Kodagu district

Kodagu is an administrative district in Karnataka, India. Before 1956, it was an administratively separate Coorg State,[3] at which point it was merged into an enlarged Mysore State. It occupies an area of 4,102 square kilometres (1,584 sq mi) in the Western Ghats of southwestern Karnataka. In 2001 its population was 548,561, 13.74% of which resided in the district's urban centres, making it the least populous of the 30 districts in Karnataka.[4]

The district is bordered by Dakshina Kannada district to the northwest, Kasargod district of Kerala to the west, Hassan district to the north, Mysore district to the east, Kannur district of Kerala to the southwest, and the Wayanad district of Kerala to the south. Agriculture is the most important factor that upholds the economy of Kodagu and the main crops cultivated in this region are rice and coffee. Coorg is rich in natural resources which included timber and spices. Madikeri (English: Mercara) is the headquarters of Kodagu.

Kodagu is known for its coffee and its people. The people include indigenous (Kodavas) and other ethnic groups (Arebashe Gowdas and Kodava subgroups). The chief languages presently spoken in Kodagu are Kodava, Are Bhashe, Tulu, BYARI and Malayalam. Kodagu is home to the native speakers of the Kodava language.[5]

Kodagu district
District
Talakaveri aerial view
Talakaveri aerial view
Nickname(s): 
Kashmir of Karnataka
Location in Karnataka
Location in Karnataka
Coordinates: 12°25′15″N 75°44′23″E / 12.4208°N 75.7397°ECoordinates: 12°25′15″N 75°44′23″E / 12.4208°N 75.7397°E
Country India
StateKarnataka
RegionMalnad
HeadquartersMadikeri
TalukasMadikeri, Somwarpet, Virajpet
Government
 • Deputy CommissionerSreevidya P.I
Area
 • Total4,102 km2 (1,584 sq mi)
Elevation
900 m (3,000 ft)
Population
(2011)[2]
 • Total554,519
 • Density140/km2 (350/sq mi)
Demonym(s)kodagi
Languages
 • OfficialKannada
 • RegionalKodava, Arebhashe
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
571201 (Madikeri)
Telephone code+ 91 (0) 8272
Vehicle registrationKA-12
Literacy82.52%
Lok Sabha constituencyMysore Lok Sabha constituency
ClimateTropical Wet (Köppen)
Precipitation2,725.5 millimetres (107.30 in)
Avg. summer temperature28.6 °C (83.5 °F)
Avg. winter temperature14.2 °C (57.6 °F)
Websitekodagu.nic.in

Geography

Kodagu is located on the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats. It has a geographical area of 4,102 km2 (1,584 sq mi).[6] The district is bordered by Dakshina Kannada district to the northwest, Hassan district to the north, Mysore district to the east, Kasaragod district in west and Kannur district of Kerala to the southwest, and Wayanad district of Kerala to the south. It is a hilly district, the lowest elevation of which is 120 metres (390 ft) above sea-level. The highest peak, Tadiandamol, rises to 1,750 metres (5,740 ft), with Pushpagiri, the second highest, at 1,715 metres (5,627 ft). The main river in Kodagu is the Kaveri (Cauvery), which originates at Talakaveri, located on the eastern side of the Western Ghats, and with its tributaries, drains the greater part of Kodagu.

In July and August, rainfall is intense, and there are often showers into November. Yearly rainfall may exceed 4,000 millimetres (160 in) in some areas. In dense jungle tracts, rainfall reaches 3,000 to 3,800 millimetres (120 to 150 in) and 1,500 to 2,500 millimetres (59 to 98 in) in the bamboo district to the west. Kodagu has an average temperature of 15 °C (59 °F), ranging from 11 to 28 °C (52 to 82 °F), with the highest temperatures occurring in April and May.

Administrative divisions

Taluks

The district is divided into the three administrative talukas:

  • Madikeri
  • Virajpet (largest taluk and comprises the towns Virajpet, Gonikoppal, Siddapura, Ponnampet, Ammathi, Thithimathi etc.)
  • Somwarpet

Urban civic bodies

The principal town, and district capital, is Madikeri, or Mercara, with a population of around 30,000. Other significant towns include Virajpet (Virarajendrapet), Kushalanagara, Somwarpet, Gonikoppal and Suntikoppa

City municipal councils (1) :

Town panchayats (3) :

Census towns (3) :

Representation

Two members of the legislative assembly are elected from Kodagu to the Karnataka Legislative Assembly, one each from the Madikeri and Virajpet. M P Appachu Ranjan represents the Madikeri constituency while K. G. Bopaiah represents the Virajpet constituency; they are from the Bharatiya Janata Party. Kodagu, formerly part of the Kodagu-Dakshina Kannada (Mangalore) constituency, is now part of the Kodagu-Mysore Lok Sabha parliamentary constituency. Shri Pratap Simha, from the Bharatiya Janata Party, represents Kodagu-Mysore Parliamentary constituency.

