Kirat Mundhum (also Kirati Mundhum or Kiratism) are the stories recited/sung by the shamans (called 'Fedangma/Samba') of the Kirati ethnic groups of Nepal: Limbu, Rai, Sunuwar and Yakkha peoples. The practice is also known as Kirat Veda, Kirat-Ko Veda or Kirat Ko Ved. According to some scholars, such as Tom Woodhatch, it is a blend of animism (e.g., ancestor worshiping of Sumnima/Paruhang and Yuma Sammang/Tagera Ningwaphumang), and Saivism. It is practiced by about 3.1% of the Nepali population.
It has the religious scripture and folk literature of the Kirat people of Nepal and India. All four Kirats (Limbu, Rai, Sunuwar and Yakkha) have slightly different religious texts. Religious texts means the power of great strength Mundhum in the Limbu language, Mewahang rai call it muddum, Yakka as mintum, Sunuwar as mukdum among Kulung rai as ridum and Chamling rai as dum. It covers many aspects of the Kirat culture, customs and traditions that existed before Vedic period in ancient Indian subcontinent.
The religious texts for each tribe consists of customs, habits, rituals, traditions, and myths passed down from the Kirati tribe's ancestors. Religious texts serve, in a way, as customary laws which guide Kirats in their daily lives. Their religious texts also distinguishes each Kiranti tribe from other Kirati and non-Kiratis as well.
Kirats practice shamanism and their rituals are mostly related to the worship of mother nature, ancestors, sun, moon, wind, fire and main pillar of house. Almost all sacred rituals, in Rai, are performed by nakchong, the Rai tribal priest. Similarly Limbus have phɛdɑŋmɑ/bɑ, yɛbɑ/mɑ, sɑmbɑ/mɑ to perform rituals accordingly. Their supreme deity Tagera Ningwaphuma: tɑgɛrɑ niŋwɑphumɑ is personified as Yuma Sammang as female and Theba Sammang as male in earthly form. Some Limbus have their own distinct form of worship known as Yuma Sammang is mother of all the Limbus their follower are Yumaism; they venerate a supreme goddess.
Sakela is the main festival of Khambu Kirat [Rai], in this festival, they worship mother nature and their Ancestor's [who is believed to be staying in their Chulla (fireplace build by three stone, each stone has a unique meaning) and garden]. This festival is celebrated twice a year distinguished by two names Ubhauli and Udhauli. Sakela Ubhauli is celebrated during Baisakh Purnima (full moon day, which lies in the month of Baisakh in calendars of the Indian Subcontinent.) and Sakela Udhauli is celebrated during the full moon day in the month of Mangh. In Ubhauli they prey for the goodness of family and good weather for cultivation and in Udhauli they thanks the mother nature and ancestor for their blessing and good harvest.
In both Ubhauli and Udhauli they sacrifice a rooster and worship by Ginger, Rice, homemade alcohol, and tree resin (resin is put in the burning coal for fragrance) and conduct a Sakela dance. In this dance, they perform all the daily life activity (example planting rice, harvesting etc.) and also try to copy the behavior of animals and birds which are part of their day to day life. The Limbu Kirat celebrate Udhauli Chasok Tangnam on the day of Mangsir Purnima and Ubhauli (Yokwa Tongnam) in the month of Baisakh. Other Kirats (Yakkha and Sunuwars) also celebrate in their own way. Sakela celebration is the prayer to the Goddess of Nature for good crops and protection from natural calamities.
The celebration of Sakela is also known as Chandi Nach Murat. On Chandi Nach, they worship Durga, who is known to them as Chandi, or Chandika. (Worship of Durga among the Himalayan Kiratas is arguably written in the Harivamsha Purana.) Durga Puja is still performed by a few Kirants.
In philosophy, metaphysics, religion, spirituality, and other contexts, the Absolute is a term for the most real being. The Absolute is conceived as being itself or perhaps the being that transcends and comprehends all other beings.
There are many conceptions of the Absolute in various fields and subjects, such as philosophy, religion, spiritual traditions, formal science (such as mathematics), and even natural science. The nature of these conceptions can range from "merely" encompassing all physical existence, nature, or reality, to being completely unconditioned existentially, transcending all concepts, notions, objects, entities, and types, kinds, and categories of being. The various conceptions typically appear within theories of everything, whether in natural science or philosophy.
The Absolute is often thought of as generating manifestations that interact with lower or lesser types, kinds, and categories of being. This is either done passively, through emanations, or actively, through avatars and incarnations. These existential manifestations, which themselves can possess transcendent attributes, only contain minuscule or infinitesimal portions of the true essence of the Absolute.
