Kiva

A kiva is a room used by Puebloans for religious rituals and political meetings, many of them associated with the kachina belief system. Among the modern Hopi and most other Pueblo people, kivas are square-walled and underground, and are used for spiritual ceremonies.

Similar subterranean rooms are found among ruins in the North-American Southwest, indicating uses by the ancient peoples of the region including the ancestral Puebloans, the Mogollon, and the Hohokam.[1] Those used by the ancient Pueblos of the Pueblo I Period and following, designated by the Pecos Classification system developed by archaeologists, were usually round and evolved from simpler pithouses. For the Ancestral Puebloans, these rooms are believed to have had a variety of functions, including domestic residence along with social and ceremonial purposes.[2]

Bandelier Kiva
Reconstructed kiva at Bandelier National Monument
Kiva
Interior of a reconstructed kiva at Mesa Verde National Park
Grand kiva at Aztek
The Great Kiva at Aztec Ruins National Monument was excavated by Earl Morris in 1921 and reconstructed by him 13 years later.
Interior Great Kiva Aztec Ruins 1
Interior of Great Kiva at Aztec Ruins National Monument showing the vast size of the structure
Kiva 2
Ruins of the kiva at Puerco Pueblo, Petrified Forest National Park
Chacoan round room features
Chacoan round room features

Evolution

During the late eighth century, Mesa Verdeans started building square pit structures that archeologists call protokivas. They were typically 3 or 4 feet (0.91 or 1.22 m) deep and 12 to 20 feet (3.7 to 6.1 m) in diameter. By the mid-10th and early 11th centuries, these had evolved into smaller circular structures called kivas, which were usually 12 to 15 feet (3.7 to 4.6 m) across. Mesa Verde-style kivas included a feature from earlier times called a sipapu, which is a hole dug in the north of the chamber that is thought to represent the Ancestral Puebloan's place of emergence from the underworld.[3][4]

When designating an ancient room as a kiva, archaeologists make assumptions about the room's original functions and how those functions may be similar to or differ from kivas used in modern practice. The kachina belief system appears to have emerged in the Southwest around AD 1250, while kiva-like structures occurred much earlier. This suggests that the room's older functions may have been changed or adapted to suit the new religious practice.

As cultural changes occurred, particularly during the Pueblo III period between 1150 and 1300 AD, kivas continued to have a prominent place in the community. However, some kivas were built above ground. Kiva architecture became more elaborate, with tower kivas and great kivas incorporating specialized floor features. For example, kivas found in Mesa Verde were generally keyhole-shaped. In most larger communities, it was normal to find one kiva for each five or six rooms. Kiva destruction, primarily by burning, has been seen as a strong archaeological indicator of conflict and warfare among people of the Southwest during this period.

Fifteen top rooms encircle the central chamber of the vast Great Kiva at Aztec Ruins National Monument. The room's

... purpose is unclear. ... Each had an exterior doorway to the plaza. ... Four massive pillars of alternating masonry and horizontal poles held up the ceiling beams, which in turn supported an estimated 95-ton roof. Each pillar rested on four shaped-stone disks, weighing about 355 pounds [161 kg] apiece. These discs are of limestone, which came from mountains at least 40 miles away.[5]

After 1325 or 1350, except in the Hopi and Pueblo region, the ratio changed from 60 to 90 rooms for each kiva. This may indicate a religious or organizational change within the society, perhaps affecting the status and number of clans among the Pueblo people.

Great kiva

Great kivas differ from regular kivas, which archeologists call Chaco-style kivas, in several ways; first and foremost, great kivas are always much larger and deeper than Chaco-style kivas. Whereas the walls of great kivas always extend above the surrounding landscape, the walls of Chaco-style kivas do not, but are instead flush with the surrounding landscape. Chaco-style kivas are often found incorporated into the central room blocks of great houses, but great kivas are always separate from core structures. Great kivas almost always have a bench that encircles the inner space, but this feature is not found in Chaco-style kivas. Great kivas also tend to include floor vaults, which might have served as foot drums for ceremonial dancers, but Chaco-style kivas do not.[6] Great kivas are believed to be the first public buildings constructed in the Mesa Verde region.[7]

