Kisshōten (吉祥天), also known as Kichijōten, Kisshoutennyo (吉祥天女), Kudokuten (功徳天) is a Japanese female deity. Adapted via Buddhism from the Hindu goddess Lakshmi. Kisshoutennyo is sometimes named as one of the Seven Gods of Fortune (fukujin), replacing either Jurōjin or Fukurokuju.[1] For example, in the 1783 edition of the Butsuzōzui compendium (reprinted in 1796), Kichijōten replaces Fukurokuju as one of the seven fukujin.[2] She is considered to be the goddess of happiness, fertility, and beauty.[1][3] Kisshoutennyo's iconography is distinguished by the Nyoihōju gem (如意宝珠) in her hand.

When Kisshoutennyo is counted among the seven fukujin[2] and fellow fukujin Daikoku is regarded in feminine form,[4] all three of the Hindu Tridevi goddesses are represented in the fukujin.

Śrīmahādevī (Buddhism)
Jyoruriji Kissyoten Srii
(Pinyin: Jíxiáng tiān)
Japanese吉祥天きっしょうてん or きちじょうてん
(romaji: Kichijōten)
(RR: Gilsang Cheon)
Wylie: lha mo chen mo dpal
VietnameseCát Tường Thiên
Venerated byMahāyāna, Vajrayāna
Dharma Wheel.svg Buddhism portal

See also


  1. ^ a b "Wooden figure of Kichijōten". The British Museum. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
  2. ^ a b "Butsuzōzui (Illustrated Compendium of Buddhist Images)" (digital photos) (in Japanese). Ehime University Library. 1796. p. (077.jpg).
  3. ^ "Kisshōten (Kichijōten)". Philadelphia Museum of Art. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
  4. ^ "Butsuzōzui (Illustrated Compendium of Buddhist Images)" (digital photos) (in Japanese). Ehime University Library. 1796. p. (059.jpg).

Amitābha (Sanskrit pronunciation: [ɐmɪˈtaːbʱɐ]), also known as Amida or Amitāyus, is a celestial buddha according to the scriptures of Mahayana Buddhism. Amitābha is the principal buddha in Pure Land Buddhism, a branch of East Asian Buddhism. In Vajrayana Buddhism, Amitābha is known for his longevity attribute, magnetising red fire element, the aggregate of discernment, pure perception and the deep awareness of emptiness of phenomena. According to these scriptures, Amitābha possesses infinite merit resulting from good deeds over countless past lives as a bodhisattva named Dharmakāra. Amitābha means "Infinite Light", and Amitāyus means "Infinite Life" so Amitābha is also called "The Buddha of Immeasurable Light and Life".


Benzaiten (弁才天, 弁財天) (Benten for short) is

a Japanese Buddhist goddess who originated from the Hindu goddess Saraswati. Worship of Benzaiten arrived in Japan during the 6th through 8th centuries, mainly via the Chinese translations of the Sutra of Golden Light, which has a section devoted to her. She is also mentioned in the Lotus Sutra and often depicted holding a biwa, a traditional Japanese lute, just as Saraswati holds a veena. Benzaiten is a syncretic entity with both a Buddhist and a Shinto aspect. Benzaiten was worshipped as the personification of wisdom in the Tokugawa period.


Bosatsu (菩薩) is the transliteration in Japanese of the sanskrit bodhisattva. A bodhisattva is someone who can reach enlightenment but decides not to, to help others achieve that goal.


Budai, Hotei or Pu-Tai (Chinese: 布袋; pinyin: Bùdài; Japanese: 布袋, romanized: Hotei; Vietnamese: Bố Đại) is a semi-historical Chinese monk who is venerated as a deity in Chinese Buddhism and was also introduced into the Japanese Buddhist pantheon. He allegedly lived around the 10th century in the Wuyue kingdom. His name literally means "Cloth Sack", and refers to the bag that he is conventionally depicted as carrying as he wanders aimlessly. His jolly nature, humorous personality, and eccentric lifestyle distinguishes him from most Buddhist masters or figures. He is almost always shown smiling or laughing, hence his nickname in Chinese, the "Laughing Buddha" (Chinese: 笑佛; pinyin: Xiào Fó). The main textual evidence pointing to Budai resides in a collection of Zen Buddhist monks’ biographies known as the "Jingde Chuandeng Lu", also known as The Transmission of the Lamp.