The Codava National Council and Kodava Rashtriya Samiti are campaigning for autonomy to Kodagu district.[7][8]

History

South Indian territories
Map of South Indian states prior to the States Reorganisation Act, 1956. Kodagu (then called Coorg) is in dark green.
KalbaneYemmegundi
Kalbane Yemmegundi palace

The Kodavas were the earliest inhabitants and agriculturists in Kodagu, having lived there for centuries. Being a warrior community as well, they carried arms during times of war and had their own chieftains. The Haleri dynasty, an offshoot of the Keladi Nayakas, ruled Kodagu between 1600 and 1834. Later the British ruled Kodagu from 1834, after the Coorg War, until India's independence in 1947. A separate state (called Coorg State) until then, in 1956 Kodagu was merged with the Mysore State (now Karnataka).

Coorg in British India

In 1834, the East India Company annexed Kodagu into British India, after deposing Chikka Virarajendra of the Kodagu kingdom, as 'Coorg'. The people accepted British rule peacefully. British rule led to the establishment of educational institutions, introduction of scientific coffee cultivation, better administration and improvement of the economy.[9]

Kodagu culture

Coorgi Dress Doll
Dolls dressed in Kodava attire

The Kodavas are the earliest inhabitants of Kodagu. Kodava oral traditions are rich, some of the traditional folk songs have been compiled into the Pattole Palome . The Kodavas revere ancestors, arms and worship a number of deities, besides the River Kaveri, some of them being, Igguthappa, Bhagwathi, Muthappa, Mahadeva, Bhadrakali, Subramani and Ayyappa. Very similar to the Kodavas in religion, culture and language are the Kodava Peggade (Kodagu Heggade), the Amma Kodava, the Airi (artisans), the Meda (craftsmen and drummers) and the Kembatti (labourers).

The Kodava language speakers, other than the Kodavas, include the Kodava Heggade (cultivators of Malabari origin), the Amma Kodava (a mixed race), the Airi (smiths and carpenters), the Thatta (jewellers), some of the Male-Kudiya, the Kodagu Kembatti, the Maringi, the Kapala (of Siddi origin), the Meda (basket and mat weavers and drummers), the Kanya, the Banna, the Malaya (astrologers of Malayala origin), the Kodagu Golla (cowherds of Mysorean origin), the Kodagu Ganiga (oil-makers), the Kolla, the Kavadi, the Koleya, the Koyava and others.

Traditional costume

Kodavas wear the traditional Kodava costume. Men wear kupyas (knee-length half-sleeved coats) over a full-sleeved white shirt. The chale, a maroon and gold sash, is tied at the waist and an ornately carved silver dagger known as a peechekathi is tucked into it. The odikathi is yet another knife that is tucked into the chale at the back. A chain with a minuscule gun and a dagger hanging onto it gives the wearer a martial look. The saris worn by women are pleated at the back and the pallu fixed with a brooch is also wrapped in a unique way. They wear either a full-sleeved or three-quarter-sleeved blouse and cover their heads with a scarf. A traditional gold beaded necklace (jomalae) and a gem pendant (kokkethathi) is worn by Kodavas.

Kodagu cuisine

Kadumbuttu and pandi curry is a local dish of Kodagu. This dish is made of steamed rice balls and pork curry.

Festivals of Kodagu

Bali theyyam, Payyannur
Kodava Thirrale or Daiva Theere, similar to another ceremony called the Kola in Kodava, Arebhashe, Kannada and Nema in Tulu

Kailpoud/kailmurtha

Kailpoud, celebrated on 3 September, signifies the completion of "nati", or the planting of the rice crop. Officially, the festival begins 18 days after the sun enters the Simha Raashi (the western sign of Leo). Kail means weapon or armoury and poud means Brighten.

The festival signifies the day when men should prepare to guard their crop from wild boars and other animals, since during the preceding months, during which the family were engaged in the fields, all weapons were normally deposited in the "kanni kombare" (takk in kodava), or the prayer room. Hence on the day of Kailpoud, the weapons are taken out of the Pooja room, cleaned and decorated with flowers. They are then kept in the Nellakki Nadubade, the central hall of the house and the place of community worship. Each member of the family has a bath, after which they worship the weapons before feasting and drinking. The eldest member of the family hands a gun to the senior member of the family, signifying the commencement of the festivities. The whole family assembles in the mand (open ground), where physical contests and sports, including marksmanship, are conducted. In the past the hunting and cooking of wild game was part of the celebration. Now shooting skills are tested by firing at a coconut tied onto the branch of a tall tree.

Traditional rural sports, like grabbing a coconut from the hands of a group of 8–10 people (thenge porata )or ("ambu kai"), throwing a stone the size of a cricket ball at a coconut from a distance of 10–15 paces (tenge eed) or ("kaai kal"), lifting a stone ball of 30–40 cm lying at one's feet and throwing it backwards over the shoulders, are now conducted in community groups called Kodava Samajas and Kodagu Gowda Samajas in towns and cities.