See also

References

Citations
  1. ^ Pecina 2012.
  2. ^ Markovich, Nicholas; Preiser, Wolfgang; Sturm, Fred (2015). Pueblo Style and Regional Architecture. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-39883-7.
  3. ^ Lipe 2006, pp. 30–31.
  4. ^ Lipe 2006, p. 30.
  5. ^ Cajete & Nichols 2004.
  6. ^ Vivian & Reiter 1965, pp. 82–92.
  7. ^ Hurst & Till 2006, p. 78.
Bibliography
  • Cajete, Gregory A. & Nichols, Teresa (2004), A Trail Guide to the Aztec Ruins, Western National Parks Association (WPNA)
  • Hurst, Winston; Till, Jonathan (2006), "Mesa Verdean Sacred Landscapes", in Nobel, David Grant (ed.), The Mesa Verde World: Explorations in Ancestral Puebloan Archaeology, School of American Research Press, pp. 74–83, ISBN 978-1-930618-75-6
  • Lipe, Willian D. (2006), "The Mesa Verde Region during Chaco Times", in Nobel, David Grant (ed.), The Mesa Verde World: Explorations in Ancestral Puebloan Archaeology, School of American Research Press, pp. 28–37, ISBN 978-1-930618-75-6
  • Pecina, Ron (December 2012), "Estufa or Kiva", Indian Trader, Cottonwood Arizona: D. South, 3564 (12): 12–17
  • Vivian, Gordon; Reiter, Paul (1965), The great kivas of Chaco Canyon and their relationships, University of New Mexico Press, ISBN 978-0-8263-0297-7

Further reading

  • Cordell, Linda S. (1994). Ancient Pueblo Peoples. Exploring the Ancient World. Smithsonian Books. ISBN 978-0895990389.
  • LeBlanc, Steven A. (1999). Prehistoric Warfare in the American Southwest. University of Utah Press. ISBN 978-0874805819.
  • Rohn, Arthur H. & Ferguson, William M (2006). Puebloan Ruins of the Southwest. University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 978-0826339706.

External links

Albuquerque Convention Center

Albuquerque Convention Center is a multipurpose convention and performing arts center in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It is New Mexico's largest convention center. It was featured in Breaking Bad Season 5 Episode 12.

Amazon Robotics

Amazon Robotics, formerly Kiva Systems, is a Massachusetts-based company that manufactures mobile robotic fulfilment systems. It is a subsidiary company of Amazon.com and its automated storage and retrieval systems were previously used by companies including: The Gap, Walgreens, Staples, Gilt Groupe, Office Depot, Crate & Barrel, and Saks 5th Avenue. After those contracts ran out, Amazon did not renew them and Kiva's assets now work only for Amazon's warehouses.

Charles K. Krieger

Charles Kiva Krieger (April 5, 1914 – June 17, 1982) was an interim mayor of Jersey City, New Jersey. He served as mayor for three months in 1971.

Krieger emigrated to the United States to flee from Nazi persecution in his native Austria.At the time of his death, Krieger had just beaten William H. Link for the Republican nomination for the United States House of Representatives. He had changed his party affiliation in April 1981.

KIVA (AM)

KIVA (1600 kHz) is a commercial AM radio station licensed to Albuquerque, New Mexico. It is owned by the Rock of Talk LLC and airs a talk radio format. Studios and offices are located on Renard Place Southeast, near the Albuquerque International Sunport. The transmitter tower is on Amo Street, near Interstate 25, about a mile from the studios.

KIVA broadcasts at 10,000 watts by day. But to protect other stations on AM 1600 from interference, at night it dramatically reduces power to 175 watts. It uses a non-directional antenna at all times. KIVA is also heard on 250 watt FM translator K229CL at 93.7 MHz.

KIVA (software)

KIVA is a family of Fortran-based Computational Fluid Dynamics software developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The software predicts complex fuel and air flows as well as ignition, combustion, and pollutant-formation processes in engines. The KIVA models have been used to understand combustion chemistry processes, such as auto-ignition of fuels, and to optimize diesel engines for high efficiency and low emissions. General Motors has used KIVA in the development of direct-injection, stratified charge gasoline engines as well as the fast burn, homogeneous-charge gasoline engine. Cummins reduced development time and cost by 10%–15% using KIVA to develop its high-efficiency 2007 ISB 6.7-L diesel engine that was able to meet 2010 emission standards in 2007. At the same time, the company realized a more robust design and improved fuel economy while meeting all environmental and customer constraints.

KXKS (AM)

KXKS (1190 AM) is a radio station currently broadcasting a Christian radio format. Licensed to Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States. The station is currently owned by Wild West Radio Corporation.The station was briefly operated by Rock of Talk LLC owners of KIVA 1600 via Leased Management Agreement (LMA). The full-time sports outlet from Fox Sports Radio on KXKS allowed for KIVA to focus more on news. The local "Rock of Talk" program was featured on both stations in the afternoon. KXKS was also broadcast on K298BY 107.5 FM which is now rebroadcasting KANW HD2.

