Kościuszko Uprising

The Kościuszko Uprising[note 1] was an uprising against the Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia[3] led by Tadeusz Kościuszko in the Commonwealth of Poland and the Prussian partition in 1794. It was a failed attempt to liberate the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from Russian influence after the Second Partition of Poland (1793) and the creation of the Targowica Confederation.

Rp 1794
Kościuszko Uprising 1794
Smuglewicz Kosciuszko 2
Tadeusz Kościuszko taking the oath, 24th March 1794
Bitwa pod Raclawicami
"Battle of Racławice", Jan Matejko, oil on canvas, 1888, National Museum in Kraków. 4 April 1794
Norblin Hanging of traitors in effigie
Hanging traitors in effigie, painting by Jean Pierre Norblin de la Gourdaine
Kościuszko at Maciejowice 1794, by Jan Bogumił Plersch. Kościuszko was wounded and taken captive.


Decline of the Commonwealth

By the early 18th century, the magnates of Poland and Lithuania controlled the state – or rather, they managed to ensure that no reforms would be carried out that might weaken their privileged status (the "Golden Freedoms").[4] Through the abuse of the liberum veto rule which enabled any deputy to paralyze the Sejm (Commonwealth's parliament) proceedings, deputies bribed by magnates or foreign powers or those simply content to believe they were living in an unprecedented "Golden Age", paralysed the Commonwealth's government for over a century.[5][6]

The idea of reforming the Commonwealth gained traction since the mid-17th century.[7] It was, however, viewed with suspicion not only by its magnates but also by neighboring countries, which were content with the deterioration of the Commonwealth and abhorred the thought of a resurgent and democratic power on their borders.[8] With the Commonwealth Army reduced to around 16,000, it was easy for its neighbors to intervene directly (The Imperial Russian Army numbered 300,000; The Prussian Army and Imperial Austrian Army, 200,000 each).[9]

Attempts at reform

A major opportunity for reform presented itself during the "Great Sejm" of 1788–92. Poland's neighbors were preoccupied with wars and unable to intervene forcibly in Polish affairs. Russia and Austria were engaged in hostilities with the Ottoman Empire (the Russo–Turkish War, 1787–1792 and the Austro-Turkish War, 1787–1791); the Russians also found themselves simultaneously fighting in the Russo-Swedish War, 1788–1790.[10][11][12][13] A new alliance between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Prussia seemed to provide security against Russian intervention, and on 3 May 1791 the new constitution was read and adopted to overwhelming popular support.[10][14][15][16]

With the wars between Turkey and Russia and Sweden and Russia having ended, Empress Catherine was furious over the adoption of the new constitution, which she believed threatened Russian influence in Poland.[12][13][17] Russia had viewed Poland as a de facto protectorate.[18] "The worst possible news has arrived from Warsaw: the Polish king has become almost sovereign" was the reaction of one of Russia's chief foreign policy authors, Alexander Bezborodko, when he learned of the new constitution.[19] Prussia was also strongly opposed to the new constitution, and Polish diplomats received a note that the new constitution changed the Polish state so much that Prussia did not consider its obligations binding.[20] Just like Russia, Prussia was concerned that the newly strengthened Polish state could become a threat and the Prussian foreign minister, Friedrich Wilhelm von Schulenburg-Kehnert, clearly and with rare candor told the Poles that Prussia did not support the constitution and refused to help the Commonwealth in any form, even as a mediator, as it was not in Prussia's state interest to see the Commonwealth strengthened as it could threaten Prussia in the future.[20] The Prussian statesman Ewald von Hertzberg expressed the fears of European conservatives: "The Poles have given the coup de grâce to the Prussian monarchy by voting a constitution", elaborating that a strong Commonwealth would likely demand the return of the lands Prussia acquired in the First Partition.[19][21]

Second Partition of Poland

The Constitution was not adopted without dissent in the Commonwealth itself, either. Magnates who had opposed the constitution draft from the start, namely Franciszek Ksawery Branicki, Stanisław Szczęsny Potocki, Seweryn Rzewuski, and Szymon and Józef Kossakowski, asked Tsaritsa Catherine to intervene and restore their privileges such as the Russian-guaranteed Cardinal Laws abolished under the new statute.[16] To that end these magnates formed the Targowica Confederation.[16] The Confederation's proclamation, prepared in St. Petersburg in January 1792, criticized the constitution for contributing to, in their own words, "contagion of democratic ideas" following "the fatal examples set in Paris".[22][23] It asserted that "The parliament ... has broken all fundamental laws, swept away all liberties of the gentry and on the third of May 1791 turned into a revolution and a conspiracy."[24] The Confederates declared an intention to overcome this revolution. We "can do nothing but turn trustingly to Tsarina Catherine, a distinguished and fair empress, our neighboring friend and ally", who "respects the nation's need for well-being and always offers it a helping hand", they wrote.[24] The Confederates aligned with Catherine and asked her for military intervention.[16] On 18 May 1792 the Russian ambassador to Poland, Yakov Bulgakov, delivered a declaration of war to Polish Foreign Minister Joachim Chreptowicz.[25] Russian armies entered Poland and Lithuania on the same day, starting the Polish–Russian War of 1792.[16][26] The war ended without any decisive battles, with a capitulation signed by Polish King Stanisław August Poniatowski, who hoped that a diplomatic compromise could be worked out.[27]

