Kitadaitōjima

Kitadaitōjima (北大東島), also spelled as Kita Daitō, Kita-Daitō-shima, and Kitadaitō, is the northernmost island in the Daitō Islands group, located in the Philippine Sea southeast of Okinawa, Japan. It is administered as part of the village of Kitadaitō, Shimajiri District, Okinawa. The island is entirely cultivated for agriculture, although it lacks freshwater sources. The island has no beaches and harbor but has an airport (Kitadaito Airport) ( airport code "KTD") for local flights.

Kitadaitōjima
Native name:
北大東島
Kitadaitōjima
Kita Daito Jima ISS
Aerial Photograph of Kitadaitōjima
Daito islands en
Geography
LocationPhilippine Sea
Coordinates25°57′N 131°18′E / 25.950°N 131.300°E
ArchipelagoDaitō Islands
Area11.94 km2 (4.61 sq mi)
Length4.85 km (3.014 mi)
Coastline18.3 km (11.37 mi)
Highest elevation75 m (246 ft)
Highest pointDaijinguyama
Administration
Japan
PrefecturesOkinawa Prefecture
DistrictShimajiri District
VillageKitadaitō
Demographics
Population660 (June 2013)
Ethnic groupsJapanese
Daito-shoto
Map of Kitadaitō

Geography

Kitadaitōjima is a relatively isolated coralline island, located approximately 9 kilometres (4.9 nmi) north of Minamidaitōjima, the largest island of the archipelago, and 360 kilometres (190 nmi) from Naha, Okinawa. As with the other islands in the archipelago, Kitadaitōjima is an uplifted coral atoll with a steep coastal cliff of limestone (the former fringing coral reef of the island), and a depressed center (the former lagoon of the island). The island is roughly oval in shape, with a circumference of about 13.52 kilometres (8.40 mi), length of 4.85 kilometres (3.01 mi) and an area of 11.94 square kilometres (4.61 sq mi). The highest point is 74 metres (243 ft) above sea level.

The 660 (as of June 1, 2013) inhabitants live in a village in the center of the island. Kitadaitōjima has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) with very warm summers and mild winters. Precipitation is significant throughout the year; the wettest month is June and the driest month is February. The island is subject to frequent typhoons.

History

It is uncertain when Minamidaitōjima was discovered. It is the most likely that their first sighting was by the Spanish navigator Bernardo de la Torre in 1543, in between 25 September and 2 October, during his abortive attempt to reach New Spain from the Philippines with the San Juan de Letran. It was then charted, together with Kitadaitōjima, as Las Dos Hermanas (The Two Sisters). There is little doubt that Minamidaitōjima and Kitadaitōjima were again sighted by the Spanish on 28 July 1587, by Pedro de Unamuno who named them Islas sin Probecho (Useless Islands).[1] However, on 2 July 1820, the Russian vessel Borodino surveyed the two Daitō islands and named the south as "South Borodino Island".

The island remained uninhabited until claimed by the Empire of Japan in 1885. In 1900, a team of pioneers from Hachijōjima, an island located 287 kilometres (178 mi) south of Tokyo led by Tamaoki Han'emon (1838 – 1910), who had pioneered settlement on Minamidaitōjima, became the first human inhabitants of the island, and started the cultivation of sugar cane from 1903.

During this period until World War II, Kitadaitōjima was owned in its entirety by Dai Nippon Sugar (now Dai Nippon Meiji Sugar), which also operated mines for the extraction of guano for use in fertilizer. Many of the inhabitants were seasonal workers from Okinawa and Taiwan. After World War II, the island was occupied by the United States. The use of increased mechanization increased phosphate yields marginally until the deposits were exhausted by the mid-1950s. The island was returned to Japan in 1972.

References

  1. ^ Welsch, Bernard (Jun 2004). "Was Marcus Island Discovered by Bernardo de la Torre in 1543?". The Journal of Pacific History. Taylor & Francis. Ltd. 39 (1): 114, 120. doi:10.1080/00223340410001684886.

External links

1961 Pacific typhoon season

The 1961 Pacific typhoon season had no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1961, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean, north of the equator and west of the international date line. Storms that form east of the date line and north of the equator are called hurricanes; see 1961 Pacific hurricane season. Tropical storms formed in the entire west pacific basin were assigned a name by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Tropical depressions in this basin had the "W" suffix added to their number.