The Butsuzōzui (仏像図彙) ("Illustrated Compendium of Buddhist Images") is a collection of Buddhist iconographic sketches. Originally published in 1690, it comprises more than 800 sketches, inspired by the Chinese style of paintings called Paihuo, with the Buddhist icons divided into five parts and further categorized. In Edo-period Japan the Butsuzōzui compendium was the most widely distributed source for information on Buddhist and Shinbutsu deities.


In Japan, Daikokuten (大黒天), the god of great darkness or blackness, or the god of five cereals, is one of the Seven Lucky Gods (Fukujin). Daikokuten evolved from the Buddhist form of the Indian deity Shiva intertwined with the Shinto god Ōkuninushi. The name is the Japanese equivalent of Mahākāla, the Hindu name for Shiva.The god enjoys an exalted position as a household deity in Japan. Daikoku's association with wealth and prosperity precipitated a custom known as fukunusubi, or "theft of fortune". This custom started with the belief that whoever stole divine figures was assured of good fortune if not caught in the act. The toshi-no-ichi (year-end market) held at Sensō-ji became the main venue of the sale and disposal of such images by the fortune-seekers. Many small stalls were opened where articles including images of Daikoku were sold on the eve of New Year celebrations.The Japanese also maintain the symbol of Mahakala as a monogram. The traditional pilgrims climbing the holy Mount Ontake wear tenugui (a kind of white scarf) with the seed syllable of Mahakala.

Daikoku is variously considered to be the god of wealth, or of the household, particularly the kitchen. He is recognised by his wide face, smile, and a flat black hat. He is often portrayed holding a golden mallet called Uchide no kozuchi, otherwise known as the "mallet of fortune", and is seen seated on bales of rice, with rats nearby signifying plentiful food.

Daikoku's image was featured on the first Japanese bank note, designed by Edoardo Chiossone.


Dhṛtarāṣṭra (Sanskrit; Pali: Dhataraṭṭha) is a major deity in Buddhism and one of the Four Heavenly Kings. His name means "Upholder of the Nation."

Gohō dōji

A gohō dōji (護法童子) (child of the defense of the Law) is a type of guardian spirit from Japanese Buddhist folklore devoted to serving followers of the dharma. In classic stories from medieval collections such as the Uji Shui Monogatari, it is generally depicted as a young boy wearing a collar of swords, with a large sword in one hand and a noose in the other. It flies through the air by riding a Wheel of Dharma.

Hayagriva (Buddhism)

In Tibetan and Japanese Buddhism, Hayagrīva ("having the neck of a horse") is an important deity who originated as a yaksha attendant of Avalokiteśvara or Guanyin Bodhisattva in India. Appearing in the Vedas as two separate deities, he was assimilated into the ritual worship of early Buddhism and eventually was identified as a Wisdom King in Vajrayana Buddhism.In Tibet, Hayagriva was promoted especially by Buddhist teacher Atiśa and appeared as a worldly dharmapala. His special ability is to cure diseases, especially skin diseases even as serious as leprosy, which is said to be caused by nāgas.

In Japanese Mahayana Buddhism, Hayagriva is considered as a Avalokiteśvara with wrathful form (Batō Kannon 馬頭觀音, lit.Hayagrīva-Avalokiteśvara) , one of the six Avalokiteśvaras intended to save the sentient beings of the six realms: deities (deva), demons (asura), human beings, animals, hungry ghosts, beings of hell. Hayagriva's sphere is realm of animals (or beings whose state of mind are animal-like). In Folk religion in Japan, Hyagriva was also worshipped as the guardian deity for horses because of its name Horse-head (Batō). The horse was symbolized as a vehicle, not as one of Hayagriva's heads.

In Chinese Buddhism and folk tradition, Hayagriva was assimilated into Horse-Face, one of two theriomorphic guardians of Diyu, the underworld.

Japanese Buddhist pantheon

The Japanese Buddhist Pantheon designates the multitude (the Pantheon) of various Buddhas, Bodhisattvas and lesser deities and eminent religious masters in Buddhism. A Buddhist Pantheon exists to a certain extent in Mahāyāna, but is especially characteristic of Vajrayana Esoteric Buddhism, including Tibetan Buddhism and especially Japanese Shingon Buddhism, which formalized it to a great extent. In the ancient Japanese Buddhist Pantheon, more than 3,000 Buddhas or deities have been counted, although nowadays most temples focus on one Buddha and a few Bodhisattvas.

List of Cultural Properties of Japan - paintings (Shizuoka)

This list is of the Cultural Properties of Japan designated in the category of paintings (絵画, kaiga) for the Prefecture of Shizuoka.

List of Japanese deities

This is a list of divinities native to Japanese beliefs and religious traditions. Many of these are from Shinto, while others were imported via Buddhism or Taoism and "integrated" into Japanese mythology and folklore.