Kamen Rider Kiva

Kamen Rider Kiva (仮面ライダーキバ, Kamen Raidā Kiba, Masked Rider Kiva) is the title of the 2008 Kamen Rider Japanese tokusatsu television series produced by Toei Company and Ishimori Productions. It premiered on January 27, 2008, following the finale of Kamen Rider Den-O. It aired as a part of TV Asahi's 2008 Super Hero Time block with Engine Sentai Go-onger. Advertisements showed a horror film theme to the series, with the motif for Kamen Rider Kiva as a vampire. The first episode began with a commemoration of the series in honor of the seventieth anniversary of Shotaro Ishinomori's birthday.

Kiva, Estonia

Kiva is a village in Haljala Parish, Lääne-Viru County, in northeastern Estonia.

The southwestern part of the Rutja Airfield is located on the territory of Kiva.

Kiva (album)

Kiva (1995) is a collaborative album by the American ambient musicians Steve Roach, Michael Stearns and Ron Sunsinger. A kiva is an underground ceremonial chamber used by Native American cultures of the Southwest.

The album is a mixture of traditional Native American ceremonies and highly experimental ambient music.

“East Kiva, ‘Calling in the Midnight Water” is a Peyote ceremony. “South Kiva, ‘Mother Ayahuasca” is an Ayahuasca ceremony from the South American rainforest. “West Kiva, ‘Sacrifice, Prayer and Visions” is a Sundance. The Sundance is an elaborate ceremony used by the tribes of the central plains to seek visions and initiate holy men. “North Kiva, ‘Trust and Remember” is a non-traditional improvisation created by the three artists in a cave in Northern New Mexico.

Kiva (organization)

Kiva Microfunds (commonly known by its domain name, Kiva.org) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization that allows people to lend money via the Internet to low-income entrepreneurs and students in over 80 countries. Kiva's mission is "to connect people through lending to alleviate poverty."Since 2005, Kiva has crowd-funded more than a million loans, totaling over $1 billion, with a repayment rate of between 98 and 99 percent. As of November 2013, Kiva was raising about $1 million every three days. Over a million lenders worldwide use the Kiva platform.Kiva relies on a network of field partners to administer the loans on the ground. These field partners can be microfinance institutions, social businesses, schools or non-profit organizations. Kiva includes personal stories of each person who needs a loan because they want their lenders to connect with their entrepreneurs on a human level.Kiva itself does not collect any interest on the loans it facilitates and Kiva lenders do not make interest on loans. Kiva is supported by grants, loans, and donations from its users, corporations, and national institutions. Kiva is headquartered in San Francisco, California.

Kiva Beach, California

Kiva Beach is an unincorporated community in El Dorado County, California. It lies at an elevation of 6240 feet (1902 m).

Kyzyl-Kiya

Kyzyl-Kiya (Kyrgyz: Кызыл-Кыя, Russian: Кызыл-Кия) is a city in Batken Region, in southwestern Kyrgyzstan. Its area is 78 square kilometres (30 sq mi), and its resident population was 44,144 in 2009 (both including the villages Karavan, Ak-Bulak and Jin-Jigen). It is situated on the southern edge of the Fergana Valley, 32 km southeast of Fergana, and 65 km southwest of Osh. The town is one of the oldest centers of the coal mining industry in Kyrgyzstan.

Kōji Seto

Kōji Seto (瀬戸 康史, Seto Kōji, born May 18, 1988) is a Japanese actor and singer. His major works include lead roles as Wataru Kurenai in Kamen Rider Kiva; and supporting roles as Satoru Okura in Atashinchi no Danshi, Ariake Yamato in Otomen, and Eiji Kikumaru in Tenimyu. He stars as Mori Ranmaru in the drama, Gō: Hime-tachi no Sengoku.

In 2010, he was named one of the most promising actors and actresses, placing 7th in a poll conducted by Oricon. Through his role with Kamen Rider Kiva, he was also the lead vocalist of the J-Rock band Tetra-Fang. The lively and bright multi-talented Seto is nicknamed Setomaru (瀬戸丸) and is a member of the acting group D-Boys.

Limestone Township, Michigan

Limestone Township is a civil township of Alger County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 438 at the 2010 census.