The term itself was not in use in ancient or medieval philosophy, but closely related to the description of God as actus purus in scholasticism. It was introduced in modern philosophy, notably by Hegel, for "the sum of all being, actual and potential".
The term has since also been adopted in perennial philosophy.Bahing
The Bahing are a subset of the Indigenous Kirat ethnic group, located widely in Okhaldhunga and Solukhumbu District. They can be found in some of the villages like Bulaadi, Chisopani, Moli, Pankhu, Bhaudure, Apsowra, Rangadeep,Bigutar, Mamkha, Narayasthan, Baruneshowe, Ratmate, Waksa, Lekh Kharka of the Okhaldhunga District, and Nechabatase, Salyan of Solukhumbu & in some other districts of eastern Nepal.Their language, also named Bahing, belongs to the family of Kiranti languages, a subgroup of Tibeto-Burman. They have two main festivals: Hong and Susu. The Bahing also worship in Nature.Demographics of Nepal
In the 2011 census, Nepal's population was approximately 26 million people with a population growth rate of 1.35% and a median age of 21.6 years. In 2016, the female median age was approximately 25 years old and the male median age was approximately 22 years old. Only 4.4% of the population is estimated to be more than 65 years old, comprising 681,252 females and 597,628 males. 61% of the population is between 15 and 64 years old, and 34.6% is younger than 14 years. In 2011, the Birth rate is estimated to be 22.17 births per 1,000 people with an infant mortality rate of 46 deaths per 1,000 live births. Compared to the infant mortality rate in 2006 of 48 deaths per 1000 live births, the 2011 IMR is a slight decrease within that 5-year period. Infant mortality rate in Nepal is higher in rural regions at 44 deaths per 1000 live births, whereas in urban regions the IMR is lower at 40 deaths per 1000 live births. This difference is due to a lack of delivery assistance services in rural communities compared to their urban counterparts who have better access to hospitals and neonatal clinics. Life expectancy at birth is estimated to be 67.44 years for females and 64.94 years for males. The mortality rate is estimated to be 681 deaths per 100,000 people. Net migration rate is estimated to be 61 migrants per 100,000 people. According to the 2011 census, 65.9% of the total population is literate.History of Sikkim
The history of Sikkim an area in present-day North-East India, began in 1642 as a kingdom established when India and Nepal were still many princely states with many rulers at that time and had not unified to the present Union of India and present country of Nepal. At that time Sikkim had already solidified into country then with a king known as a Chogyal or dharma king, and till 16 May 1975 was an independent country ruled by the monarchs. Sikkim had twelve kings; Palden Thondup Namgyal was the last king of Independent Sikkim. There was contacts between ancient Hindus and Tibetans, followed by the establishment of a Buddhist kingdom or Chogyal in the 17th century. Sikkim emerged as a polity in its own right against a backdrop of incursions from Tibet and Bhutan, during which the kingdom enjoyed varying degrees of independence. In the early 18th century, the British Empire sought to establish trade routes with Tibet, leading Sikkim to fall under British suzerainty until independence in 1947. Initially, Sikkim remained an independent country, until it merged with India in 1975 after a decisive referendum. Many provisions of the Indian constitution had to be altered to accommodate the international treaties between Sikkim and India.Iman Xin Chemjong
Iman Xin Chemjong or Iman Singh Chemjong: was a Limbu historian, writer, linguist, lexicographer, folklorist and philosopher of Nepal. Although some say that his middle name Xin was spelled as Singh due to mainstream Nepalese or Indian influence, others say Singh is correct because in his book Kiratakalina Vijayapurako Sankshipta Itihasa, Chemjong writes his name in Nepali as Iman Singh Chemjong. Chemjong devoted his entire life to studying and documenting various facets of Kirati tradition and culture at a time when such activities were frowned upon and even punished by the Nepalese ruling elite as being subversive and "anti-national". Chemjong's research into, and publication of, a Kiranti history and culture challenged perceptions of the Nepalese official doctrine that showcased Nepal as a Hindu cultural monolith devoid of alternative narratives.