Puttari/huthari

Puttari means new rice and is the rice harvest festival (also called huttari in Kannada). This takes place in late November or early December. Celebrations and preparations for this festival start a week in advance.

On the day the whole family assembles in their ain mane (the common family house), which is decorated with flowers and green mango leaves and banana leaves. Specific foods are prepared: tambuttu, puttari kalngi, kesa gende hudka and pache puttu and "rice kheer". Then the eldest member of the family hands a sickle to the head of the family and one of the women leads a procession to the paddy fields with a lit lamp in her hands. The path leading to the field is decorated. A gunshot is fired to mark the beginning of the harvest, with chanting of Poli Poli Deva (prosperity) by all present. Then the symbolic harvesting of the crop begins. The rice is cut and stacked and tied in odd numbers and is carried home to be offered to the gods. The younger generation then light firecrackers and revel, symbolising prosperity. Groups of youngsters visit neighbouring houses and boast their dancing skills and are given monetary gifts. A week later, this money is pooled and the entire village celebrates a communal dinner called 'ooramme'. All family members gather for this meal. Dinner normally consists of meat dishes, such as pork and chicken curry. Alcoholic beverages are also served at such feasts.

Economy

Agriculture

Garcinia morella - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-063
Gambooge or Kachampulior"Kachulli" (Coorg vinegar)

Kodagu is a rural region with most of the economy based on agriculture, plantations and forestry, as well as one of the more prosperous parts of Karnataka. This is due primarily to coffee production and other plantation crops. Rice and other crops are cultivated in the valleys. Coffee plantations, situated on hillsides too steep for growing rice, and taking advantage of shade from existing forests, became characteristic of the district in the 20th century. Coffee is now a major cash crop. Coffee processing is also becoming a major economic contributor. In recent years, tourism has also begun to play a role in the economy. Eco-tourism, such as walking and trekking tours, take advantage of plantation buildings converted into guest-houses

Much of Kodagu is used for agriculture. Characteristically and historically, paddy fields are found on the valley floors, with Coffee and pepper agroforestry in the surrounding hills mainly near Madikeri. The most common plantation crop is coffee, especially Coffea robusta variety. Kodagu is the second coffee production region in India, after the Baba Budangiri hills in Chikkamagaluru district. Coffee revenue helped Kodagu to become one of the richest districts in India. Coffea arabica is also grown in some parts of southern and western Kodagu, the historical area of coffee production. One can go to see the coffee plantation and can understand how sophisticated coffee plantation is and how much perfection and precision it requires it is mandatory to grow coffee in shade so it is grown with the eucalyptus trees and the vanilla. The coffee agro-forestry systems of Kodagu are one of the richest agro-forest in the world, with about 270 species of shaded trees inventoried (see publications of CAFNET project). But the trend is now to replace the native shade trees by exotic ones (such as the Grevillea robusta). In those coffee agro-forests are also cultivated spices like black pepper, cardamom, vanilla. Besides, the other famous agricultural produce of Kodagu is Kodagu Oranges (Citrus sinensis) known for its distinctive taste and shrunken nature. Kodagu is also known for its forest honey. Many other crops are also cultivated, including para rubber, teak, and cocoa. There are also large areas of natural forest, especially in the forest reserves in the south and east.

Tourism

Onkareswara temple pond
Temple pond near Onkareshwara temple, Madikeri
Kanive Temple
Kanive temple
Suntikoppa. Muthappan Temple
Suntikoppa temple
KNPark
Kaveri River in Kushalnagara

Kodagu is rated as one of the top hill station destinations in India. Some of the most popular tourist attractions in Kodagu include Talakaveri, Bhagamandala, Nisargadhama, Abbey Falls, Dubare, Nagarahole National Park, Iruppu Falls.

  • Talakaveri is the place where the River Kaveri originates. The temple on the riverbanks here is dedicated to Lord Brahma, and is one of only two temples dedicated to Brahma in India and Southeast Asia. Bhagamandala is situated at the Sangama (confluence) of two rivers, the Kaveri and the Kannika. A third river, the Sujyothi, is said to join from underground, and hence this spot is called the Triveni Sangama. Iruppu Falls is a sacred Kodagu Hindu spot in South Kodagu in the Brahmagiri hill range. The Lakshmana Tirtha River, with the waterfalls, flows nearby and has a Rameshwara temple on its banks. It is said that this sacred river was created when Laxmana, prince of Ayodhya and younger brother of Lord Rama, shot an arrow into nearby hill, the Brahmagiri hill. Chelavara falls and Thadiandamol peak are also in South Kodagu. Nagarahole is a national park and wildlife resort.
  • Madikeri is the capital of the district and Raja's Seat park is popular with tourists. Kootu Poley dam is also popular among tourists. Omkareshwara Temple is a beautiful temple built in the Indo-Sarcenic style in Coorg. A legend is associated with the temple, built by Lingarajendra II in 1820 CE. The king put to death a pious Brahmin who dared to protest against his misdeeds. The spirit of the dead man began to plague the king day and night. On the advice of wise men, the king built this temple and installed a Shivalinga procured from Kashi, North India. St. Mark's Church is located within the Mercara Fort and was raised in 1859, by the officers and men of the East India Company. The building was funded by the Government of Madras,[10] and placed under the Church of England in India, Diocese of Madras.[11] The Church was closed after Indian independence, and taken over by the Government of Karnataka in 1971.[12] The building now houses the Madikeri Fort Museum, managed by the Karnataka State Archaeological Department.[13]
  • Dubare is mainly an elephant-capturing and training camp of the Forest Department at the edge of Dubare forest; on the bank of the river Kaveri along the Kushalanagara – Siddapura road. Nisargadhama is a man-made island and picnic spot near Kushalanagara, formed by the river Kaveri.
  • Abbey Falls is a scenic waterfall 5 km from Madikeri. Mallalli falls is 25 km from Somawarapet, downhill of the Pushpagiri hills. Mandalapatti is 28 km from Madikeri. On the way to Abbey Falls, before 3 km from Abbey Falls take right, from there 25 km. Kote Betta temple, Kote Abbey falls are also in North Kodagu. Abbi waterfall and other waterfalls are best during monsoon season, typically some days after it starts raining in June up to the end of rainy season, while there is more water gushing in the streams and rivers.[14]