Lloyd Kiva New

Lloyd Kiva New (Cherokee, February 18, 1916 – February 8, 2002) was a pioneer of modern Native American fashion design and one of the co-founders of the Institute of American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Megas XLR

Megas XLR is an American animated television series created by Jody Schaeffer and George Krstic for Cartoon Network. The series revolves around two slackers: mechanic Coop and his best friend Jamie, who find a mecha robot from the future called Megas (Mechanized Earth Guard Attack System) in a New Jersey junkyard. Coop modifies Megas and replaces his head, the control center, with a classic muscle car, and names him XLR (eXtra Large Robot). Together with Megas's original pilot Kiva, they must defend Earth from the evil alien race called "the Glorft". The series is a homage and parody of mecha anime. Krstic was originally one of the co-creators of MTV's Downtown.

Schaeffer and Krstic conceived the idea of an animated series where the main character would pilot a giant robot utilizing his video gaming skills. The pilot episode, LowBrow, was shown in 2002 during Cartoon Network's Cartoon Cartoon Weekend Summerfest, to determine which pilot would become a new Cartoon Cartoon; it was the most popular among viewers. It aired on the Toonami block from May 1, 2004 to January 15, 2005 for 2 seasons (totaling 25 episodes), before being cancelled due to low ratings.

The series was met with positive reception, and was ranked at No. 4 on ToonZone's "Toons of the 2000s: Top 5 Cartoon Network Originals". There have been various fan efforts and petitions to revive the show since its cancellation.

Megas XLR was produced by Cartoon Network Studios; Titmouse, Inc. animated the main title and did animation work on Season 1.

Salmon Ruins

Salmon Ruins is an ancient Chacoan and Pueblo site located in the northwest corner of New Mexico, USA. Salmon was constructed by migrants from Chaco Canyon around 1090 CE, with 275 to 300 original rooms spread across three stories, an elevated tower kiva in its central portion, and a great kiva in its plaza. Subsequent use by local Middle San Juan people (beginning in the 1120s) resulted in extensive modifications to the original building, with the reuse of hundreds of rooms, division of many of the original large, Chacoan rooms into smaller rooms, and emplacement of more than 20 small kivas into pueblo rooms and plaza areas. The site was occupied by ancient Ancestral Puebloans until the 1280s, when much of the site was destroyed by fire and abandoned (Reed 2006b). The pueblo is situated on the north bank of the San Juan River, just to the west of the modern town of Bloomfield, New Mexico, and about 45 miles (72 km) north of Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon. The site was built on the first alluvial terrace above the San Juan River floodplain.

The ruins of Salmon Pueblo were excavated between 1970 and 1979, under the direction of Cynthia Irwin-Williams of Eastern New Mexico University in partnership with the San Juan County Museum Association (Irwin-Williams 2006, p. 17-27). The San Juan Valley Archaeological Program resulted in the excavation of slightly more than one-third of Salmon's ground floor rooms. More than 1.5 million artifacts and samples were recovered from Salmon. In 1980, Irwin-Williams and co-principal investigator Phillip Shelley wrote, compiled and edited a multivolume, 1,500-page report. The document fulfilled the reporting requirements for the series of grants under which the project had been completed but it was not intended for publication. Throughout the 1980s, Irwin-Williams and Shelley worked on a modified and greatly reduced manuscript, with the goal of producing a publishable report. This work ended with the untimely death of Cynthia Irwin-Williams in 1990.

In 2000, Archaeology Southwest (formerly the Center for Desert Archaeology) President Bill Doelle and staff met with Salmon Executive Director Larry Baker and forged a multiyear partnership. Archaeology Southwest's work at Salmon began in 2001 as the Salmon Reinvestment and Research Program, with archaeologist Paul Reed leading the effort. The research initiative comprised two primary tasks: first, to condense and edit the original 1980 Salmon report into a new, published technical report, and second, to conduct additional, primary research in several targeted areas, with the goal of producing material for a detailed technical report, as well as a synthetic volume. The three-volume report, entitled Thirty-Five Years of Archaeological Research at Salmon Ruins, New Mexico, was published in 2006 (Reed 2006a), followed by the synthetic-summary volume Chaco’s Northern Prodigies, published in 2008 (Reed 2008a). An additional component of the Archaeology Southwest effort at Salmon focused on the curation needs of the massive collection. These needs were partially addressed through a Save America's Treasures grant for $150,000 awarded in 2002. The curation effort (repackaging and reboxing artifacts) has continued over the last 10 years.

Archaeological
cultures
Archaeological
sites
Human
remains
Miscellaneous

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.