King Poniatowski's hopes that the capitulation would allow an acceptable diplomatic solution to be worked out were soon dashed. With new deputies bribed or intimidated by the Russian troops, a new session of parliament, known as the Grodno Sejm, took place, in fall 1793.[16][28] On 23 November 1793, it concluded its deliberations under duress, annulling the constitution and acceding to the Second Partition.[4][29] Russia took 250,000 square kilometres (97,000 sq mi), while Prussia took 58,000 square kilometres (22,000 sq mi) of the Commonwealth's territory.[28] This event reduced Poland's population to only one-third of what it was before the partitions began in 1772. The rump state was garrisoned by Russian troops and its independence was strongly curtailed.[16][23][28] Such an outcome was a giant blow for the members of the Targowica Confederation, who saw their actions as a defense of the centuries-old privileges of the magnates, but now were regarded by the majority of the Polish population as traitors.[30]

Growing unrest

The Polish military was widely dissatisfied with the capitulation, most commanders considering it premature; Tadeusz Kościuszko, Prince Józef Poniatowski and many others would criticize the king's decision and many, including Kościuszko, resigned their commission shortly afterward.[31] After the Commonwealth defeat in that war and the rescinding of the Constitution, the Army was reduced to about 36,000. In 1794 Russians demanded a further downsizing of the army to 15,000. The dissent in the Polish Army was one of the sparks that would lead to the coming conflict.[32]

The King's capitulation was a hard blow for Kościuszko, who had not lost a single battle in the campaign. By mid September he was resigned to leave the country, and he departed Warsaw in early October.[33] Kościuszko settled in Leipzig, where many other notable Polish commanders and politicians formed an émigrée community.[33] Soon he and some others began preparing an uprising against Russian rule in Poland.[34] The politicians, grouped around Ignacy Potocki and Hugo Kołłątaj, sought contacts with similar opposition groups formed in Poland and by spring 1793 had been joined by other politicians and revolutionaries, including Ignacy Działyński. While Kołłątaj and others had begun planning for the uprising before meeting Kościuszko, his support was a major boon for them, as he was, at that time, among the most popular individuals in the entire Poland.[35]

In August 1793 Kościuszko returned to Leipzig where he was met with demands to start planning for the uprising; however, he was worried that an uprising would have little chance against the three partitioners.[36] In September he would clandestinely cross the Polish border to conduct personal observations, and to meet some sympathetic high-ranking officers in the remaining Polish Army, including general Józef Wodzicki.[34] The preparations in Poland were slow and he decided to postpone the outbreak, and left for Italy, planning to return in February.[34] However, the situation in Poland was changing rapidly. The Russian and Prussian governments forced Poland to again disband the majority of her armed forces and the reduced units were to be drafted into the Russian army.[34] Also, in March the tsarist agents discovered the group of revolutionaries in Warsaw and started arresting notable Polish politicians and military commanders.[34] Kościuszko was forced to execute his plan earlier than expected and on March 15, 1794, he set off for Kraków.[34]

On 12 March 1794, General Antoni Madaliński, the commander of 1st Greater Polish National Cavalry Brigade (1,500 men) decided to disobey the order to demobilise, advancing his troops from Ostrołęka to Kraków.[37]:181 This sparked an outbreak of riots against Russian forces throughout the country. The Russian garrison of Kraków was ordered to leave the city and confront Madalinski, which left Kraków completely undefended, but also foiled Kosciuszko's plan to seize their weapons.[37]:181


Polish soldiers of Kościuszko Uprising
Polish soldiers of the Uprising

On 24 March 1794, Tadeusz Kościuszko, a veteran of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War, announced the general uprising in a speech in the Kraków town square and assumed the powers of the Commander in Chief of all of the Polish forces.[37]:180–181 He also vowed

not to use these powers to oppress any person, but to defend the integrity of the borders of Poland, regain the independence of the nation, and to strengthen universal liberties.

In order to strengthen the Polish forces, Kościuszko issued an act of mobilisation, requiring that every 5 houses in Lesser Poland delegate at least one able male soldier equipped with carbine, pike, or an axe. Kościuszko's Commission for Order in Kraków recruited all males between 18 and 28 years of age and passed an income tax.[37]:184 The difficulties with providing enough armament for the mobilised troops made Kościuszko form large units composed of peasants armed with scythes, called the "scythemen".[37]:184

Akt powstania kościuszkowskiego 24 marca 1794
Act of Kościuszko Uprising, 24 March 1794

To destroy the still weak opposition, Russian Empress Catherine the Great ordered the corps of Major General Fiodor Denisov to attack Kraków.[37]:184 On 4 April both armies met near the village of Racławice.[37]:185 In what became known as the Battle of Racławice Kościuszko's forces defeated the numerically and technically superior opponent. After the bloody battle the Russian forces withdrew from the battlefield. Kościuszko's forces were too weak to start a successful pursuit and wipe the Russian forces out of Lesser Poland. Although the strategic importance of the victory was close to none, the news of the victory spread fast and soon other parts of Poland joined the ranks of the revolutionaries. By early April the Polish forces concentrated in the lands of Lublin and Volhynia, ready to be sent to Russia, joined the ranks of Kościuszko's forces.