Flora and fauna

Tadiandamol Pan
View of Tadiandamol
Wild banana from Kodagu
Wild banana from Kodagu, India

Kodagu is considered rich with wildlife and has three wildlife sanctuaries and one national park: the Brahmagiri, Talakaveri, and Pushpagiri Wildlife Sanctuaries, and the Nagarhole National Park, also known as the Rajiv Gandhi National Park.

The flora of the jungle includes Michelia champaca, Mesua (Ironwood), Diospyros (ebony and other species), Toona ciliata (Indian mahogany), Chukrasia tabularis, Calophyllum angustifolium (Poon spar), Canarium strictum (Black Dammar), Artocarpus, Dipterocarpus, Garcinia, Euonymus, Cinnamomum, Myristica, Vaccinium, Myrtaceae, Melastomataceae, Rubus (three species) and a rose. In the undergrowth are found cardamom, Areca, plantains, canes, wild black pepper, Cyatheales and other ferns, and arums.

In the forest of the less thickly-wooded bamboo country in the west of Kodagu the most common trees are the Dalbergia latifolia (Black wood), Pterocarpus marsupium (Kino tree), Terminalia tomentosa (Matthi), Lagerstroemia parviflora (Benteak), Anogeissus latifolia (Dindul), Bassia latifolia, Butea monosperma, Nauclea parvifiora, and several species of acacia. Teak and sandalwood also grow in the eastern part of the district.

The fauna include: the Asian elephant, tiger, leopard, dhole, gaur, wild boar, and several species of deer. Kodagu also offers a wide variety of birds, roughly around 300 birds have been sighted and reported over the years.

Demographics

Kodavas.jpeg
Kodavas, 1875, From "The people of India: A series of photographic illustrations..."(New York Public Library).

According to the 2011 census of India, Kodagu has a population of 554,762,[4] roughly equal to the Solomon Islands[15] or the US state of Wyoming.[16] This ranks it 539 out of 640 districts in India in terms of population.[4] The district has a population density of 135 inhabitants per square kilometre (350/sq mi).[4] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 1.13%.[4] Kodagu has a sex ratio of 1019 females for every 1000 males,[4] and a literacy rate of 82.52%.[4]

Kodava Takk is the spoken language native to Kodagu. Are Bhashe, a dialect of Kannada, is native to Sulya in Dakshina Kannada. Both use Kannada script for literature.[17] According to Karnataka Kodava Sahitya Academy (Karnataka's Kodava Literary Academy), apart from Kodavas, and their related groups, the Amma Kodavas, the Kodava Peggade (Kodagu Heggade) and the Kodava Maaple (Kodava Muslims), 18 other smaller-numbered ethnic groups speak Kodava Takk in and outside the district including the Iri (Airi, or the carpenters and the village smiths), the Koyava, the Banna, the Kodagu Madivala (washermen), the Kodagu Hajama (barber, also called Nainda), the Kembatti Poleya (household servants and labourers) and the Meda (basket and mat weavers and drummers).[18]

Besides Kodavas and Kodava speakers, other communities that now reside in Kodagu District are the Kodagu Aarebashe Gowdas (who speak Are-bhashe dialect and originally from Sulya) and the Muslims (Urdu or Kodava). The main hunter-gatherer forest dwellers of Kodagu are the Kudiya, the Yerava (also called Adia) and the Kuruba. There are also families of the Brahmin community, most of whom were brought here for the purpose of offering poojas at various temples.