Born in Renkebung village of Darjeeling district, West Bengal, India, Chemjong received his education at St. Xavier's College, then under the University of Calcutta. In 1928, he completed his certificate level and was about to enroll for a Bachelor degree, when his father, Megbar Singh Chemjong, died. Chemjong junior had to put his academic aspirations on hold.Kathmandu
Kathmandu (; Nepali: काठमाडौं, Nepal Bhasa: य़े: Yei, Nepali pronunciation: [kaʈʰmaɳɖu]) is the capital city and largest city of Nepal with a population of around 1 million. Kathmandu is also the largest metropolis in the Himalayan hill region. Nepali is the most spoken language in the city.
Kathmandu, also known as City of Temples stands at an elevation of approximately 1,400 metres (4,600 feet) above sea level in the bowl-shaped Kathmandu Valley of central Nepal. The valley is historically termed as "Nepal Mandala" and has been the home of Newar culture, a cosmopolitan urban civilisation in the Himalayas foothills. The city was the royal capital of the Kingdom of Nepal and hosts palaces, mansions and gardens of the Nepalese aristocracy. It has been home to the headquarters of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) since 1985. Today, it is the seat of government of the Nepalese republic established in 2008; and is part of the Province No. 3 in Nepalese administrative geography.
Kathmandu is and has been for many years the centre of Nepal's history, art, culture and economy. It has a multiethnic population within a Hindu and Buddhist majority. It is also the home of the Newars. Religious and cultural festivities form a major part of the lives of people residing in Kathmandu.
Tourism is an important part of the economy; in 2013, Kathmandu was ranked third among the top ten upcoming travel destinations in the world by TripAdvisor, and ranked first in Asia. The city is the gateway to the Nepalese Himalayas, and home to seven world heritage sites: the Durbar Squares of Hanuman Dhoka, Patan and Bhaktapur; the Stupas of Swayambhunath and Baudhanath; and the temples of Pashupati and Changu Narayan. There are also seven casinos in the city.
Historic areas of Kathmandu were severely damaged by a 7.8 magnitude earthquake on 25 April 2015. Some of the buildings have been restored and some are in the process of reconstruction.Kirat Chuli
Kirat Chuli or Tent Peak is a mountain in the Himalayas. It lies on the border between Nepal and India.
The first ascent to the summit was made by Ernst Grob, Herbert Paidar, and Ludwig Schmaderer in 1939.Kirat People or Kirati Limbu Kirat Mundhum
Kirat Chuli name in the Limbu language God Kirat and is believed to be an abode of the omnipotent goddess Yuma Sammang of Sikkim Limbu People.Kirata
The Kirāta (Kirat) (Sanskrit: किरात) is a generic term in Sanskrit literature for people who had territory in the mountains, particularly in the Himalayas and Northeast India and who are believed to have been Sino-Tibetan in origin. The Kiratas are Limbu, Rai, Yakkha, Sunuwar and Lepcha tribes of Eastern Nepal The Kiratas in Distant Past A Sanskrit-English Dictionary refer the meaning of 'Kirat' as a 'degraded, mountainous tribe, a savage and barbarian' while other scholars attribute more respectable meanings to this term and say that it denotes people with the lion's character, or mountain dwellers.Kirateshwar Mahadev Temple
Kirateshwar Mahadev Temple is a Hindu temple, identified to be a Hindu pilgrimage site which is located at Legship, West Sikkim, India along the banks of River Rangeet., which has many mythological episodes of the Mahabharata attached to it. The temple is also known as Kirateshwar Mahadev Thaan by the Kirati people or simply known as Shiv Mandir.Kirati people
The Kirati people (Sanskrit: Kirāta) (also spelled as Kirant or Kiranti) are an ethnic group of the Himalayan region of the Indian subcontinent, extending eastward from Nepal to India.Limbu people
The Limbu (ᤕᤠᤰᤌᤢᤱ) (exonym) or Yakthung (endonym) (IPA: [yɑkthuŋ]) are Kirati people indigenous and native to the Himalayan Limbuwan region of the Indian subcontinent, what is now modern-day Eastern Nepal, Northern Sikkim, India and Western Bhutan.The original name of Limbus is Yakthung, Yakthungba or Yakthungma (ᤕᤠᤰᤌᤢᤱ). Limbu males and Limbu females are called “Yakthungba" and "Yakthungma". In Ancient texts believe that "Yakthung" or "Yakthum" is a derivative from China and some interpret its meaning as the "Yaksha winner". In Limbu language it means "heroes of the hills" (Yak - hills, thung or thum - heroes or mighty warriors), which connotation with ancient Kiratas. Subba is also a title given by the Shah Kings to only Limbu village chiefs. Subba was not an indigenous Yakthung terminology, but now they are almost interchangeable terms.