On 17 April in Warsaw, the Russian attempt to arrest those suspected of supporting the insurrection[38] and to disarm the weak Polish garrison of Warsaw under Gen. Stanisław Mokronowski by seizing the arsenal at Miodowa Street[39] resulted in an uprising against the Russian garrison of Warsaw, led by Jan Kiliński, in the face of indecisiveness of the King of Poland, Stanisław II Augustus. The insurgents were aided by the incompetence of Russian ambassador and commander, Iosif Igelström, and the chosen day being the Thursday of Holy Week when many soldiers of the Russian garrison went to the churches for the Eucharist not carrying their arms.[40] Finally, from the onset of the insurrection, the Polish forces were aided by the civilian population and had surprise on their side as they attacked many separate groups of soldiers at the same time and the resistance to Russian forces quickly spread over the city. After two days of heavy fighting the Russians, who suffered between 2,000 and 4,000 casualties out of an initial 5,000 strong garrison, were forced to leave the city.[37]:188 A similar uprising was started by Jakub Jasiński in Vilnius (Wilno) on 23 April and soon other cities and towns followed.[37]:188 The massacre of unarmed Russian soldiers attending the Easter service was regarded as a "crime against humanity" by Russians and was a cause of vengeance later, during the siege of Warsaw.[41][42][43]

On 7 May 1794, Kościuszko issued an act that became known as the "Proclamation of Połaniec", in which he partially abolished serfdom in Poland, granted civil liberty to all peasants and provided them with state help against abuses by the nobility.[37]:190 Although the new law never fully came into being and was boycotted by much of the nobility, it also attracted many peasants to the ranks of the revolutionaries. It was the first time in Polish history that the peasants were officially regarded as part of the nation, the word being previously equivalent to nobility.

Banner of Kościuszko Uprising
Flag of Polish peasant soldiers in Kraków with the words "They feed and defend"

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth first issued złotych banknotes on 8 June 1794 under the authority of Tadeusz Kościuszko. The 50 and 100 złotych are depicted above.

POL-A4-Bilet Skarbowy-50 Zlotych (1794 First Issue)
POL-A5-Bilet Skarbowy-100 Zlotych (1794 First Issue)

Despite the promise of reforms and quick recruitment of new forces, the strategic situation of the Polish forces, which consisted of 6,000 peasants, cavalry, and 9,000 soldiers, was still critical.[37]:194 On 10 May the forces of Prussia (17,500 soldiers under General Francis Favrat), crossed the Polish borders and joined the 9,000 Russian soldiers operating in northern Poland.[37]:194 On 6 June Kościuszko was defeated in the Battle of Szczekociny by a joint Russo-Prussian force and on 8 June General Józef Zajączek was defeated in the Battle of Chełm. Polish forces withdrew towards Warsaw and started to fortify the city under directions from Kosciuszko and his 16,000 soldiers, 18,000 peasants and 15,000 burghers.[37]:197 On 15 June the Prussian army captured Kraków unopposed.[37]:195 Warsaw was besieged by 41,000 Russians under General Ivan Fersen and 25,000 Prussians under King Frederick William II of Prussia on 13 July.[37]:197 On 20 August, an uprising in Greater Poland started and the Prussians were forced to withdraw their forces from Warsaw. The siege was lifted by 6 September when the Prussians and Russians had both withdrawn their troops.[37]:200

Polish Kraków Grenadiers 1794
Polish Grenadiers in peasant costumes, Kraków 1794

Although the opposition in Lithuania was crushed by Russian forces (Vilnius was besieged and capitulated on 12 August), the uprising in Greater Poland achieved some success. A Polish corps under Jan Henryk Dąbrowski captured Bydgoszcz (2 October) and entered Pomerania almost unopposed. Thanks to the mobility of his forces, General Dąbrowski evaded being encircled by a much less mobile Prussian army and disrupted the Prussian lines, forcing the Prussians to withdraw most of their forces from central Poland. However, the Poles did not stay long in Prussian territories, and soon retreated to Central Poland.

