The kinkajou (/ˈkɪŋkədʒuː/ KING-kə-joo) (Potos flavus) is a tropical rainforest mammal of the family Procyonidae related to olingos, coatis, raccoons, and the ringtail and cacomistle. It is the only member of the genus Potos and is also known as the "honey bear" (a name that it shares with the sun bear). Kinkajous are arboreal, a lifestyle they evolved independently; they are not closely related to any other tree-dwelling mammal group (e.g. primates, some mustelids, etc).

Native to Central America and South America, this mostly frugivorous mammal is not an endangered species, though it is seldom seen by people because of its strict nocturnal habits. However, they are hunted for the pet trade, for their fur (to make wallets and horse saddles) and for their meat. The species has been included in Appendix III of CITES by Honduras, which means that exports from Honduras require an export permit and exports from other countries require a certificate of origin or re-export.[2] They may live up to 40 years in captivity.

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Procyonidae
Genus: Potos
Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire & Cuvier, 1795
P. flavus
Binomial name
Potos flavus
(Schreber, 1774)
Kinkajou area
Kinkajou range

Size and appearance

Potos flavus (8973438737)
In a rehabilitation center, Panama

An adult kinkajou weighs 1.4–4.6 kg (3–10 lb). The adult body length is 40–60 cm (16–24 in); in addition to body length, the length of the prehensile tail is 40–60 cm (16–24 in).[3] The kinkajou's woolly fur consists of an outer coat of gold (or brownish-gray) overlapping a gray undercoat. It has large eyes and small ears. It also has short legs with five toes on each foot and sharp claws.[4][5]

Range and habitat

Kinkajous range from east and south of the Sierra Madres in Mexico, throughout Central America to Bolivia east of the Andes and the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil. Their altitudinal range is from sea level to 2500 m. They are found in closed-canopy tropical forests, including lowland rainforest, montane forest, dry forest, gallery forest and secondary forest. Deforestation is thus a potential threat to the species.[1]


Kinkajou skull
Kinkajou skull

Although the kinkajou is classified in the order Carnivora and has sharp teeth, its omnivorous diet consists mainly of fruit, particularly figs.[6] Studies have shown that 90% of their diet consists of (primarily ripe) fruit. To eat softer fruits they hold it with their forepaws, then scoop out the succulent pulp with their tongue. They may play an important role in seed dispersal. Leaves, flowers, and various herbs make up much of the other 10% of their diet.[7] They sometimes eat insects, particularly ants. It has been suggested, without direct evidence, that they may occasionally eat bird eggs and small vertebrates.[7] Their frugivorous habits are actually convergent with those of (diurnal) spider monkeys.[7]

The kinkajou's slender five-inch extrudable tongue helps the animal to obtain fruit and to lick nectar from flowers, so that it sometimes acts as a pollinator. (Nectar is also sometimes obtained by eating entire flowers.) Although captive specimens will avidly eat honey (hence the name "honey bear"), honey has not yet been observed in the diet of wild kinkajous.


Potos flavus (8973438561)
Kinkajou using its prehensile tail

Olingos are similar to the kinkajou in morphology and habits. However, genetic studies have shown that kinkajous were an early offshoot of the ancestral procyonid line and are not closely related to any of the other extant procyonids, to which they are a sister group.[8][9][10] This divergence is thought to have occurred about 22.6 million years ago.[9] The similarities between the kinkajou and olingos are thus an example of parallel evolution; the closest relatives of the olingos are actually the coatis.[8][9][10] The kinkajou is distinguished from olingos by its prehensile tail, its foreshortened muzzle, its extrudable tongue, and its lack of anal scent glands.[11] The only other carnivoran with a prehensile tail is the binturong of Southeast Asia.

Kinkajous evolved in Central America and invaded the formerly isolated continent of South America several million years ago, as part of the Great American Interchange, when formation of the Isthmus of Panama made it possible to do so.[8]


Potos flavus (Harvard University)
In University Museum, Harvard

Kinkajous spend most of their life in trees, to which they are particularly well adapted.[12] Like raccoons, kinkajous' remarkable manipulatory abilities rival those of primates. The kinkajou has a short-haired, fully prehensile tail (like some New World monkeys), which it uses as a "fifth hand" in climbing. It does not use its tail for grasping food. It can rotate its ankles and feet 180°, making it easy for the animal to run backward over tree limbs and climb down trees headfirst.[12] Scent glands near the mouth, on the throat, and on the belly allow kinkajous to mark their territory and their travel routes. Kinkajous sleep in family units and groom one another.[13] While they are usually solitary when foraging, they occasionally forage in small groups, and sometimes associate with olingos (which are also frugivorous).[14]

A nocturnal animal, the kinkajou's peak activity is usually between about 7:00 PM and midnight, and again an hour before dawn. During daylight hours, kinkajous sleep in tree hollows or in shaded tangles of leaves, avoiding direct sunlight.

