Kivalina, Alaska

Kivalina (kiv-uh-LEE-nuh;[6] Kivalliñiq in Iñupiaq) is a city[7][8] and village in Northwest Arctic Borough, Alaska, United States. The population was 377 at the 2000 census[9] and 374 as of the 2010 census.[7]

The island on which the village lies is threatened by rising sea levels and coastal erosion. As of 2013, it is predicted that the island will be inundated by 2025.[10]


Aerial view of Kivalina
Aerial view of Kivalina
Location in Northwest Arctic Borough and the state of Alaska.
Location in Northwest Arctic Borough and the state of Alaska.
Coordinates: 67°43′38″N 164°32′21″W / 67.72722°N 164.53917°WCoordinates: 67°43′38″N 164°32′21″W / 67.72722°N 164.53917°W
CountryUnited States
BoroughNorthwest Arctic
IncorporatedJune 23, 1969[1]
 • MayorAustin Swan, Sr.[2]
 • State senatorDonny Olson (D)
 • State rep.John Lincoln (D)
 • Total4.16 sq mi (10.78 km2)
 • Land1.63 sq mi (4.23 km2)
 • Water2.53 sq mi (6.55 km2)
13 ft (4 m)
 • Total374
 • Estimate 
 • Density232.37/sq mi (89.70/km2)
Time zoneUTC-9 (Alaska (AKST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC-8 (AKDT)
ZIP Code
Area code907
FIPS code02-39960
GNIS feature ID1413348, 2419411


Kivalina is an Inupiat community first reported as "Kivualinagmut" in 1847 by Lt. Lavrenty Zagoskin of the Imperial Russian Navy. It has long been a stopping place for travelers between Arctic coastal areas and Kotzebue Sound communities. Three bodies and artifacts were found in 2009 representing the Ipiutak culture, a pre-Thule, non-whaling civilization that disappeared over a millennium ago.[11]

It is the only village in the region where people hunt the bowhead whale. The original village was located at the north end of the Kivalina Lagoon but was relocated.

In about 1900, reindeer were brought to the area and some people were trained as reindeer herders.

An airstrip was built at Kivalina in 1960. Kivalina incorporated as a second-class city in 1969. During the 1970s, a new school and an electric system were constructed in the city.

On December 5, 2014 the only general store in Kivalina burned down.[12] In July 2015, a newer store was opened after months of rebuilding to make the store more convenient and safe.[13]


Kivalina is on the southern tip of a 12 km (7.5 mi) long barrier island located between the Chukchi Sea and a lagoon at the mouth of the Kivalina River.[14] It lies 130 km (81 mi) northwest of Kotzebue.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 3.9 square miles (10 km2), of which, 1.9 square miles (4.9 km2) of it is land and 2.0 square miles (5.2 km2) of it (51.55%) is water.


Historical population
Census Pop.
Est. 2018379[5]1.3%
U.S. Decennial Census[15]

Kivalina first appeared on the 1920 U.S. Census as an unincorporated (native) village. It formally incorporated in 1969.

As of the census[9] of 2000, there were 377 people, 78 households, and 64 families residing in the village. The population density was 202.1 people per square mile (77.8/km²). There were 80 housing units at an average density of 42.9 per square mile (16.5/km²). The racial makeup of the village was 3.45% White and 96.55% Native American.

There were 78 households out of which 61.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.8% were married couples living together, 15.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 17.9% were non-families. 16.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.83 and the average family size was 5.50. In the village the population was spread out with 44.0% under the age of 18, 13.3% from 18 to 24, 20.7% from 25 to 44, 15.9% from 45 to 64, and 6.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 21 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 113.1 males.

The median income for a household in the village was $30,833, and the median income for a family was $30,179. Males had a median income of $31,875 versus $21,875 for females. The per capita income for the village was $8,360. About 25.4% of families and 26.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.9% of those under age 18 and 30.0% of those age 65 or over.