Meanwhile, the Russians equipped a new corps commanded by General Aleksandr Suvorov and ordered it to join up with the corps under Ivan Fersen near Warsaw.[37]:204 After the Battle of Krupczyce (17 September) and the Battle of Terespol (19 September), the new army started its march towards Warsaw.[37]:205 Trying to prevent both Russian armies from joining up, Kościuszko mobilised two regiments from Warsaw and with General Sierakowski's 5,000 soldiers, engaged Fersen's force of 14,000 on 10 October in the Battle of Maciejowice.[37]:205–207 Kościuszko was wounded in the battle and was captured by the Russians, who sent him to Saint Petersburg.[37]:209

The new commander of the uprising, Tomasz Wawrzecki, could not control the spreading internal struggles for power and ultimately became only the commander of weakened military forces, while the political power was held by General Józef Zajączek,[37]:210 who in turn had to struggle with both the leftist liberal Polish Jacobins and the rightist and monarchical nobility.

On 4 November the joint Russian forces started the Battle of Praga, after the name of the right-bank suburb of Warsaw where it took place. After four hours of brutal hand-to-hand fighting, the 22,000-strong Russian forces broke through the Polish defences and Suvorov allowed his Cossacks to loot and burn Warsaw.[37]:210 Approximately 20,000 were murdered in the Praga massacre.[37]:211 Zajaczek fled wounded, abandoning the Polish army.[37]:195

On 16 November, near Radoszyce, Wawrzecki surrendered. This marked the end of the uprising. The power of Poland was broken and the following year the third partition of Poland took place, after which Austria, Russia and Prussia annexed the remainder of the country.


After the failure of the Kościuszko Uprising, the country ceased to exist for 123 years,[44] and all of its institutions were gradually banned by the partitioning powers. However, the uprising also marked the start of modern political thought in Poland and Central Europe. Kościuszko's Proclamation of Połaniec and the radical leftist Jacobins started the Polish leftist movement. Many prominent Polish politicians who were active during the uprising became the backbone of Polish politics, both home and abroad, in the 19th century. Also, Prussia had much of its forces tied up in Poland and could not field enough forces to suppress the French Revolution, which added to its success and briefly restored a Polish state.

In the lands of partitioned Poland, the failure of the uprising meant economic catastrophe, as centuries-old economic markets became divided and separated from each other, resulting in the collapse of trade. Several banks fell and some of the few manufacturing centres established in the Commonwealth were closed. Reforms made by the reformers and Kosciuszko, aimed at easing serfdom, were revoked. All the partitioning powers heavily taxed their newly acquired lands, filling their treasuries at the expense of the local population.

The schooling system was also degraded as the schools in those territories were given low priority. The Commission of National Education, the world's first Ministry of Education, was abolished, because the absolutist governments of the partitioning powers saw no gain in investing in education in the territories inhabited by restless Polish minorities. The creation of educational institutions in the partitions became very difficult. For example, an attempt to create a university in Warsaw was opposed by the Prussian authorities. Further, in the German and Russian partitions, all remaining centers of learning were subject to Germanisation and Russification; only in territories acquired by Austria was there relatively little governmental intervention in the curriculum.[45] According to S. I. Nikołajew, from the cultural point of view the partitions may have given a step forward towards the development of national Polish literature and arts, since the inhabitants of partitioned lands could acquire the cultural developments of German and Russian Enlightenment.[46]

The conditions for the former Polish elite were particularly harsh in Russian partition. Thousands of Polish szlachta families who supported Kościuszo's uprising were stripped of their possessions and estates, which were awarded to Russian generals and favourites of the St. Petersburg court. It is estimated that 650,000 former Polish serfs were transferred to Russian officials in this manner.[45] Some among the nobility, especially in Lithuanian and Ruthenian regions of the former Commonwealth, were expelled to southern Russia, where they were subject to Russification. Other nobles were denied their nobility status by Russian authorities, which meant loss of legal privileges and social status, significantly limiting any possibility of a career in administration or the military - the traditional career paths of Polish nobles. It also meant that they could not own any land, another blow to their former noble status. But for Orthodox Christian peasants of Western Ukraine and Belarus, the partition may have brought the decline of religious oppression by their formal lords, followers of Roman Catholicism.[47]

However, Orthodox Christians were only a small minority in Eastern Belarus at that time; the prevailing majority of the country's population was Eastern rite Catholics. Peasants were flogged just for mentioning the name of Kościuszko and his idea of abolishing serfdom. Platon Zubov, who was awarded estates in Lithuania, was especially infamous, as he personally tortured to death many peasants who complained about worsening conditions. Besides this, the Russian authorities conducted heavy recruiting for the Russian army among the population, which meant a practically lifelong service.[45] Since the conditions of serfdom in former Poland due to the exploitation by nobility and arendators were already severe, discussion exists on how partitions influenced the life of common people.[48]

See also


  1. ^ In some Russian sources, is also known as the Second Polish War[1] (Russian: Вторая польская война) or the Polish uprising of 1794[2] (Russian: Польское восстание 1794)