Kinkajous breed throughout the year, giving birth to one or occasionally two small babies after a gestation period of 112 to 118 days.

As pets

Yawning kinkajou
In a Costa Rican animal shelter

Kinkajous are sometimes kept as exotic pets. They are playful, generally quiet, docile, and have little odor. However, they can occasionally be aggressive. Kinkajous dislike sudden movements, noise, and being awake during the day. An agitated kinkajou may emit a scream and attack, usually clawing its victim and sometimes biting deeply. In 2011, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that pet kinkajous in the United States can be carriers (fecal-oral route) of the raccoon roundworm Baylisascaris procyonis, which is capable of causing severe morbidity and even death in humans, if the brain is infected.[15]

In El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras pet kinkajous are commonly called micoleón, meaning "lion monkey". In Peru pet kinkajous are commonly referred to as "lirón". The lirón is often described as a "bear-monkey" or "bear-monkey hybrid".

They live an average of about 23 years in captivity, with a maximum recorded life span of 41 years.[16]


There are seven subspecies of kinkajou:[17]

  • Potos flavus flavus
  • Potos flavus chapadensis
  • Potos flavus chiriquensis
  • Potos flavus megalotus
  • Potos flavus meridensis
  • Potos flavus modestus
  • Potos flavus nocturnus


  1. ^ a b Helgen, K.; Kays, R.; Schipper, J. (2016). "Potos flavus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T41679A45215631. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T41679A45215631.en. Retrieved 18 February 2019.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  2. ^ "Appendices I, II and III: The CITES Appendices". Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. 2013-06-12. Retrieved 2014-03-30.
  3. ^ Eisenberg, J. F.; Redford, K. H. (2000-05-15). Mammals of the Neotropics: The Central Neotropics: Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil. University of Chicago Press. pp. 289–290). ISBN 978-0-226-19542-1. OCLC 493329394.
  4. ^ Potos flavus, Animal Diversity Web.
  5. ^ Boitani, Luigi (1984). Simon & Schuster's Guide to Mammals. Simon & Schuster/Touchstone Books. ISBN 978-0-671-42805-1
  6. ^ Stone, David (1995). Raccoons and their Relatives. IUCN. p. 7. ISBN 978-2831700519.
  7. ^ a b c Kays, Roland W. (May 1999). "Food preferences of kinkajous (Potos flavus): a frugivorous carnivore". Journal of Mammalogy. 80 (2): 589–599. doi:10.2307/1383303. JSTOR 1383303.
  8. ^ a b c K.-P. Koepfli; M. E. Gompper; E. Eizirik; C.-C. Ho; L. Linden; J. E. Maldonado; R. K. Wayne (2007). "Phylogeny of the Procyonidae (Mammalia: Carvnivora): Molecules, morphology and the Great American Interchange". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 43 (3): 1076–1095. CiteSeerX doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.10.003. PMID 17174109.
  9. ^ a b c Eizirik, E.; Murphy, W. J.; Koepfli, K.-P.; Johnson, W. E.; Dragoo, J. W.; Wayne, R. K.; O’Brien, S. J. (2010-02-04). "Pattern and timing of diversification of the mammalian order Carnivora inferred from multiple nuclear gene sequences". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 56 (1): 49–63. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.01.033. PMID 20138220.
  10. ^ a b Helgen, K. M.; Pinto, M.; Kays, R.; Helgen, L.; Tsuchiya, M.; Quinn, A.; Wilson, D.; Maldonado, J. (2013-08-15). "Taxonomic revision of the olingos (Bassaricyon), with description of a new species, the Olinguito". ZooKeys (324): 1–83. doi:10.3897/zookeys.324.5827. PMC 3760134. PMID 24003317.
  11. ^ Ford, L. S.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988-12-27). "Potos flavus". Mammalian Species. 321 (321): 1–9. JSTOR 3504086.
  12. ^ a b Kristin Petrie (2010). Kinkajous. ABDO. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-61613-911-7.
  13. ^ Menino, Holly; Klum, Mattias. "The Kinkajou". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 2013-05-12.
  14. ^ Glatston, A. R. (October 1994). The red panda, olingos, coatis, raccoons, and their relatives: status survey (PDF). IUCN. pp. 103 (see p. 5). ISBN 978-2-8317-0046-5.
  15. ^ Kazacos, K. R.; et al. (2011-03-11). "Raccoon Roundworms in Pet Kinkajous --- Three States, 1999 and 2010". MMWR. 60 (10): 302–305.
  16. ^ "Kinkajou". Honolulu Zoo. Archived from the original on 2012-04-06. Retrieved 2013-05-12.
  17. ^ Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 626. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.