Environmental issues

Due to severe sea wave erosion during storms, the city hopes to relocate again to a new site 12 km (7.5 mi) from the present site; studies of alternate sites are ongoing.[16] According to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the estimated cost of relocation runs between $95 and $125 million, whereas the Government Accountability Office (GAO) estimates it to be between $100 and $400 million.[17]

In 2011, Haymarket Books published _Kivalina: A Climate Change Story_ by Christine Shearer.

Kivalina v. ExxonMobil Corporation

The city of Kivalina and a federally recognized tribe, the Alaska Native Village of Kivalina, sued Exxon Mobil Corporation, eight other oil companies, 14 power companies and one coal company in a lawsuit filed in federal court in San Francisco on February 26, 2008, claiming that the large amounts of greenhouse gases they emit contribute to global warming that threatens the community's existence.[18] The lawsuit estimates the cost of relocation at $400 million.[19] The suit was dismissed by the United States district court on September 30, 2009, on the grounds that regulating greenhouse emissions was a political rather than a legal issue and one that needed to be resolved by Congress and the Administration rather than by courts.[20]

Kivalina has also sued Canadian mining company Teck Cominco for polluting its water source.[21]

"Orange goo"

Orange goo

On August 4, 2011, it was reported that residents of the city of Kivalina had seen a strange orange goo wash up on the shores. According to the Associated Press, "Tests have been conducted on the substance on the surface of the water in Kivalina. City Administrator Janet Mitchell told the Associated Press that the substance has also shown up in some residents' rain buckets."[22] On August 8, 2011, Associated Press reported that the substance consisted of millions of microscopic eggs.[23] Later, officials of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) confirmed that the orange colored materials were some kind of crustacean eggs or embryos,[24][25][26] but subsequent examination resulted in a declaration that the substance consisted of spores from a possibly undescribed species of rust fungus,[27] later revealed to be Chrysomyxa ledicola.[28]

Kivalina in the Media

Kivalina's environmental issues were prominently featured in The 2015 Weather Channel documentary "Alaska: State of Emergency" hosted by Dave Malkoff. Kivalina was one of the two towns featured in the Al Jazeera English Fault Lines documentary, When the Water Took the Land.[29][30] The community, who were originally nomadic, were given an ultimatum that they would have to settle in the permanent community or their children would be taken from them.[31] The village's plight was also examined in Kivalina, an hourlong documentary released as part of the PBS World series America ReFramed.


The McQueen School, operated by the Northwest Arctic Borough School District, serves the community. As of 2017 it had 141 students, with Alaska Natives making up 100% of the student body.[32]