  1. ^ Вторая польская война 1795 года // Керсновский А. А. История Русской армии. — М. : Директ-Медиа, 2014. — С. 151—155. — 1215 с. — ISBN 978-5-4475-1048-0.
  2. ^ Польское восстание 1794 // Большая российская энциклопедия : [в 35 т.] / гл. ред. Ю. С. Осипов. — М. : Большая российская энциклопедия, 2004—2017.
  3. ^ Bartłomiej Szyndler. Powstanie kościuszkowskie (in Polish) (1994 ed.). Wydawn. Ancher. p. 455. ISBN 83-85576-10-X.
  4. ^ a b Norman Davies (March 30, 2005). God's Playground: The origins to 1795. Columbia University Press. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-231-12817-9. Retrieved August 13, 2011.
  5. ^ Francis Ludwig Carsten (January 1, 1961). The new Cambridge modern history: The ascendancy of France, 1648–88. Cambridge University Press. pp. 561–562. ISBN 978-0-521-04544-5. Retrieved June 11, 2011.
  6. ^ Jacek Jędruch (1998). Constitutions, elections, and legislatures of Poland, 1493–1977: a guide to their history. EJJ Books. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-7818-0637-4. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
  7. ^ Józef Andrzej Gierowski (1986). Historia Polski, 1764–1864 [History of Poland, 1764–1864] (in Polish). Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe. pp. 60–63. ISBN 978-83-01-03732-1. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
  8. ^ John P. LeDonne (1997). The Russian empire and the world, 1700–1917: the geopolitics of expansion and containment. Oxford University Press. pp. 41–42. ISBN 978-0-19-510927-6. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
  9. ^ Krzysztof Bauer (1991). Uchwalenie i obrona Konstytucji 3 Maja [Passing and defense of the Constitution of May 3] (in Polish). Wydawnictwa Szkolne i Pedagogiczne. p. 9. ISBN 978-83-02-04615-5. Retrieved January 2, 2012.
  10. ^ a b George Sanford (2002). Democratic government in Poland: constitutional politics since 1989. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 11–12. ISBN 978-0-333-77475-5. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
  11. ^ Jacek Jędruch (1998). Constitutions, elections, and legislatures of Poland, 1493–1977: a guide to their history. EJJ Books. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-7818-0637-4. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
  12. ^ a b Robert Bideleux; Ian Jeffries (January 28, 1998). A history of eastern Europe: crisis and change. Psychology Press. p. 160. ISBN 978-0-415-16111-4. Retrieved September 11, 2011.
  13. ^ a b Jerzy Lukowski (August 3, 2010). Disorderly liberty: the political culture of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the eighteenth century. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 226. ISBN 978-1-4411-4812-4. Retrieved September 23, 2011.
  14. ^ Piotr Stefan Wandycz (2001). The price of freedom: a history of East Central Europe from the Middle Ages to the present. Psychology Press. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-415-25491-5. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
  15. ^ Jacek Jędruch (1998). Constitutions, elections, and legislatures of Poland, 1493–1977: a guide to their history. EJJ Books. pp. 172–173. ISBN 978-0-7818-0637-4. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Jacek Jędruch (1998). Constitutions, elections, and legislatures of Poland, 1493–1977: a guide to their history. EJJ Books. pp. 184–185. ISBN 978-0-7818-0637-4. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
  17. ^ Paul W. Schroeder (1996). The transformation of European politics, 1763–1848. Oxford University Press. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-19-820654-5. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
  18. ^ Jerzy Lukowski; Hubert Zawadzki (2001). A concise history of Poland. Cambridge University Press. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-521-55917-1. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
  19. ^ a b Krzysztof Bauer (1991). Uchwalenie i obrona Konstytucji 3 Maja [Passing and Fall of the May 3 Constitution] (in Polish). Wydawnictwa Szkolne i Pedagogiczne. p. 167. ISBN 978-83-02-04615-5. Retrieved January 2, 2012.
  20. ^ a b Jerzy Łojek (1986). Geneza i obalenie Konstytucji 3 maja. Wydawn. Lubelskie. pp. 325–326. ISBN 978-83-222-0313-2. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
  21. ^ Hon. Carl L. Bucki (May 3, 1996). "Constitution Day: May 3, 1791". Polish Academic Information Center. Archived from the original on December 5, 2008. Retrieved September 21, 2008.