Less frequent are Tulu speakers Billavas, Mogaveeras, Bunts, Goud Saraswat Brahmins. [18]

Kodava people

Kodagu is home to many communities with diverse ethnic origins, with Kodavas being the main ethnic group. Native Kodavas, form one-fifth the total population of Kodagu and many have moved to the cities, like Bengaluru and Mysore, and even abroad, to regions like North America, they are however still the largest group in Kodagu. The Kodavas owned their farms, growing paddy in the fields, pepper, areca, coconut, cardamom, coffee and other crops in their hill orchards and woods. Guns and swords are essential for their religion, as ritual cult objects, and they hold rights to carry light arms.

The Kodavas Hindus are traditionally ancestor worshippers with a martial tradition, hence may be called Kshatriyas. In Kodagu, the Kodavas were owners of the land from time immemorial. They are not vegetarians, but they do not eat beef. They are polytheists and believe in a number of deities. The chief deities are Cauvery, Bhagavathi (Parvati), Mahadeva (Shiva), Muthappa, Bhadrakali (a form of Parvati as Kali or Durga), Subramani (Subramanya) and Ayyappa. Igguthappa, the most important local god, is an incarnation of Subramanya, the god of snakes, rain, harvest and rice.

Dravidische Sprachen
The Dravidian Languages: notice Kodava/ Kodagu language (rough estimates)

The ancient folk songs (some of them are compiled in the Pattole Palome) sing of the numerous Kodavas and the much lesser-numbered other communities. It also speaks of the social relationships of the Kodavas with the other communities of Kodagu and who spoke the Kodava language. Airi, Male-Kudiya, Meda, Kembatti, Kapala, Maringi, Heggade, Kavadi, Kolla, Thatta, Koleya, Koyava, Banna, Golla, Kanya, Ganiga, and Malaya are other castes native to Kodagu who speak Kodava. Many of these communities had originally migrated into Kodagu from the Malabar Coast region during the rule of the Haleri dynasty (1600-1834).

Other Kodava speakers

Amma Kodavas, a mixed Kodava origin, live in the southern parts of Kodagu and follow some of the Brahmin customs. Unlike other Kodavas they are vegetarians, they abstain from alcohol, wear the sacred thread and study the Vedas. They were the progeny of intercaste marriages between Brahmins and Kodavas during former times. They belong to 44 family names and two gothras. Otherwise they follow the Kodava habits and customs, dress like other Kodavas and speak Kodava Takk. They were also known as the Kaveri Brahmins by the British.

Among other Kodava speaking communities are: the Heggades, cultivators from Malabar; the Kodava Nair, cultivators from Malabar; the Ayiri, who constitute the artisan caste; the Medas, who are basket and mat-weavers and act as drummers at feasts; the Binepatta, originally wandering musicians from Malabar, now farmers; and the Kavadi, cultivators settled in Yedenalknad (Virajpet). All these groups speak the Kodava language and conform generally to Kodava customs and dress.[17]

Kodagu Gowda Dress
Kodagu Gowda Dress

Kodagu Aarebashe Gowda people

Madikeri fort2
Madikeri Fort

The Arebhashe gowdas,[19] or Kodagu Gowdas, and Tulu Gowdas, are an ethnic group of Dakshina Kannada and Kodagu. They live in Sulya (in Dakshina Kannada) and in parts of Somwarpet, Kushalanagar, Bhagamandala and Madikeri. Guddemane Appaiah Gowda along with many other freedom fighters from different communities revolted against the British in an armed struggle which covered entire Kodagu and Dakshina Kannada. This was one of the earliest freedom movements against the British[20] called "Amara Sulliada Swantantrya Sangraama"[21] (Amara Sulya Dhange[20] formally called the 'Coorg Rebellion' by the British) started in 1837.[22][23][24][25]

Jungle-dwellers

The Kudiya lived in the Western Ghats along Dakshina Kannada and Kodagu and some of them were toddy-makers. While most of them spoke the Kudiya language, some of the Male-Kudiya (a Kudiya sub-caste) speak a variation of the Kodava language. The Yerava also live in adjacent Kerala, where they are known as the Adiya, and are primarily Hindu farm-labourers. They speak their own Yerava dialect. The Kurbas were forest hunter-gatherers who are now farm-labourers. They speak their own dialect and belong to two subcastes – Jenu, who are honey-gatherers, and Betta, who are hill-dwellers and good elephant captors, trainers and mahouts.

Muslims and Christians

Kodagu is home to a sizeable population of Muslims. Those Muslims who are of South Western Indian origins are known as the maaple, either Malayalam speaking in Kerala and Kodava speaking in Kodagu. Kodava Hindus converted into Islam were called Kodava maaple, or Jamma Maaple. Some of the Kodava maaple (Kodava-speaking) have married with Malabar Mappila (Malayalam speaking) and Tulu Bearys. A number of Muslims from the Malabar coast (Kerala Mappilas), have settled in Virajpet (the Southern part of Kodagu) as traders. Those who speak Urdu and are of Persian (or sometimes Arab or Afghan) origins call themselves Sheikhs but are locally known as the Turks (Turqa). They settled when the Mysore Sultans ruled in Kodagu.[26]