External links


The genus Bassaricyon consists of small Neotropical procyonids, popularly known as olingos . They are native to the rainforests of Central and South America from Nicaragua to Peru. They are arboreal and nocturnal, and live at elevations from sea level to 2,750 m. Olingos closely resemble the kinkajou in morphology and habits, though they lack prehensile tails and extrudable tongues, have more extended muzzles, and possess anal scent glands. They also resemble galagos and certain lemurs, which are primates.

Genetic studies have shown that the closest relatives of the olingos are actually the coatis; the divergence between the two groups is estimated to have occurred about 10.2 million years (Ma) ago during the Tortonian age, while kinkajous split off from the other extant procyonids about 22.6 Ma ago during the Aquitanian age. The similarities between kinkajous and olingos are thus an example of parallel evolution.


Coatis, also known as the coatimundis (), are members of the raccoon family (Procyonidae) in the genera Nasua and Nasuella. They are diurnal mammals native to South America, Central America, and southwestern North America. The name coatimundi is purportedly derived from the Tupian languages of Brazil.The coati is also known in English as the hog-nosed coon.

Design that Matters

Founded in 2001 by a team of MIT students, Design that Matters (DtM), is a nonprofit design company that partners with social entrepreneurs to design products that address basic needs in developing countries.

DtM's core competencies include ethnography, design and engineering. DtM manages a collaborative design process through which hundreds of students and professional volunteers contribute to the design of new product and services for the poor in developing countries. DtM has completed projects in health care, education, microfinance and renewable energy. The company has worked in Mali, Benin, Kenya, India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Cambodia, the Philippines and Indonesia. DtM partners include the East Meets West Foundation, Solar Ear, World Education, the Center for Integration of Medicine and Innovative Technology's Global Health Initiative (CIMIT GHI), the Centre for Mass Education in Science (CMES) in Bangladesh and the Mann Deshi Mahila Sahakari Bank in India.

In 2012, Design that Matters received the National Design Award for Corporate and Institutional Achievement.

Franny's Feet

Franny's Feet is a Canadian-British animated series for children created by Cathy Moss and Susin Nielsen. The series was produced by Decode Entertainment with the participation of Family Channel in association with Channel Five Broadcasting Limited. The show follows the adventures of Francine "Franny" Fantootsie (a portmanteau of "fantasy" and "tootsie") as she tries on various pairs of shoes and travels to different places in the world. It appeared on PBS Kids in the United States July 8, 2006 and ran through April 10, 2010. The show currently airs, alternating months with The Adventures of Paddington Bear, on Light TV.

Guanacaste National Park (Belize)

Guanacaste National Park is a 50-acre (20 ha) park in central Belize. It is named after a huge Guanacaste tree that escaped being logged because its trunk divided into three bases, reducing its value as timber.Guanacaste National Park is located on the north side of the Western Highway just to the east of the Roaring Creek bridge - about 50 miles (80 km) west of Belize City, in the Cayo District of Belize. In 1973, it was established as a Crown Reserve but finally gained status as a national park in 1990. The park was later put under the responsibility of the Belize Audubon Society. The Guanacaste National Park is the most accessible park of the Belize Audubon Society-managed protected areas. Its proximity to Belize's major cities make it a popular family spot. Public transportation from any nearby city is available to the national park.

The park is open to the public only during the day. The Guanacaste National Park is open from 8 am until 4:30 pm. The admission fee is about $1 BZD (Belize Dollar) for citizens and $5 BZD for tourists. There is an educational center, a gift shop, and over two miles (3 km) of maintained trails. The park's workers recommend that visitors wear long-sleeved shirts, sturdy shoes and pants to avoid contact with poisonous plants.