  22. ^ Robert Howard Lord (1915). The second partition of Poland: a study in diplomatic history. Harvard University Press. p. 275. Retrieved September 22, 2011.
  23. ^ a b Michal Kopeček (2006). Discourses of collective identity in Central and Southeast Europe (1770–1945): texts and commentaries. Central European University Press. pp. 282–284. ISBN 978-963-7326-52-3. Retrieved September 22, 2011.
  24. ^ a b Michal Kopeček (2006). Discourses of collective identity in Central and Southeast Europe (1770–1945): texts and commentaries. Central European University Press. pp. 284–285. ISBN 978-963-7326-52-3. Retrieved September 22, 2011.
  25. ^ Jadwiga Nadzieja (1988). Od Jakobina do księcia namiestnika. Wydawnictwo "Śląsk". pp. 38–39. ISBN 978-83-216-0682-8.
  26. ^ Alex Storozynski (January 2011). Kosciuszko Ksiaze chlopow. W.A.B. p. 222. ISBN 978-83-7414-930-3. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
  27. ^ Jerzy Łojek (1986). Geneza i obalenie Konstytucji 3 maja. Wydawn. Lubelskie. p. 402. ISBN 978-83-222-0313-2. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
  28. ^ a b c Jacek Jędruch (1998). Constitutions, elections, and legislatures of Poland, 1493–1977: a guide to their history. EJJ Books. pp. 186–187. ISBN 978-0-7818-0637-4. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
  29. ^ David Pickus (2001). Dying With an Enlightening Fall: Poland in the Eyes of German Intellectuals, 1764–1800. Lexington Books. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-7391-0153-7. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
  30. ^ Daniel Stone (2001). The Polish-Lithuanian State: 1386-1795. University of Washington Press. pp. 282–285. ISBN 978-0-295-98093-5. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
  31. ^ Alex Storozynski (January 2011). Kosciuszko Ksiaze chlopow. W.A.B. pp. 232–233. ISBN 978-83-7414-930-3. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
  32. ^ Jadwiga Nadzieja (1988). Od Jakobina do księcia namiestnika. Wydawnictwo "Śląsk". p. 55. ISBN 978-83-216-0682-8.
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  35. ^ Alex Storozynski (January 2011). Kosciuszko Ksiaze chlopow. W.A.B. p. 238. ISBN 978-83-7414-930-3. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
  36. ^ Alex Storozynski (January 2011). Kosciuszko Ksiaze chlopow. W.A.B. p. 245. ISBN 978-83-7414-930-3. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Storozynski, A., 2009, The Peasant Prince, New York: St. Martin's Press, ISBN 9780312388027
  38. ^ Henry Smith Williams (1904). The Historians' History of the World: Switzerland (concluded ), Russia and Poland. Outlook Company. p. 418. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
  39. ^ Grzegorz Reszka (2005). "Insurekcja kościuszkowska". polskiedzieje.pl. Archived from the original on 26 September 2007. Retrieved 29 March 2006.
  40. ^ Н. И. Костомаров. Последние годы Речи Посполитой. / ПСС. СПб. 1871. С. 571
  41. ^ Duffy C. Russia's Military Way to the West: Origins and Nature of Russian Military Power 1700-1800. Routledge. 2015. P. 196
  42. ^ Faddey Bulgarin (21 August 2015). "Воспоминания (Memoires)" (in Russian). Российский Мемуарий.: "In every living being our embittered soldiers saw the murderer of our men during the uprising in Warsaw… It cost a lot of effort for the Russian officers to save these poor people from the revenge of our soldiers… At four o'clock the terrible revenge for the slaughter of our men in Warsaw was complete!”
  43. ^ Denis Davydov (31 March 2009). "ВСТРЕЧА С ВЕЛИКИМ СУВОРОВЫМ (Spotkanie z wielki Suworowem)" (in Russian). Lib.ru/Классика.: "During the assault on Praga the rage of our troops, who were burning with revenge for the treacherous slaughter of our comrades by the Poles, reached extreme limits”.
  44. ^ Peter Hagget. "Encyclopedia of World Geography, Volume 24" Marshall Cavendish, 2001. ISBN 978-0761472896. p 1740
  45. ^ a b c Anna Radziwił, Wojciech Roszkowski, Historia 1789-1871 Warsaw 2000
  46. ^ Nikołajew, S. I. Od Kochanowskiego do Mickiewicza. Szkice z historii polsko-rosyjskich związków literackich XVII–XIX wieku / Tłum. J. Głażewski. Warszawa: Neriton, 2007. 319 s. (Nauka o Literaturze Polskiej za Granicą, t. X)
  47. ^ Kalik, Judith (2003). "The Orthodox Church and the Jews in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth". Jewish history. 17 (2): 229–237.
  48. ^ Kula, Witold. An Economic Theory of the Feudal System: Towards a Model of the Polish Economy, 1500–1800. Translated by Lawrence Garner. New ed. London, 1976.
Battle of Brest (1794)