Their history is stated to be written in a book called Bhongsoli also known as Vanisavali of which copies are kept in some of the most ancient families. There are hundreds of Limbu Clans and Tribes. Each Limbu clans are classified under their Tribe or subnational entity or according to their place of origin.
The Chinese text Po-ou-Yeo-Jing, translated in 308 AD, refers to the Yi-ti-Sai (barbarians bordering on the north), a name which is an exact equivalent of Kiratas.
The Limbus were also one of the earliest inhabitants of Sikkim. As per the 2011 Nepal census, the population of Limbus in Nepal is 387,300. The Limbus are mainly centred in the districts of Sankhuwasabha, Tehrathum, Dhankuta, Taplejung, Morang, Sunsari, Jhapa, Panchthar, Ilam, Kathmandu, Nakhipot, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur in Nepal. These are all within the Mechi and Kosi Zones or "Limbuwan". Portions of the Limbu population are also located in the east and west districts of Sikkim. A smaller number are scattered throughout the cities of Darjeeling and Kalimpong in West Bengal, Assam, Nagaland and in north and south Sikkim, Bhutan, Burma, and others have recently migrated to the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, the United States and many other countries.List of contemporary ethnic groups
The following is a list of contemporary ethnic groups. There has been constant debate over the classification of ethnic groups. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be associated with shared cultural heritage, ancestry, history, homeland, language or dialect; where the term "culture" specifically includes aspects such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing (clothing) style, and other factors.
By the nature of the concept, ethnic groups tend to be divided into ethnic subgroups, which may themselves be or not be identified as independent ethnic groups depending on the source consulted.List of religions and spiritual traditions
While religion is hard to define, one standard model of religion, used in religious studies courses, was proposed by Clifford Geertz, who defined it as a
[…] system of symbols which acts to establish powerful, pervasive, and long-lasting moods and motivations in men by formulating conceptions of a general order of existence and clothing these conceptions with such an aura of factuality that the moods and motivations seem uniquely realistic."
A critique of Geertz's model by Talal Asad categorized religion as "an anthropological category." Many religions have narratives, symbols, traditions and sacred histories that are intended to give meaning to life or to explain the origin of life or the universe. They tend to derive morality, ethics, religious laws, or a preferred lifestyle from their ideas about the cosmos and human nature. According to some estimates, there are roughly 4,200 religions in the world.The word religion is sometimes used interchangeably with "faith" or "belief system", but religion differs from private belief in that it has a public aspect. Most religions have organized behaviours, including clerical hierarchies, a definition of what constitutes adherence or membership, congregations of laity, regular meetings or services for the purposes of veneration of a deity or for prayer, holy places (either natural or architectural) or religious texts. Certain religions also have a sacred language often used in liturgical services. The practice of a religion may also include sermons, commemoration of the activities of a god or gods, sacrifices, festivals, feasts, trance, rituals, rites, ceremonies, worship, initiations, funerals, marriages, meditation, invocation, mediumship, music, art, dance, public service or other aspects of human culture. Religious beliefs have also been used to explain parapsychological phenomena such as out-of-body experiences, near-death experiences and reincarnation, along with many other paranormal and supernatural experiences.Some academics studying the subject have divided religions into three broad categories: world religions, a term which refers to transcultural, international faiths; indigenous religions, which refers to smaller, culture-specific or nation-specific religious groups; and new religious movements, which refers to recently developed faiths. One modern academic theory of religion, social constructionism, says that religion is a modern concept that suggests all spiritual practice and worship follows a model similar to the Abrahamic religions as an orientation system that helps to interpret reality and define human beings, and thus religion, as a concept, has been applied inappropriately to non-Western cultures that are not based upon such systems, or in which these systems are a substantially simpler construct.Mundhum
Mundhum (also known as Peylan) is the ancient religious scripture and folk literature of the Limbu. It is the ancient, indigenous religion of Nepal. Mundhum means "the power of great strength" in Limbu language. The Mundhum covers many aspects of the yakthung culture, customs and traditions that have been taken before Vedic civilisation in South Asia.Mundhum is organised into two parts — Thungsap and Peysap. The Mundhum extends beyond religion, serving as a guide for culture, ritual and social values. Mundhum is written in ancient Limbu language and versions vary among the various limbu tribes, serving as each tribe's distinctive culture and framing their social identity and unity in relation to other tribes and peoples.Nakchhong
Nakchhong (नाक्छोङ) are priests of the Kirati people, an ethnic group that is predominantly located in the Himalayas.