A small number of Mangalorean Catholics are also found in Kodagu. They are mostly descended from those Konkani Catholics who fled the roundup and, later, captivity by Tippu Sultan. These immigrants were welcomed by Raja Veerarajendra (himself a former captive of Tippu Sultan, having escaped six years of captivity in 1788) who realising their usefulness and expertise as agriculturists, gave them lands and tax breaks and built a church for them.[27]

Others

There is a sizeable population of the Brahmins and the Lingayat people and the majority of them are in the taluk of Somwarpet. A large number of the present people of Kodagu, nearly three-fifths, are mainly agriculturists (Vokkaliga) and labourers (Holeya) who arrive from the Mysore region and speak Kannada in Kodagu. Those from Hassan District are called the Badaga ('Northern') people. Also a large number of traders are Muslims (Maaple) from Kerala and speak Malayalam. Besides Kodava and Kannada, Arebhashe, Konkani, Malayalam, Urdu and Tulu are also spoken in Kodagu.

Notable people

Transport

Kodagu
Road map of the district.

Madikeri is well connected by road with Mangalore, Hassan, Mysore, Bengaluru and Kannur, Thalassery, and Wayanad of neighbouring state Kerala. There are three Ghat roads for reaching Kodagu from coastal regions of Kerala and Karnataka: the SampajeMadikeri Ghat road from Mangalore, the Panathur–Bhagamandala Ghat road from Kasaragod, Kanhangad, Malom and chittarikkal and the Makutta–Perumbadi/Virajpet Ghat road from Kannur and Thalassery through Iritty.

The nearest railway stations are Thalassery and Kannur in Kerala and Mangalore, Mysore and Hassan are the nearest in Karnataka. The closest airport to madikeri is Kannur International Airport in kannur district of kerala,which is approximately at a distance of 90 Km from madikeri town and 60 km from virajpet.other airports closer to kodagu region are at Mysore and Mangalore. Mysore Airport is at a distance of 130 km from Madikeri and 115 kilometres (71 mi) from Virajpet. Mangalore International Airport is located 140 kilometres (87 mi) from Madikeri and 172 kilometres (107 mi) from Virajpet.The nearest seaport for Kodagu is New Mangalore Port at Panambur in Mangalore, 145 kilometres (90 mi) from Madikeri.

Education

Some of the notable college institutions of the region are:

  • Coorg Institute of Dental sciences, Virajpet
  • Government Engineering College, Kushalnagar.
  • College of Forestry, Ponnampet, University of Agricultural Sciences (B).
  • Coorg Institute of Technology, Ponnampet.
  • Field Marshal K M Cariappa College, Madikeri.
  • Cauvery College Gonnicoppal.
  • Cauvery College Virajpet.
  • Kodagu Institute of Medical sciences, Madikeri.

References

  1. ^ "Kodagu district Profile". DSERT. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
  2. ^ http://www.census2011.co.in/census/district/259-kodagu.html
  3. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Coorg" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 91–92.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
  5. ^ "Kodava-speaking people seek one identity". The Hindu.
  6. ^ "Districts of India". Government of India. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
  7. ^ "Codava National Council sets up global forum". The Hindu.
  8. ^ "Dharna staged for Kodagu State". The Hindu.
  9. ^ Belliappa, C P (4 August 2015). "Call for freedom from a tiny village" (Bangalore). Deccan Herald. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
  10. ^ Penny, Frank (1922). The Church in Madras: being the History of the Ecclesiastical and Missionary Action of the East India Company in the Presidency of Madras From 1835 to 1861: Volume III. London: John Murray. p. 98. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  11. ^ "Chuches Vested in The Crown: Diocese of Madras". Lords Sitting of 31 May 1927. 67 (5): cc650-1. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
  12. ^ "Museums in Karnataka". Government of Karnataka: Department of Archaeology, Museums and Heritage. 2015. Archived from the original on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
  13. ^ Madur (13 October 2014). "Madikeri Fort, Coorg". Karnataka. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
  14. ^ "A trip to Coorg during Monsoon". Trayaan. 2016-07-29. Retrieved 2016-10-05.
  15. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 1 October 2011. Solomon Islands 571,890 July 2011 est.
  16. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011. Wyoming 563,626
  17. ^ a b K S Rajyashree, Kodava speech community : An ethnolinguistic study
  18. ^ a b "Will Kodava find a place in Eighth Schedule". The Hindu.
  19. ^ Herbert Feis (Dec 1926). "The Mechanism of Adjustment of International Trade Balances". The American Economic Review. American Economic Association. 16 (4): 593–609. JSTOR 1.
  20. ^ a b [1] Archived 17 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ South Kanara, 1799–1860 By N. Shyam Bhatt
  22. ^ http://www.thehindu.com/2004/10/31/stories/2004103102280300.htm
  23. ^ http://www.hindu.com/2005/05/19/stories/2005051901540300.htm
  24. ^ http://www.deccanherald.com/content/316458/account-uprising.html
  25. ^ http://www.deccanherald.com/content/316455/fate-insurgents.html
  26. ^ "Indian census data" (PDF). Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  27. ^ Sarasvati's Children: A History of the Mangalorean Christians, Alan Machado Prabhu, I.J.A. Publications, 1999, p. 229