Besides the famous guanacaste tree, this national park is also home to other tree species such as the rain tree, mamey sapote, Brazilian firetree, and Honduras mahogany, Belize's national tree. Belize's reputation for an extensive biodiversity is also evident in the park's wide range of animals that tourists are able to observe. These include the white-tailed deer, jaguarundi, kinkajou, nine-banded armadillo, among countless others. This park is also a favorite for birdwatching. There have been recorded over one hundred different bird species, including the Lesson's motmot and black-faced antthrush. Other birds seen at Guanacaste Park include the smoky-brown woodpecker, black-headed trogon, red-lored amazon, the magnolia warbler, belted kingfisher, and the bright-rumped attila.


A hypocarnivore is an animal that consumes less than 30% meat for its diet, the majority of which consists of non-vertebrate foods that may include fungi, fruits, and other plant material. Examples of living hypocarnivores are the grizzly bear (Ursus horribilis), black bear (Ursus americanus), binturong (Arctictis binturong), kinkajou (Potos flavus) and humans.

The evolutionary division of carnivory into three groups, including hypercarnivore and mesocarnivore, appears to have occurred about 40 million years ago (mya). The term hypocarnivory is used with increasing frequency in describing early Canidae evolution, and reliance upon that survival strategy has a documented history in North American Borophaginae during the Miocene (23.03 to 5.33 mya). Twenty-five species of hypocarnivore co-occurred on the North American continent 30 mya. A shift from hyper- to hypo- occurred at least three times among Oligocene and Miocene canids Oxetocyon, Phlaocyon, and Cynarctus.

Large hypocarnivores (Ursus) were rare and developed in the mid-to-late Miocene-Pliocene as Borophaginae became extinct.

J. Harold Murray

J. Harold Murray (born Harry Rulten, February 17, 1891 –t December 11, 1940) was an American baritone singer and actor. For more than a decade, during the Roaring Twenties and the Depression Thirties, he contributed to the development of musical theater by bridging vaudeville, operetta and the modern American musical. The most popular American songs he introduced on Broadway included "Autumn in New York" (1934, Thumbs Up!, words and music by Vernon Duke); "Let's Have Another Cup of Coffee" and "Soft Lights and Sweet Music" (1932, Face the Music, Moss Hart and Irving Berlin); "Rio Rita", "The Kinkajou" and "The Rangers Song" (1927, Rio Rita, Harry Tierney and Joseph McCarthy); and "Mandalay" (1921, The Whirl of New York, (Gustave Kerker, Hugh Morton and Edgar Smith).

Kacey Jones

Gail Zeiler (April 27, 1950 – September 1, 2016), known professionally as Kacey Jones, was an American singer-songwriter, producer and humorist. After co-writing the Mickey Gilley hit "I'm the One Mama Warned You About" (credited as Gayle Zeiler), she found success as a performer through the band Ethel & The Shameless Hussies, with whom she released her first album. Later, in 1997, she released her first solo album, Men Are Some of My Favorite People, through Curb Records, before founding her own label, IGO Records, co-founding the Kinkajou Records label with Kinky Friedman and creating two publishing houses—Zamalama Music and Mamalama Music. Since her first solo album, Jones released eight CDs and produced music for both the theatrical comedy Nipples to the Wind and the movie (and TV series) Sordid Lives.

List of Meerkat Manor meerkats

The British documentary television programme Meerkat Manor (September 2005 – August 2008), produced by Oxford Scientific Films for Animal Planet International, documented the antics of various meerkats being studied by the Kalahari Meerkat Project. The meerkats live in matriarchal groups led by a dominant couple, who have exclusive mating and breeding rights. The remainder of the group is usually the offspring and relatives of the dominant couple.

In the first three series of the four-series programme, five major groups of meerkats were regularly shown, however, its primary focus was on a group called the Whiskers, one of the largest and oldest of the research groups. Other groups featured were neighbouring rival groups of the Whiskers and groups formed by former Whiskers members. During the first series, a group called the Lazuli were depicted as the Whiskers’ main rivals, with occasional appearances by the smaller Gattaca group. In the second series, the Commandoes were introduced as one of the toughest rivals the Whiskers had ever faced, and by the third, the Commandoes had forced the Whiskers to move. The Whiskers then acquired two new neighbouring groups, the Zappa, with whom they had frequent confrontations, and the short-lived Starsky group formed by a trio of evicted Whiskers females. In the fourth and final series, one of the Whiskers' females formed a new group, the Aztecs.

The meerkat families and individuals are listed in order of appearance with the official names and spellings from the original broadcast of the programme used for their primary identification. Differences in the American or Australian broadcasts are noted as necessary, and the information reflects the state of meerkats at the series's end. Meerkats which only appeared in one or two episodes, are unnamed, or otherwise have no significance in the overall programme are not included.