See also


  1. ^ 1996 Alaska Municipal Officials Directory. Juneau: Alaska Municipal League/Alaska Department of Community and Regional Affairs. January 1996. p. 81.
  2. ^ 2015 Alaska Municipal Officials Directory. Juneau: Alaska Municipal League. 2015. p. 87.
  3. ^ "2018 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved Jul 1, 2019.
  4. ^ "2010 City Population and Housing Occupancy Status". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
  5. ^ a b "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  6. ^ "Kivalina". Division of Community and Regional Affairs, Alaska Department of Commerce, Community and Economic Development. Archived from the original on December 30, 2012. Retrieved January 24, 2013.
  7. ^ a b "Kivalina city, Alaska". Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 23, 2013.
  8. ^ "Alaska Taxable 2011: Municipal Taxation - Rates and Policies" (PDF). Division of Community and Regional Affairs, Alaska Department of Commerce, Community and Economic Development. January 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-04-25.
  9. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  10. ^ Stephen Sackur (30 July 2013). "The Alaskan village set to disappear underwater in a decade". BBC News.
  11. ^ "Remains of ancient inhabitants found in Kivilina." Anchorage Daily News, 25 August 2009 Archived 27 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ DeMarban, Alex. "Fire Destroys General Store in Arctic Village of Kivalina." Fire Destroys General Store in Arctic Village of Kivalina 5 Dec. 2014. Alaska Dispatch News. Web. 11 Dec. 2014. <>.
  13. ^ "This is climate change: Alaskan villagers struggle as island is chewed up by the sea" LA Times, 30 August 2015
  14. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-06-18. Retrieved 2016-02-06.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact, Section 117 Expedited Erosion Control Project Kivilana Alaska, ACOE, September 2007, Retrieved 2010-06-20
  15. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Archived from the original on April 26, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  16. ^ An Alaska island is Losing Ground, Los Angeles Times, 25 Nov. 2007
  17. ^ Abate, Randall S. (May 2010). "Public Nuisance Suits for the Climate Justice Movement: The Right Thing and the Right Time" (PDF). Washington Law Review. 85: 197–252.
  18. ^ "Eskimo village sues over global warming", CNN, 26 February 2008.
  19. ^ Felicity Barringer (2008-02-27). "Flooded Village Files Suit, Citing Corporate Link to Climate Change". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-02-29.
  20. ^ Order Granting Motions to Dismiss, N.D. Cal., Sept. 30, 2009.
  21. ^ "Teck Cominco to pay $120 million for Alaskan pipeline Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine", Montreal Gazette.
  22. ^ "Mysterious orange goo washes up in Alaska village". Forbes. ANCHORAGE, Alaska. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
  23. ^ Orange goo near remote Alaska village ID'd as eggs, Associated Press, August 8, 2011
  24. ^ D'Oro, Rachel. "Orange goo near remote Alaska village ID'd as eggs". The Associated Press. Anchorage, Alaska: Google Search. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
  25. ^ "Mysterious Orange Goo Baffles Remote Alaska Village". Fox News. August 6, 2011. Retrieved August 9, 2011.
  26. ^ "Mystery Orange Goo in Remote Alaskan Village Identified". Fox News. August 8, 2011. Retrieved August 9, 2011.
  27. ^ "Orange Goo on Alaska Shore Was Fungal Spores". Fox News. August 18, 2011. Retrieved August 18, 2011.
  28. ^ "Alaska "Orange Goo" Rust Spores Confirmed". NCCOS News. National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science. 9 February 2012. Retrieved 7 March 2012. An “orange goo” covered the Inupiat village of Kivalina, Alaska, last summer. Six months later the substance was confirmed by forestry experts at the USDA Forest Service and the Canadian Forest Service to be rust fungi uredospores of Chrysomyxa ledicola.
  29. ^ "Alaska: When the Water Took the Land". Fault Lines. Al Jazeera English. 22 December 2015.
  30. ^ Alaska News (18 December 2015). "Al Jazeera documentary tells tale of two eroding Alaska villages". Alaska Dispatch News.
  31. ^ Arnold, Elizabeth (29 July 2008). "Tale Of Two Alaskan Villages". Day to Day. NPR.
  32. ^ Home. McQueen School. Retrieved on March 26, 2017.

Further reading

External links

American Electric Power Co. v. Connecticut

American Electric Power Company v. Connecticut, 564 U.S. 410 (2011), was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court, in an 8–0 decision, held that corporations cannot be sued for greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) under federal common law, primarily because the Clean Air Act (CAA) delegates the management of carbon dioxide and other GHG emissions to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Brought to court in July 2004 in the Southern District of New York, this was the first global warming case based on a public nuisance claim.

Channel 9 low-power TV stations in the United States

The following low-power television stations broadcast on digital or analog channel 9 in the United States:

K09AI-D in Las Vegas, New Mexico

K09BA in Randolph, Utah

K09BE-D in Ekalaka, Montana

K09BG-D in Basin, Montana

K09BI-D in Methow, Washington

K09BJ-D in Entiat, Washington

K09BQ in Helper, Utah

K09BW in Forsyth, Montana

K09BX-D in Saco, Montana

K09CD in Rockville, Utah

K09CJ-D in Cedar City, Utah

K09CL-D in Rock Island, Washington

K09CS in Beaver, etc., Utah

K09CX in Green River, Utah

K09CY in Vernal, etc., Utah

K09DF-D in Juliaetta, Idaho

K09DG in Omak, etc., Washington

K09DM-D in Cortez, Colorado

K09DW-D in Ruth, Nevada

K09DY-D in Westcliffe, Colorado

K09EA-D in Ely & McGill, Nevada

K09EP in Grants, etc., New Mexico

K09ES-D in Cashmere, Washington

K09FF-D in Squilchuck St. Park, Washington

K09FJ-D in Pioche, Nevada

K09FK-D in Ursine, Nevada

K09FL-D in Caliente, Nevada

K09FQ-D in Thompson Falls, Montana

K09HI in Jordan, etc., Montana

K09HY-D in Glasgow, Montana

K09IV-D in Plevna, Montana

K09JG-D in Malta, Montana

K09KJ-D in Tierra Amarilla, New Mexico

K09KP in Toquerville, Utah

K09LH in Manitou Springs, Colorado

K09LO-D in Cascade, Idaho

K09LW-D in Martinsdale/Lennep, Montana

K09MG in Ridgecrest, etc., California

K09MH-D in White Sulphur Springs, Montana

K09MQ in Hanna, etc., Utah

K09MY-D in Polaris, Montana

K09NE in Tatitlek, Alaska

K09NF in Chitina, Alaska

K09NG in Noatak, Alaska

K09NH in Shungnak, Alaska

K09NI in Mekoryuk, Alaska

K09NK in Perryville, Alaska

K09NO in Pilot Point, Alaska

K09OK in Rosebud, etc., Montana

K09OQ in Wrangell, Alaska

K09OR in Cordova, Alaska

K09OT in Valdez, Alaska

K09OU in Petersburg, Alaska

K09OV in Kotzebue, Alaska

K09OW in Nome, Alaska

K09OY-D in Colstrip, Montana

K09PC in Grayling, Alaska

K09PD in Haines, Alaska

K09PJ-D in Ouray, Colorado

K09PL-D in Dingle, etc., Idaho

K09PO in Chevak, Alaska

K09PR in Nikolai, Alaska

K09PX in Chistochina, Alaska

K09QC in McGrath, Alaska

K09QD in Huslia, Alaska

K09QE in Larsen Bay, Alaska

K09QF in Angoon, Alaska

K09QG in Chalkyitsik, Alaska

K09QH-D in Kenai, Alaska

K09QI in Hydaburg, Alaska

K09QJ in Mentasta Lake, Alaska

K09QK in Karluk, Alaska

K09QL in Allakaket, etc., Alaska

K09QM in Nelson Lagoon, Alaska

K09QN in Point Hope, Alaska

K09QP in Kake, Alaska

K09QQ in Beaver, Alaska

K09QR in Gambell, Alaska

K09QU in Togiak, Alaska

K09QW in King Cove, Alaska

K09QX in St. Michael, Alaska

K09QY in Kaktovik, Alaska

K09QZ in Kivalina, Alaska

K09RA in Sand Point, Alaska

K09RB in St. Paul, Alaska

K09RC in Unalakleet, Alaska

K09RD in Rampart, Alaska

K09RE in St. George, Alaska

K09RF in Eagle Village, Alaska

K09RG in Kongiganak, Alaska

K09RH in Akutan, Alaska

K09RK in Nikolski, Alaska

K09RO in Teller, Alaska

K09RP in False Pass, Alaska

K09RS in Anaktuvuk Pass, Alaska