The Battle of Brest (referred to by Polish historians as "Bitwa pod Terespolem" (Battle near Terespol)) was a battle between Russian imperial forces and Polish rebels south-west of Brest (near the village of Terespol), present-day Belarus, on 19 September 1794. It was part of the Kościuszko Uprising.

Battle of Chełm

The Battle of Chełm was fought on June 8, 1794 between Poland and the combined forces of the Russian Empire and Prussia. The Polish were led by Józef Zajączek, the Russo-Prussian forces by Petrowicz Zagriażski and Wilhelm Derfelden. The Russo-Prussian forces consisted of 16,500 soldiers, and 24 cannons, while the Polish general only had about 6,000 soldiers, 14 cannons, and 2,000 peasant soldiers armed with war scythes.

Zajączek took in the forested hills 1.5 km away from the city. In the early noon the Russian troops started the attack. After several hours of fighting Zajączek could only try to save as much of his army as possible through a withdrawal.

In the battle, the Polish forces have lost between 1,400 and 1,600 men. The Russian forces have lost only about 200 men.

The Russian forces were victorious.

Battle of Maciejowice

The Battle of Maciejowice was fought on 10 October 1794, between Poland and the Russian Empire.

The Poles were led by Tadeusz Kościuszko. Kościuszko with 6,200 men, who planned to prevent the linking of three larger Russian corps, commanded by generals Fyodor Denisov, Iwan Fersen and Alexander Suvorov. He also had requested the support of Adam Poniński (who had 4,000 soldiers), but Poniński failed to arrive on the battlefield in time.

Battle of Praga

The Battle of Praga or the Second Battle of Warsaw of 1794 was a Russian assault of Praga, the easternmost suburb of Warsaw, during the Kościuszko Uprising in 1794. It was followed by a massacre (known as the Massacre of Praga) of the civilian population of Praga.

Battle of Racławice

The Battle of Racławice was one of the first battles of the Polish Kościuszko Uprising against Russia. It was fought on 4 April 1794 near the village of Racławice in Lesser Poland.The battle site is one of Poland's official national Historic Monuments (Pomnik historii), as designated May 1, 2004. Its listing is maintained by the National Heritage Board of Poland.

Battle of Rajgród (1794)

The Battle of Rajgród Polish: Bitwa pod Rajgrodem was a battle of Kościuszko Uprising between Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth rebel army and the Kingdom of Prussia which took place in Rajgród on 1794 July 10. Rebels using only the cold arms and without the heavy artillery were able to temporarily push out the Prussian army from the city.

Battle of Szczekociny

The Battle of Szczekociny was fought on 6 June 1794 near the town of Szczekociny, Lesser Poland, between Poland and the combined forces of the Russian Empire and Kingdom of Prussia. Polish forces were led by Tadeusz Kościuszko, and the Russians and Prussians by Alexander Tormasov, future eminent general of the Napoleonic Wars. Tormasov was aided by Prussian General Francis Favrat, who emphasized the use of artillery, which put Russian-Prussian forces in the advantage.

Eustachy Erazm Sanguszko

Prince Eustachy Erazm Sanguszko (1768–1844) was a Polish nobleman, general, military commander, diplomat and politician.

Friedrich Karl Ludwig, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck

Friedrich Karl Ludwig of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck (20 August 1757 – 24 April 1816) was the ninth and penultimate Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck. Friedrich Karl Ludwig was the son of Prince Karl Anton August of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck and his wife Countess Charlotte of Dohna-Schlodien.

Greater Poland uprising (1794)

The 1794 Greater Poland uprising (Polish: Powstanie Wielkopolskie 1794 roku) was a military insurrection by Poles in Wielkopolska (Greater Poland) against Kingdom of Prussia which had taken possession of this territory after the 1793 Second Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Hermann von Boyen

Leopold Hermann Ludwig von Boyen (20 June 1771 – 15 February 1848) was a Prussian army officer who helped to reform the Prussian Army in the early 19th century. He also served as minister of war of Prussia in the period 1810-1813 and later again from 1 March 1841 – 6 October 1847.

Levin August von Bennigsen

Levin August Gottlieb Theophil Graf von Bennigsen (10 February 1745 in Braunschweig – 3 December 1826 in Banteln) was a German general in the service of the Russian Empire.

Nikolay Tuchkov

Nikolay Alexeivich Tuchkov (16 April 1765 - 30 October 1812, Yaroslavl) was a Russian general of the Russo-Swedish War (1788–1790), the suppression of the Kościuszko Uprising and the opposition to the French invasion of Russia. He rose to the rank of lieutenant general and commander of an infantry corps.

Proclamation of Połaniec

The Proclamation of Połaniec (also known as the Połaniec Manifesto; Polish: Uniwersał Połaniecki), issued on 7 May 1794 by Tadeusz Kościuszko near the town of Połaniec, was one of the most notable events of Poland's Kościuszko Uprising, and the most famous legal act of the Uprising. It partially abolished serfdom in Poland, granting substantial civil liberties to all the peasants. The motives behind the Połaniec Proclamation were twofold: first, Kosciuszko, a liberal and reformer, believed that serfdom was an unfair system and should be ended; second, the uprising was in desperate need of recruits, and freeing the peasants would prompt many to enlist.

The proclamation provided the peasants with the personal freedom, right for assistance from the state against the abuses of the Polish nobility (szlachta) and gave them specific property rights to the land they cultivated. Although this new law never fully came into being and was boycotted by much of the szlachta, it also attracted many peasants to the ranks of the revolutionists, resulting in the formation of the famous kosynierzy peasant infantry, the most famous of whom, Bartosz Głowacki, became one of the heroes of the Uprising. It was the first time in Polish history when the peasants were officially regarded as part of the nation, the word being previously equal to szlachta.

