koinon of the Zagorisians (Greek: Κοινόν τῶν Ζαγορισίων), alternatively Commons of the Zagorisians, League of the Zagorisians, League of Zagori, or Nohaye Zagor in Turkish, was an autonomous region of the Ottoman Empire.
Koinon means "Common", it could be attributed with commonwealth, commune or collective but these terms have associated connotations because of already established usage. The Koinon was a form of government that had existed in various periods in Greek history. In Epirus itself there had in ancient times existed the Koinon of the Molossians. There was a Koinon of Laconians, centred on Sparta and its old dominions for a period under Roman rule, a Koinon of the Macedonians, also under Roman rule. In modern Greek history, during the Greek War of Independence, a local self-government termed Koinon was set up in the islands of Hydra, Spetsai and Psara.League of Free Laconians
The League of Free Laconians (Greek: Κοινόν τῶν Ἐλευθερολακώνων, romanized: Koinon tōn Eleutherolakōnōn) was established in southern Greece in 21 BC by the Emperor Augustus, giving formal structure to a group of cities that had been associated for almost two centuries.Lynkestis
Lynkestis (also spelled Lyncestis or Lyngistis, Greek: Λυγκηστίς meaning "land of the lynx") or Lyncus (Λύγκος) was a region, and in earlier times a Greek kingdom of Upper Macedonia, located on the southern borders of Illyria and Paeonia. The inhabitants of Lynkestis were known as Lyncestae or Lynkestai (Λυγκῆσται), a northwestern Greek tribe that belonged to the Molossian tribal state, or koinon, of Epirus. The main city was Heraclea Lyncestis.
Lynkestis roughly corresponds to the present-day municipalities of Bitola and Resen in North Macedonia, Florina in Greece, and Pustec in Albania.Orestis (region)
Orestis (Greek: Ὀρεστίς) was a region of Upper Macedonia, corresponding roughly to the modern Kastoria regional unit located in West Macedonia, Greece. Its inhabitants were the Orestae, an ancient Greek tribe that was part of the Molossian tribal state, or koinon.Roman Cyprus
Roman Cyprus was a minor senatorial province within the Roman Empire. While it was a small province, it possessed several well known religious sanctuaries and figured prominently in Eastern Mediterranean trade, particularly the production and trade of Cypriot copper. As it was situated at a strategically important position along Eastern Mediterranean trade routes, Cyprus was controlled by imperial powers throughout the first millennium B.C. including: the Assyrians, Egyptians, Macedonians, and in particular the Romans. Cyprus was annexed by the Romans in 58 B.C., but until 22 B.C. when Cyprus became an official senatorial province, control over the island fluctuated between the Romans and the Ptolemaic Empire. From the Battle of Actium in 31 BC until the 7th century Cyprus was controlled by the Romans. Cyprus officially became part of the Eastern Roman Empire in 293 AD.
Under Roman rule, Cyprus was divided into four main districts, Salamis, Pafos, Amathous, and Lapethos. Pafos was the capital of the island throughout the Roman period until Salamis was re-founded as Constantia in 346 AD. The geographer Ptolemy recorded the following Roman cities: Pafos, Salamis, Amathous, Lapethos, Kition, Kourion, Arsinoe, Kyrenia, Chytri, Karpasia, Soli, and Tamassos, as well as some smaller cities scattered throughout the island.
Detailed below is a chronological outline of Roman Cyprus, its political history, economy and trade, religion, social history, art and culture and the natural disasters that plagued Cyprus. Information about Cyprus during Roman rule is based primarily on archaeological findings and epigraphy. There is sparse literary evidence and very infrequent texts on which to base our knowledge. In this article the spelling convention of the Department of Antiquities Cyprus is followed.Tymphaea
Tymphaea or Tymphaia (Greek: Τυμφαία) was a region in Ancient Greece, specifically Epirus, inhabited by the Tymphaioi, a northwestern Greek tribe that belonged to the Molossian tribal state, or koinon. The region was annexed by and became a province of the Kingdom of Macedon, specifically Upper Macedonia, in the 4th century BC.