K09RT in Nuiqsut, Alaska

K09RV in Arctic Village, Alaska

K09RY in Hughes, Alaska

K09RZ in Shishmaref, Alaska

K09SA in Koyuk, Alaska

K09SD-D in Lemhi, etc., Idaho

K09SF in North Fork, etc., Wyoming

K09SG in Goodnews Bay, Alaska

K09SI in Cantwell, Alaska

K09SK in Egegik, Alaska

K09SL in Kotlik, Alaska

K09SN in Ivanof Bay, Alaska

K09SO in Chignik Lagoon, Alaska

K09SP in Igiugig, Alaska

K09SR in Port Lions, Alaska

K09SU in Hildale, etc., Utah

K09SV in Stevens Village, Alaska

K09SW in Tanunak, Alaska

K09TE in Bettles, Alaska

K09TH-D in Gunnison, Colorado

K09TI in Meyers Chuck, Alaska

K09TK in Elfin Cove, Alaska

K09TM in Kakhonak, Alaska

K09TQ in Manokotak, Alaska

K09TR in Kalskag, Alaska

K09TT in Circle, Alaska

K09TU in Lake Louise, etc., Alaska

K09TW in Venetie, Alaska

K09TX in Kaltag, Alaska

K09TZ in Atkasuk, Alaska

K09UA in Yakutat, Alaska

K09UB in Whittier, Alaska

K09UD in Akhiok, Alaska

K09UE in Kasigluk, Alaska

K09UP-D in Colville, Washington

K09VC-D in Paisley, Oregon

K09VL-D in Boyes & Hammond, Montana

K09WB-D in Powderhorn, Colorado

K09WS in Roundup, Montana

K09XK-D in Sheridan, Wyoming

K09XL-D in Douglas, Wyoming

K09XO-D in Homer, Alaska

K09XW-D in Palm Desert, etc., California

K09XY-D in Coolin, Idaho

K09YE-D in La Pine, Oregon

K09YH-D in Scottsbluff, Nebraska

K09YI-D in Gillette, Wyoming

K09YJ in Mexican Hat, Utah

K09YK-D in Durango/Purgatory, Colorado

K09YO-D in Thomasville, Colorado

K09YP-D in Mink Creek, Idaho

K09YR-D in Harlowton, Montana

K09YT-D in Sula, Montana

K09YW-D in Leamington, Utah

K09ZA-D in Leavenworth, Washington

K09ZB-D in Havre, Montana

K09ZP-D in Sigurd & Salina, Utah

K20DW-D in Juab, Utah

K47JI-D in Blanding/Monticello, Utah

K50GD-D in Long Valley Junction, Utah

KBCI-LD in Bonners Ferry, Idaho

KEBQ-LP in Beaumont, Texas

KKCO in Paonia, Colorado

KMXT-LP in Kodiak, Alaska

KNPG-LD in Saint Joseph, Missouri

KRKG-LP in Lewiston, Missouri

KSDX-LD in San Diego, California

KUVU-LP in Eureka, California

KXLH-LD in Helena, Montana

KXMN-LD in Spokane, etc., Washington

W09AF-D in Sylva, North Carolina

W09AG-D in Franklin, North Carolina

W09AS-D in Burnsville, North Carolina

W09AT in Fajardo, Puerto Rico

W09CK in Flint, Michigan

W09CZ-D in Roslyn, New York

W09DB-D in Williamsport, Pennsylvania

WBON-LD in East Bernstadt, Kentucky

WDGT-LD in Miami, Florida

WEQT-LD in Gainesville, Georgia

WHCQ-LD in Cleveland, Mississippi

WJKF-CA in Jacksonville, Florida

WNGF-LP in Gouverneur, New York

WOPI-CD in Kingsport, Tennessee/Bristol, Virginia

WQWQ-LP in Paducah, Kentucky

WWPS-LP in Hawley, Pennsylvania

WWRP-LP in Tallahassee, FloridaThe following low-power stations, which are no longer licensed, formerly broadcast on digital or analog channel 9:

K09AH in Aguilar, Colorado

K09AK in Eagle Nest, New Mexico

K09FX in Circleville, Utah

K09GK in White Bird, Idaho

K09GW in Broken Bow, Nebraska

K09HU in Hoehne, Colorado

K09ID in Soda Springs, etc., Idaho

K09IJ in La Barge, Wyoming

K09JE in Palmer, Alaska

K09JH in Mayfield, Utah

K09JJ in Bloomfield, etc., New Mexico

K09JR in Hazen, North Dakota

K09LC in Hanksville, Utah

K09LF in South Park, Wyoming

K09MI in Jeffrey City, Wyoming

K09MM in Paradise Valley, Nevada

K09MO in Hatch, Utah

K09NV in Alton, Utah

K09PI in Happy Camp, etc., California

K09UF in Morro Bay, California

K09VF in Samak, Utah

K09VQ in Crescent City, California

K09VW in Fish Lake Resort, Utah

K09WJ in Escalante, Utah

K09WP-D in Checkerboard, Montana

K09XF in Henrieville, Utah

K09XS in Buena Vista & Salida, Colorado

K09YQ-D in Ketchikan, Alaska

W09BB in Schroon Lake, New York

W09CQ in Jamestown, Kentucky

W09CT-D in Mathias, etc., West Virginia

Chrysomyxa ledicola

Chrysomyxa ledicola is a plant pathogen responsible for the disease large-spored spruce-Labrador tea rust. It affects white spruce, black spruce, Sitka spruce, Englemann spruce, and Labrador-tea. It is also the cause of the orange goo that covered the Iñupiat village of Kivalina, Alaska in the summer of 2011.


The Coleosporiaceae are a family of rust fungi in the order Pucciniales. The family contains 6 genera and 131 species.

Greedy Lying Bastards

Greedy Lying Bastards is a 2012 American documentary film directed by Craig Rosebraugh. The film explores the phenomenon of climate change denial.


KOTZ is a non-commercial radio station in Kotzebue, Alaska, broadcasting on 720 AM.

Kivalina Airport

Kivalina Airport (IATA: KVL, ICAO: PAVL, FAA LID: KVL) is a state-owned public-use airport located in Kivalina, a city in the Northwest Arctic Borough of the U.S. state of Alaska.

Kivalina River

The Kivalina River is a 60-mile-long (97 km) river in the northwestern part of the U.S. state of Alaska, flowing into Kivalina Lagoon in the Northwest Arctic Borough. It begins in the De Long Mountains and flows southwest 60 miles (97 km) through Kivalina Lagoon to the Chukchi Sea. Its Inuit name was spelled "Kuveleek" by Lieutenant G. M. Stoney, United States Navy, in 1885, and its present spelling was adopted in 1904.

The village of Kivalina is located on a reef at the mouth of the river.

Kivalina v. ExxonMobil Corp.

Kivalina v. ExxonMobil Corp., No. 4:08-cv-01138 (N.D. Cal.), is a lawsuit filed on February 26, 2008, in a United States district court. The suit, based on the common law theory of nuisance, claims monetary damages from the energy industry for the destruction of Kivalina, Alaska by flooding caused by climate change. The damage estimates made by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Government Accountability Office are placed between $95 million and $400 million. This lawsuit is an example of greenhouse gas emission liability.The suit was dismissed by the United States district court on September 30, 2009, on the grounds that regulating greenhouse emissions was a political rather than a legal issue and one that needed to be resolved by Congress and the Administration rather than by courts. An appeal was filed with the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in November 2009. In September 2012, the panel of appeals judges decided not to reinstate the case. The city appealed the court of appeals decision to the U.S. Supreme Court and on May 20, 2013 the Supreme Court justices decided not hear the case, effectively ending the city's legal claim.


A lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs. Lagoons are commonly divided into coastal lagoons and atoll lagoons. They have also been identified as occurring on mixed-sand and gravel coastlines. There is an overlap between bodies of water classified as coastal lagoons and bodies of water classified as estuaries. Lagoons are common coastal features around many parts of the world.

List of Alaska locations by per capita income

Alaska has the seventh-highest per capita income in the United States, at $30,651 (2014). Its personal per capita income is $33,568 (2003), the twelfth-highest in the country. Its median household income is $69,825 (2014), ranked second in the country, and its median family income is $82,870 (2014), the fifth-highest in the country. The median value of an owner-occupied housing unit is $144,201 (2000), ranked twelfth in the country.

List of FM radio stations in the United States by call sign (initial letters KQ–KS)

This is a list of FM radio stations in the United States having call signs beginning with the letters KQ through KS.

Luke Cole

Luke Winthrop Cole (July 15, 1962 - June 6, 2009) was an environmental lawyer and the co-founder of the Center on Race, Poverty & the Environment, in California. He was a pioneer in using legal work for the environmental justice movement.

Municipalities and communities of Northwest Arctic Borough, Alaska, United States
Ghost towns


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