This was the second legal act issued by the reformed Polish state (the first being the Constitution of May 3, considered the second oldest constitution in the world, and was the expansion of the 4th act of that constitution. It was also the last legal act of the Commonwealth, and just like the constitution that made it possible, it had a short lifespan and negligible impact on most of Commonwealth citizens. In many places where revolutionary forces could not enforce it, the local szlachta simply ignored the proclamation. However the news of the proclamation spread among the peasantry and was kept alive by the revolutionary and patriotic minded Poles. Over the next several decades, after the partitions of Poland ended the existence of Poland as a separate state, it became one of the symbols of Polish history.

The proclamation specifically granted to peasants:

limited personal freedom

reduction of serfdom during the current crisis and promise of further reduction after the end of hostilities

freeing from serfdom of all peasants conscripted to the military

the right not to be removed from their land

limited right to appeal to the state's courts

introduction of the dozorca office, the first government official representing the peasant will to the government. Dozorca represented about 1000 families, and he was supposed to enforce the proclamation

Provisional Council of the Duchy of Masovia

The Provisional Council of the Duchy of Masovia (Polish: Rada Zastępcza Tymczasowa Księstwa Mazowieckiego) was a government ad interim of Warsaw and the Masovian Voivodeship, liberated in the Warsaw Insurrection during the Kościuszko Uprising. It was headed by Ignacy Wyssogota Zakrzewski, president of Warsaw.

It operated between 19 April and 27 May 1794, when it was subordinated to the Supreme National Council.

The Council comprised four sections, each headed by a counselor:

Diplomatic Section

Police Section

Treasury Section

Military Section

Siege of Warsaw (1794)

The Siege of Warsaw of 1794 was a joint Russian and Prussian siege of the capital of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, during the Kościuszko Uprising in the summer of 1794. It ended with the Polish victory when, after a two-month siege, the Prussian and Russian army ended the siege and withdrew from Warsaw.

Supreme National Council

Supreme National Council (Polish: Rada Najwyższa Narodowa) was the central civil government of Poland loyal to the Kościuszko Insurrection. Created by Kościuszko on 10 May 1794 in Połaniec camp, it had 8 councillors and 32 deputies.

Vasily Lanskoy

Vasily Sergeyevich Lanskoy (Russian: Василий Сергеевич Ланской) (1754–1831) was a Russian statesman, politician, and Minister of the Interior from August 29 of 1823 to April 19 of 1828.

Vilnius uprising (1794)

The Vilnius uprising of 1794 began on April 22, 1794, during which Polish and Lithuanian forces led by Jakub Jasiński fought Russian forces occupying the city during the Kościuszko Uprising. The Russians were expelled from Vilnius, and thanks to Jasiński's skill, no casualties were sustained during the bloodless uprising.A Russian garrison of some 2,000 was stationed in the spring of 1794 in the city of Vilnius, while Commonwealth forces had only 400 soldiers. In the night of April 11 / 12, upon order of Russian General Nikolai Arseniev, several rebels were arrested. On April 21, Lithuanian Hetman Szymon Kossakowski came to Vilnius, urging the Russians to capture yet more rebels, and attack rebel forces concentrated around the city. Under the circumstances, Jakub Jasinski decided to initiate the insurrection. It began in the night of April 22 / 23, and after a short fight, the city was under rebel control.

On April 24 the “Act of Rebellion of the Lithuanian Nation” was announced. The rebels declared their unity with the Kosciuszko Uprising, which had begun in Lesser Poland. On the same day, April 24, the so-called High Temporary Council was created, headed by the Mayor of Vilnius, Antoni Tyzenhauz, and Voivode of Navahrudak, Jozef Niesiolowski. It had 31 members, and formed separate offices to manage the military forces, the administration and the treasury. Jakub Jasinski was named commandant of rebel forces in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. On April 25, Hetman Kossakowski was hanged as a traitor of the Commonwealth.

On June 4 Tadeusz Kosciuszko dissolved the Council, as he regarded it too radical, and replaced it with Central Office of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Also, Kosciuszko dismissed Colonel Jasinski, naming General Michal Wielhorski commandant of the rebel army in Lithuania.

On July 19, the Russians attacked Vilnius The city was defended by 500 soldiers and 1,500 armed members of the municipal militia. Russian army, commanded by General Gotthard Johann von Knorring, had some 8,000 soldiers, with several cannons. After two days of heavy fighting, Vilnius remained in the hands of the rebels.

On August 11, General von Knorring, whose forces had grown to 12,000 soldiers, initiated another assault on Vilnius. The city, whose defense was commanded by General Antoni Chlewinski, capitulated after one day.

The Vilnius Uprising is commemorated on the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, Warsaw, with the inscription "WILNO 22 IV – 13 VIII 1794”.

Kościuszko Uprising
Polish uprisings
Second Republic
World War II
People's Republic
Piast Poland
Jagiellon Poland
Poland partitioned
Second Republic
Second World War
People's Republic
Third Republic
Armed conflicts involving Russia (incl. Imperial and Soviet times)

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