Nakchhong maintain a vegetarian diet as part of their spiritual regime. The Kirati believe that Nakchhong are chosen bodies of good spirits. One of the foremost Kirat, Mundhum, has taught that there are two types of spirits. Rumahang, the divine spirit, is a supreme spirit who created the universe and living beings on this earth. Rumahang represents truth, happiness, compassion and love. Conversely, the devil spirit represents destruction, jealousy and hatred. Thus, Nakchhong act under Rumahang against the devil spirits.
Those who possess a magical weapon (any kind of BAN to harm or kill another) are regarded as chosen bodies of the devil spirit. On the other hand, Nakchhong do not have any magical weapons to harm or kill other living beings.
Nakchhong frequently work with the following materials:
अदुवा (Kirat culture)ginger
Tupla (cut pieces of the front part of a banana leaf)
Chindo: Gourd filled with Jand (millet beer)Province No. 1
Province No. 1 (proposed names: Koshi or Purbanchal) is one of the seven provinces established by the new constitution of Nepal which was adopted on 20 September 2015.As per a CDC (Constituency Delimitation Commission) report, Province No. 1 has 28 parliamentary seats and 56 provincial seats under the first-past-the-post voting system. As per a 17 January 2018 cabinet meeting, the city of Biratnagar was declared the interim capital of Province No. 1. It was declared as the permanent capital of Province No. 1 on 6 May 2019 when two-third of MLAs voted in favour of Biratnagar in provincial assembly of Province No. 1. It borders the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, the Indian states of Sikkim and West Bengal to the east, Province No. 3 and Province No. 2 to the west, and Bihar of India to the south.According to the 2011 census, there are around 4.5 million people in the province, with a population density of 175.6 per square kilometer.Province No. 2
Province No. 2 (proposed names: Madhesh or Mithila- Bhojpura) (Nepali/Maithili: प्रदेश नं० २) is a province in the southeastern region of Nepal that was formed after the adoption of the Constitution of Nepal. It is Nepal's second most populous province, and smallest province by area. It borders Province No. 1 to the east, Province No. 3 to the north, and India to the south. It has an area of 9,661 km2 (3,730 sq mi) with a population of 5,404,145 per the 2011 Census of Nepal, making it most densely populated province of Nepal.The Koshi River and Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve acts as provincial demarcation border between Province 2 and Province 1 in the east. And the demarcation line between Chitwan National Park and Parsa National Park (previously Widlife Reserve) acts as provincial demarcation border between Province 2 and Province 3 in the west.
The province includes eight districts from Saptari District in the east to Parsa District in the west. The majority of the province's population speaks Maithili, Bhojpuri, Bajjika and Nepali.The Capital city, a sub-metropolitan city of Janakpur, also known as Janakpurdham, is a centre for religious and cultural tourism. It is also thought to have been the capital of the Videha dynasty that ruled Mithila region in ancient times.The first urban planned municipality of Nepal, Rajbiraj, is also the oldest municipality of the Terai belt of Nepal. The town is believed to have been named after the ancient Rajdevi temple, which dates back to the 1700s. The metropolitan city of Birgunj is an economically important industrial centre and the only metropolitan city in the province.As per a 17 January 2018 cabinet meeting, Janakpur has been declared as the interim capital of Province No. 2. Mohammad Lalbabu Raut Gaddhi is the current Chief Minister.Province No. 3
Province No. 3 is one of the seven provinces of Nepal established by the country's new constitution of 20 September 2015. Home to the country's capital Kathmandu, it is mostly hilly and mountainous, home to peaks including Gaurishankar, Langtang, Jugal, and Ganesh. The province covers an area of 20,300 km2, about 14% of the country's total area, and has an altitude low enough to support deciduous, coniferous, and alpine forest and woodland. Temperature varies with altitude. Rainfall takes place mainly during the summer.
The Province borders the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, Province No. 1 to the east, Gandaki Pradesh to the west, and both Province No. 2 and the Indian state of Bihar to the south. As per a 17 January 2018 Federal cabinet meeting, Hetauda has been declared the interim state capital. The most populous province of Nepal, it possesses rich cultural diversity, with resident communities and castes including Newar, Tamang, Sherpa, Tharu, Chepang, Jirel, Brahmin, Chhetri, Tharu, Chepang, Jirel, and more. It hosted the highest number of voters in the last election for the House of Representatives and Provincial Assembly, which took place in 2017.Tej Man Angdembe
Tej Man Angdembe is a Nepali language expert, writer and lecturer.