Further reading

  • Belliappa, C. P. Tale of a Tiger's Tail & Others Yarns from Coorg. English.
  • Belliappa, C. P. Victoria Gowramma. English.
  • Bopanna, P. T. Kodagu: Mungaru Maleya Vismayada Nadu/ Discover Coorg. Kannada/ English.
  • Bopanna, P. T. Coorg State: Udaya-Pathana / Coorg State. Kannada/ English.
  • Ganapathy, B. D. Kodagu mattu Kodavaru. Kannada. 1962.
  • Ganapathy, B. D. Nanga Kodava. Kodava. 1973.
  • Murphy, Devrala. On a Shoestring to Coorg.
  • N Prabhakaran. Kutaku kurippukal (Coorg Notes). Kannur: Kairali Books.

External links

Abbey Falls

Abbey Falls (also spelled Abbi Falls and Abbe Falls) (Kannada: ಅಬ್ಬೆ ಜಲಪಾತ Abbe jalaphatha) is in Kodagu, in the Western Ghats in Karnataka. It is located 8 km from the Madikeri, 122 km from Mysore, 144 km from Mangalore and 268 km from Bangalore.The river is part of the early reaches of the river Kaveri. Flow is much higher during the monsoon season.The waterfall is located between private coffee plantations with stocky coffee bushes and spice estates with trees entwined with pepper vines. A hanging bridge constructed just opposite the falls.

The falls was earlier called Jessi falls, named after a British officer's wife. However, the place was a thick jungle area back then. Years later, the waterfall was discovered by Mr. Neravanda B.Nanaiah who bought the place from the government and converted it into a coffee and spices plantation that surrounds the waterfall today.

Bhagamandala

Bhagamandala is a pilgrimage place in Kodagu district of South Indian state of Karnataka.

Bidarur

Bidarur is a village in the southern state of Karnataka, India. It is located in the Somvarpet taluk of Kodagu district.

Brahmagiri (hill), Karnataka

For other places with the same name, see Brahmagiri (disambiguation)Brahmagiri, is a mountain range in the Western Ghats of south India. It is situated on the border between Kodagu district in Karnataka state in the north and Wayanad district of Kerala state on the south . Brahmagiri Hill, at 1608 m height, is a scenic tourist attraction. The top of Brahmagiri Hill is well forested and has a lot of wildlife.

Harangi Reservoir

The Harangi Reservoir is located near Hudgur village, Somwarpet taluk in Kodagu district in the Indian state of Karnataka. The reservoir is formed by a masonry dam built across the river Harangi, a tributary of the Kaveri. The dam is located about 9 km away from the heart of Kushalnagar town.

The Harangi originates in the Pushpagiri Hills of Western Ghats in Kodagu, Karnataka. Heavy rainfall from the south-west monsoon is the source of water in the catchment area of Harangi river which is about 717 km2. The length of the Harangi from its origin to the confluence with the Kaveri river is 50 km. The Harangi joins the Kaveri near Kudige in Somwarpet taluk.

Honnamana Kere

Honnamana Kere (Honnama Lake) (Kannada: ಹೊನ್ನಮ್ಮನ ಕೆರೆ) is a lake and holy place in Doddamalthe near the village of Sulimalthe, 6 km away from Somwarpet town of Coorg in the state of Karnataka, India. It is the biggest lake in Kodagu, and once a year, during the Gowri festival, a special pooja is conducted and a 'Bagina' which consists of the belongings of goddess Honamma is presented to the lake.

Irupu Falls

The Irupu Falls (also Iruppu Falls) ಇರ್ಪು ಜಲಪಾತ are located in the Brahmagiri Range in the Kodagu district of Karnataka, India, bordering the Wayanad district of Kerala. It is a fresh water cascade and is situated at a distance of 48 km from Virajpet on the highway to Nagarhole. The Falls are also known as the Lakshmana Tirtha Falls, derived from the name of the tributary of Cauvery which starts from these falls, the Lakshmana Tirtha River.A forest trail leads from these falls to the Brahmagiri Peak in Southern Kodagu. Irupu falls is a major tourist attraction as well as a pilgrimage spot. A famous Shiva temple, the Rameshwara Temple is situated on the banks of the Lakshmana Tirtha River, en route to the Falls. This temple attracts a large number of pilgrims during the festival of Shivaratri.

Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Kodagu

Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya is a school in Kodagu, India and is a part of the Navodaya Vidyalaya group. The school is located near Madikeri, which is 7 km from Madikeri, headquarters of Kodagu district. The school is also known as JNV Kodagu.

Kudige

Kudige is a village in the southern state of Karnataka, India. It is located in the Somvarpet taluk of Kodagu district in Karnataka.

Kushalanagar

Kushalanagar is the largest city in Kodagu district of Karnataka state. It is also a commercial capital of Kodagu district . It is one of the most developing city in Kodagu district.