Daitō Islands

The Daitō Islands (大東諸島, Daitō-shotō) are an archipelago consisting of three isolated coral islands in the Philippine Sea southeast of Okinawa. The islands have a total area of 44.427 square kilometres (17.153 sq mi) and a population of 2,107.Administratively, the whole group belongs to Shimajiri District of Okinawa Prefecture, and is divided between the villages of Minamidaitō and Kitadaitō, with uninhabited Okidaitōjima island administered as part of Kitadaitō municipality, although physically located closer to Minamidaitōjima.

Kitadaito Airport

Kitadaitō Airport (北大東空港, Kitadaitō Kūkō, (IATA: KTD, ICAO: RORK)) is located on the island of Kitadaitōjima in the village of Kitadaitō, Shimajiri District, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

The prefecture operates the airport, which is classified as a third class airport.

Only a round flight from Naha, to Kitadaitō and Minami Daito Airport, back to Naha is operated every day. The route differs on the day of the week. Flight from Kitadaitō to Minamidaitō is the shortest flight in Japan, costs JPY¥7,600, and is only 12 km (7.5 mi) long, takes 3 minutes in the air.Kitadaito Airport was opened in 1971 as an emergency 760 meter airstrip, constructed of crushed coral by the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands. The runway was paved and extended to 800 meters in 1978, when scheduled passenger services commenced. The runway was extended to 1500 meters in 1997. At present, there is only one scheduled flight per day.

Kitadaitō, Okinawa

Kitadaitō (北大東村, Kitadaitō-son) is a village consisting of the islands of Kitadaitōjima and Okidaitōjima of Shimajiri District, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

As of October 2016, the village has an estimated population of 615 and a density of 47 persons per km². The total area is 13.10 km². All of the inhabitants live on Kitadaitōjima.

List of Historic Sites of Japan (Okinawa)

This list is of the Historic Sites of Japan located within the Prefecture of Okinawa. Much of the heritage of the Ryūkyū Kingdom and Islands was destroyed during the Battle of Okinawa. The mausoleum complex of Tamaudun, Shuri Castle, Katsuren Castle, Nakagusuku Castle, Nakijin Castle, Zakimi Castle, Sefa-utaki, and Sonohyan-utaki all form part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site Gusuku Sites and Related Properties of the Kingdom of Ryukyu.

List of islands of Japan by area

Japan has 6,852 islands. Approximately 430 are inhabited. This list provides basic geographical data of the most prominent islands belonging or claimed by Japan.

Nclaimed but not controlled

List of political and geographic subdivisions by total area (all)

This is one of a series of comprehensive lists of continents, countries, and first level administrative country subdivisions such as states, provinces, and territories, as well as certain political and geographic features of substantial area. Some divisions are listed twice, with one listing including territory that is excluded in the other for various reasons, including territorial disputes. Names of currently existing countries are bolded, while names of geographic features are italicized. There is intentional overlap between the lists in order to maximize ease of use.

List of political and geographic subdivisions by total area from 0.1 to 1,000 square kilometers

This is one of a series of comprehensive lists of continents, countries, and first level administrative country subdivisions such as states, provinces, and territories, as well as certain political and geographic features of substantial area. Some divisions are listed twice, with one listing including territory that is excluded in the other for various reasons, including territorial disputes. Names of currently existing countries are bolded, while names of geographic features are italicized. There is intentional overlap between the lists in order to maximize ease of use.

List of political and geographic subdivisions by total area from 0.1 to 250 square kilometers

This is one of a series of comprehensive lists of continents, countries, and first level administrative country subdivisions such as states, provinces, and territories, as well as certain political and geographic features of substantial area. Some divisions are listed twice, with one listing including territory that is excluded in the other for various reasons, including territorial disputes. Names of currently existing countries are bolded, while names of geographic features are italicized. There is intentional overlap between the lists in order to maximize ease of use.

Minamidaitō, Okinawa

Minamidaitō (南大東村, Minamidaitō-son) is a village located entirely on Minamidaitōjima in Shimajiri District, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Minamidaitōjima is located approximately 360 kilometres (220 mi) east of Okinawa Island. Minamidaitō covers 30.7 square kilometres (11.9 sq mi).As of June 2013, the city had a population of 1,418 and a population density of 46.4 people per km².