Myōken Bosatsu (Sanskrit: Sudrsti/Sudarśana, Japanese: 妙見菩薩) or Sonsei-Ō, is a bodhisattva (bosatsu), who is the deification of the North Star. It is mainly associated with the Nichiren, Shingon and Tendai temples.

As god of the Polestar, he was associated with Amenominakanushi-no-kami, but also Kisshōten (one of the Seven Lucky Gods), Yakushi Nyōrai (medicine god), and, less commonly, Amatsumikaboshi, a star god and spirit of rebellion who defied the gods of Takamagahara. Myōken has always been worshipped, under his association with Amatsumikaboshi, by the Heike, and among them the infamous first samurai, Taira no Masakado. Even today, he is still worshipped by the Sōma clan's lords and honorary generals, as part of the rituals of Sōma Nomaoi, founded by Masakado.

Seven Lucky Gods

In Japanese mythology, the Seven Lucky Gods or Seven Gods of Fortune (七福神, shichifukujin in Japanese) are believed to grant good luck and often have their place in netsuke engravings or in other representations. Amongst the seven, not all the gods are mythical characters, as there is one who is a historical figure.

They all began as remote and impersonal gods, but gradually became much closer canonical figures for certain professions and Japanese arts. During the course of its history, the mutual influence between gods has created confusion about which of them was the patron of certain professions. The worship of this group of gods is also due to the importance of the number seven in Japan, which is supposedly a bearer of good luck. Ebisu is the only one of the seven gods of fortune to originate purely from Japan without any Hindu influence.

Sixteen Arhats

The Sixteen Arhats (Japanese: 十六羅漢, Jūroku Rakan; Tibetan: གནས་བརྟན་བཅུ་དྲུག, "Neten Chudrug") are a group of legendary Arhats in Buddhism. The grouping of sixteen Arhats was brought to China, and later to Tibet, from India. In China, an expanded group of Eighteen Arhats became more popular, but worship of the sixteen Arhats continues to the present day in Japan and Tibet. In Japan sixteen Arhats are particularly popular in Zen Buddhism, where they are treated as examples of behaviour. In Tibet, the sixteen Arhats, also known as sixteen sthaviras ('elders') are the subject of a liturgical practice associated with the festival of the Buddha's birth, composed by the Kashmiri teacher Shakyahribhadra (1127-1225). They are also well represented in Tibetan art.The sixteen Arhats are:

The Sixteen Arhats in Art

The Sixteen Arhats from the Alice S. Kandell Collection


Ugajin (宇賀神) is harvest and fertility kami of Japanese Mythology. Ugajin is represented both as a male and a female, and is often depicted with the body of a snake and the head of a bearded man, for the masculine variant, or the head of a woman, for the female variant. In Tendai Buddhism Ugajin was syncretically fused with Buddhist goddess Benzaiten, which became known as Uga Benzaiten or Uga Benten. The goddess sometimes carries on her head Ugajin's effigy.

In this limited sense, the kami is part of the Japanese Buddhist pantheon.


Vairocana (also Mahāvairocana, Sanskrit: वैरोचन) is a celestial buddha who is often interpreted, in texts like the Avatamsaka Sutra, as the dharmakāya of the historical Gautama Buddha. In Chinese, Korean, and Japanese Buddhism, Vairocana is also seen as the embodiment of the Buddhist concept of Śūnyatā. In the conception of the Five Tathagatas of Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism, Vairocana is at the centre and is considered a Primordial Buddha.

Vairocana is not to be confused with Vairocana Mahabali, son of Virochana.


Vajraparamita (in Sanskrit), also Kongō-Haramitsu (金剛波羅蜜菩薩) is a Bodhisattva of the Buddhist Pantheon, belonging especially to the Esoteric Buddhism tradition of Vajrayana. Kongō-Haramitsu is one of the deities of the Five Mysteries of Vajrasattva, where it appears as one of the four Paramitas. Kongō-Haramitsu is also a central deity of the Buddhist Pantheon of Tō-ji Temple.

Virūḍhaka (Heavenly King)

Virūḍhaka is a major deity in Buddhism. He is one of the Four Heavenly Kings and a dharmapala.

Mythic texts
Japanese creation myth
Takamagahara mythology
Izumo mythology
Hyūga mythology
Human age
Mythical locations
Major Buddhist figures
Seven Lucky Gods
Legendary creatures
Wisdom Kings
Heavenly deities
Circumstantial appearances
Religious masters
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