Lakshmana Tirtha

The Lakshmana Tirtha (Lakshmantīrtha River) is a river of Karnataka, India. It rises in Kodagu district and flows eastward. It joins the Kaveri in the Krishna Raja Sagara lake.

Madikeri

Madikeri (previously called Mercara) is a hill station town in Madikeri taluk in Karnataka state, India. It is the headquarters of the district of Kodagu.

Mallalli Falls

Mallalli Falls is situated in the northern region of Kodagu District, Karnataka. The Kumaradhara River is the main watercourse for this waterfall. The Kumaradhara later flows through Kukke Subrahmanya and merges with the Netravati River at Uppinangadi, which then empties into the Arabian Sea at Mangalore.

Pushpagiri (mountain)

Pushpagiri (Kumara Parvatha), at 1,712 metres (5,617 ft), is the highest peak in Pushpagiri Wildlife Sanctuary in the Western Ghats of Karnataka. It is located in the Somwarpet Taluk, 20 kilometres (12 mi) from Somwarpet in the northern part of Kodagu district on the border between Dakshina Kannada and Kodagu district and hassan districts. It is 4th highest peak of Karnataka. The Sanskrit name of the mountain is Puṣpagiri while its Prakrit form is Puphagiri, which is mentioned in the Nagarjunakond Second Apsidal Temple inscription, although this may refer to a different mountain to the north of Cuddapah, in Andhra Pradesh.

Pushpagiri Wildlife Sanctuary

Pushpagiri Wildlife Sanctuary is one of 21 Wildlife Sanctuaries of India's Karnataka state.

This sanctuary is located in Somwarpet taluk of the Kodagu district. It is home to rare and endangered birdlife. The Kadamakkal reserve forest is a part of the sanctuary. Pushpagiri (Kumara Parvatha) is the highest peak in it.The sanctuary adjoins Bisle reserve forest to the north and Kukke Subramanya forest range to the west.

Mandalpatti peak, Kote betta and Makkalagudi betta are mountains fall in the sanctuary. Mallalli falls and Kote abbe waterfalls (also called as Mukkodlu falls) are located inside the sanctuary. The Pushpagiri Wildlife Sancutuary has been proposed as one of the World Heritage Site.

Somwarpet

Somwarpet (somavārapēte, also written Somvarpet) is a panchayat town in Kodagu district in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is the main town of the Somwarpet taluk, in the north-east of the district.

Second highest, Administration Town in Karnataka in terms of Altitude.

The main crops grown in the area are coffee and spice crops such as cardamom, peppers, oranges, ginger, and vegetables.

Tadiandamol

Tadiandamol or Thadiyandamol is the highest mountain of (Madikeri taluk) Kodagu district, Karnataka, India. It is the third highest peak in Karnataka(after Mullayyanagiri & Kudremukha). It is located Western Ghats range, and reaches an elevation of 1,748 m. The mountain has patches of shola forests in the valleys.

The Nalaknad (also known as Nalnad - meaning 4 villages) palace at the foothills is an important historical landmark. This was one of the landmarks mapped during the Great Trigonometric Survey.

It is a place of interest for trekkers and naturalists. The climb to the top and back can be completed as a day hike; camping is banned since December 2016.

Talakaveri

Talakaveri is the place that is generally considered to be the source of the river Kaveri. It is located on Brahmagiri hills near Bhagamandala in Coorg district, Karnataka.It is Lying nearest to Karnataka-Kasaragod district Border in the state of Kerala. It stands at a height of 1,276 m. above sea level. However, there is not a permanent visible flow from this place to the main rivercourse except during the Monsoon.

A tank or kundike has been erected on a hillside by kodavas, at the place that is said to be the origin. It is also marked by a small temple, and the area is frequented by pilgrims mainly it is the worship place of kodavas. The river originates as a spring feeding this tank, which is considered to be a holy place to bathe on special days. The waters are then said to flow underground to emerge as the Kaveri river some distance away. The temple has been renovated extensively by the state government recently [2007].

On Cauvery changrandi day (the first day of Tula Masa month , according to the Hindu calendar, which normally falls in mid October) thousands of pilgrims from neighboring flock to the river's birthplace to witness the rise of the fountainhead, when water gushes up from the spring at a predetermined moment. The cauvery changrandi (Sacred bath in the Tula month) is observed across pilgrim towns in Kaveri's banks.Talakaveri is about 8 km away from Bhagamandala, 36 km from Panathur (Kerala) and 48 km from Madikeri.

Talakaveri Wildlife Sanctuary

Talakaveri Wildlife Sanctuary is a wildlife sanctuary in Karnataka state of South India. It is located in Kodagu district and is spread over 105 km². It borders with Ranipuram hills and Kottencheri hills in Kasarkod district of Kerala. There is a passage way for jeep from talacauvery to pulingome (near cherupuzha) which is the easiest way from talacauvery to kerala but passengers are not allowed to travel via this way without the permission of forest department.

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