Minamidaitōjima

Minamidaitōjima (南大東島), also spelt as Minami Daitō or Minami-Daitō, is the largest island in the Daitō Islands group southeast of Okinawa, Japan. It is administered as part of the village of Minamidaitō, Okinawa. Shimajiri District, Okinawa and has a population of 2,107. The island is entirely cultivated for agriculture, although it lacks freshwater sources. The island has no beaches or harbor, and cargo must be loaded/offloaded by crane; however the island has an airport Minami Daito Airport ( airport code "KTD").

Okidaitōjima

Okidaitōjima (沖大東島), also spelled as Oki Daitō Island or Oki-Daitō or Oki-no-Daitō, previously known as Rasa Island (ラサ島, Rasa-tō), is an abandoned island in the Daitō Islands group southeast of Okinawa, Japan. It is administered as part of the village of Kitadaitō, Shimajiri District, Okinawa.

Okinawa Prefecture

Okinawa Prefecture (Japanese: 沖縄県, Hepburn: Okinawa-ken, Okinawan: ウチナー Uchinaa) is the southernmost prefecture of Japan. It encompasses two thirds of the Ryukyu Islands in a chain over 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) long. The Ryukyu Islands extend southwest from Kagoshima Prefecture in Kyushu (the southwesternmost of Japan's four main islands) to Taiwan. Naha, Okinawa's capital, is located in the southern part of Okinawa Island.Although Okinawa Prefecture comprises just 0.6 percent of Japan's total land mass, about 75 percent of all United States military personnel stationed in Japan are assigned to installations in the prefecture. Currently about 26,000 U.S. troops are based in the prefecture.

Typhoon Chaba (2004)

Typhoon Chaba was the strongest tropical cyclone in the western Pacific during 2004 and caused a swath of damage from the Mariana Islands to Japan from August through September of that year. Chaba was the Japan's second costliest storm during the season, only behind Songda in September, and peaked as a typhoon with maximum sustained winds equivalent to that of a Category 5 on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale.

Chaba originated from a gradually developing area of disturbed weather on August 18, northeast of Kwajalein. Tracking westward, the system gained tropical storm strength the following day and then reached typhoon intensity on August 20. Rapid intensification ensued thereafter, with Chaba quickly attaining its peak intensity on August 23 as it began to curve towards the northeast. This intensity was maintained for several hours before the typhoon began to fluctuate in strength as it began to meander south of Japan beginning on August 26. Three days later, Chaba made landfall on Kyushu, later tracking across the Sea of Japan as it concurrently weakened. On August 31, the storm transitioned into an extratropical cyclone, and later dissipated in the Sea of Okhotsk on September 5.

The typhoon caused significant damage to areas of the Northern Mariana Islands, which were buffeted by strong typhoon-force winds. Rota was worst affected by Chaba, as the island remained under the storm's eyewall for several hours. Gusts peaked at 219 km/h (136 mph) at Rota International Airport, and the strong winds damaged and destroyed a multitude of homes. Power outages were frequent across the commonwealth, and beach erosion resulted from strong storm surge. Damage in the Northern Mariana Islands amounted to US$18 million, and 13 people were injured, with one fatality. Another fatality occurred in Guam under similar circumstances, though the island sustained less damage. Following the storm, a state of emergency was declared in Guam and areas of the Northern Mariana Islands were declared federal disaster areas.

Most of the damage caused by Chaba occurred in Japan, where 18 people were killed and damage figures reached JP¥105.4 billion (US$959 million). The typhoon remains the country's fourteenth costliest on record. A total of 8,627 homes were destroyed by the storm's effects, with another 46,561 inundated by floodwater. Impacts in Japan were primarily concentrated on Kyushu, where Chaba made its first landfall. Rainfall peaked at 821 mm (32.32 in) in Miyazaki Prefecture. Like in the Northern Mariana Islands, power outages and transportation delays were of numerous extent in Japan.

Typhoon Halola

Typhoon Halola, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Goring, was a small but long-lived tropical cyclone in July 2015 that traversed the Pacific Ocean along a 7,640 km (4,750 mi) long path. Halola lasted approximately 16 days. The fifth named storm of the 2015 Pacific hurricane season, Halola originated from a Western Pacific monsoon trough that had expanded into the Central Pacific by July 5. Over the next several days, the system waxed and waned due to changes in wind shear before organizing into a tropical depression on July 10 while over a thousand miles southwest of Hawaii. The depression strengthed into Tropical Storm Halola on the next day as it traveled westward. Halola crossed the International Date Line on July 13 and entered the Western Pacific, where it was immediately recognized as a severe tropical storm. The storm further strengthened into a typhoon on the next day before encountering strong wind shear on July 16. Over the next couple of days, Halola quickly weakened into a tropical depression. However, the shear relaxed and Halola became a typhoon again early on July 21. Later in the day, Halola peaked with 10-minute sustained winds of 150 km/h (90 mph) and a pressure of 955 hPa (28.20 inHg). The typhoon received the name Goring from the PAGASA on July 23 after having maintained a well-defined eye. Halola then began to weaken, falling below typhoon intensity on July 25. Halola made landfall over Kyushu on July 26 as a tropical storm and dissipated in the Tsushima Strait shortly after.

The typhoon initially posed a significant threat to Wake Island, prompting the evacuation of all personnel; however, no damage resulted from its passage. Heavy rains and strong winds buffeted the Ryukyu Islands, with record rainfall observed in Tokunoshima. Damage was relatively limited, though the sugarcane crop sustained ¥154 million (US$1.24 million) in damage. One person was injured in Kyushu.

Typhoon Nabi

Typhoon Nabi (pronounced [na.bi]), known in the Philippines as Typhoon Jolina, was a powerful typhoon that struck southwestern Japan in September 2005. The 14th named storm of the 2005 Pacific typhoon season, Nabi formed on August 29 to the east of the Northern Mariana Islands. It moved westward and passed about 55 km (35 mi) north of Saipan on August 31 as an intensifying typhoon. On the next day, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center upgraded the storm to super typhoon status, with winds equivalent to that of a Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. The Japan Meteorological Agency estimated peak ten-minute winds of 175 km/h (110 mph) on September 2. Nabi weakened while curving to the north, striking the Japanese island of Kyushu on September 6. After brushing South Korea, the storm turned to the northeast, passing over Hokkaido before becoming extratropical on September 8, before dissipating on September 12.

The typhoon first affected the Northern Mariana Islands, where it left US$2.5 million in damage, while damaging or destroying 114 homes. The damage was enough to warrant a disaster declaration from the United States government. While passing near Okinawa, Nabi produced gusty winds and caused minor damage. Later, the western fringe of the storm caused several traffic accidents in Busan, South Korea, and throughout the country Nabi killed six people and caused US$115.4 million in damage. About 250,000 people evacuated along the Japanese island of Kyushu ahead of the storm, and there were disruptions to train, ferry, and airline services. In Kyushu, the storm left ¥4.08 billion (US$36.9 million) in crop damage after dropping 1,322 mm (52.0 in) of rain over three days. During the storm's passage, there were 61 daily rainfall records broken by Nabi's precipitation. The rains caused flooding and landslides, forcing people to evacuate their homes and for businesses to close. Across Japan, Nabi killed 29 people and caused ¥94.9 billion (US$854 million) in damage. Soldiers, local governments, and insurance companies helped residents recover from the storm damage. After affecting Japan, the typhoon affected the Kuril Islands of Russia, where it dropped the equivalent of the monthly precipitation, while also causing road damage due to high waves. Overall, Nabi killed 35 people.

VP-24

Patrol Squadron 24 (VP-24) was a Patrol Squadron of the U.S. Navy. The squadron was established as Bombing Squadron One Hundred Four (VB-104) on 10 April 1943, redesignated as Patrol Bombing Squadron One Hundred Four (VPB-104) on 1 October 1944, redesignated as Patrol Squadron One Hundred Four (VP-104) on 15 May 1946, redesignated Heavy Patrol Squadron (Landplane) Four (VP-HL-4) on 15 November 1946, redesignated Patrol Squadron Twenty Four (VP-24) on 1 September 1948, the third squadron to be assigned the VP-24 designation, redesignated Attack Mining Squadron Thirteen (VA-HM-13) on 1 July 1956, redesignated Patrol Squadron Twenty Four (VP-24) on 1 July 1959 and disestablished 30 April 1995.

Varied tit

The varied tit (Sittiparus varius) is a perching bird from the tit family, Paridae. It occurs in eastern Asia in Japan, Korea, and locally in northeastern China (southern Liaoning) and extreme southeastern Russia (southern Kurile Islands).

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