List of species in order Carnivora

This list contains the species in order Carnivora.


The olinguito , Bassaricyon neblina, is a mammal of the raccoon family Procyonidae that lives in montane forests in the Andes of western Colombia and Ecuador. The species was described as new in 2013. The species name neblina is Spanish for fog or mist, referring to the cloud forest habitat of the olinguito.On 22 May 2014 the International Institute for Species Exploration declared the olinguito as one of the "Top 10 New Species of 2014" among species discovered in 2013. It is the first new carnivoran mammal described in the Western Hemisphere in 35 years.

Prehensile tail

A prehensile tail is the tail of an animal that has adapted to be able to grasp or hold objects. Fully prehensile tails can be used to hold and manipulate objects, and in particular to aid arboreal creatures in finding and eating food in the trees. If the tail cannot be used for this it is considered only partially prehensile - such tails are often used to anchor an animal's body to dangle from a branch, or as an aid for climbing. The term prehensile means "able to grasp" (from the Latin prehendere, to take hold of, to grasp).


Procyonidae is a New World family of the order Carnivora. It comprises the raccoons, coatis, kinkajous, olingos, olinguitos, ringtails, and cacomistles. Procyonids inhabit a wide range of environments and are generally omnivorous.

Rio Rita (1929 film)

Rio Rita is a 1929 American pre-Code RKO musical comedy starring Bebe Daniels and John Boles along with the comedy team of Wheeler & Woolsey. The film is based on the 1927 stage musical produced by Florenz Ziegfeld, which originally united Wheeler and Woolsey as a team and made them famous. The film was the biggest and most expensive RKO production of 1929 as well as the studio's biggest box office hit until King Kong (1933). Its finale was photographed in two-color Technicolor. Rio Rita was chosen as one of the 10 best films of 1929 by Film Daily.

Rio Rita (musical)

Rio Rita is a 1927 stage musical with a book by Guy Bolton and Fred Thompson, music by Harry Tierney, lyrics by Joseph McCarthy, and produced by Florenz Ziegfeld. This musical united Bert Wheeler and Robert Woolsey as a comedy team and made them famous.

It premiered on Broadway on February 2, 1927, at the new Ziegfeld Theatre and, after moving to the Lyric Theatre and Majestic Theatre, closed on April 7, 1928 after 494 performances, a very long run for its time. In Sydney, Gladys Moncrieff appeared in a successful production at the St James Theatre. The musical premiered in London's West End on April 3, 1930, at the then newly opened Prince Edward Theatre.

The musical was made into a film in 1929, Rio Rita, starring Bebe Daniels and John Boles along with the team of Wheeler & Woolsey. Based on the success of this film, Wheeler & Woolsey were also given contracts to star in a series of comedies. Another film based on the musical was made in 1942.

Sammy Bearkat

Sammy Bearkat is the mascot of Sam Houston State University (SHSU), located in Huntsville, Texas. He is a popular attraction at many athletic events such as football, basketball, and volleyball. He also appears for various campus and community functions. Sammy's two-minute routine earned him a national championship of the mascots division at the 2005 United Spirit Association Collegiate National Championship. Sammy was also named the 2010 and 2011 National Cheerleading Association (NCA) Mascot National Champion.

In the 2012 nationals season, Sammy competed with the SHSU Co-Ed Cheer Team (who made their first appearance ever) at the National Cheerleading Association (NCA) collegiate cheer competition. Together they won first place and earned the title of NCA Division I Cheer National Collegiate Champions. In 2013 Sammy also competed with the SHSU Co-Ed Cheer Team who won their second straight national championship title for NCA. Sammy returned to the Band Shell in Daytona Beach to compete alongside the SHSU All-Girl cheer team who won the NCA All-Girl Division I National Championship Title in 2014. In 2015 Sammy was able to wrap his paws around another NCA Division I title as he competed alongside the Co-Ed Cheer Team. In 2016, Sammy competed alongside the SHSU Division I Co-Ed Cheer Team to win another 1st place NCA National Championship. Sammy was also chosen as the 2016 NCA Mascot National Champion after showcasing a great routine in Daytona Beach, Florida. Sammy has now brought home 1st place in various different flavors in 2005 (USA Mascot Championship), 2010 (NCA Mascot Championship), 2011 (NCA Mascot Championship), 2012 (NCA Division I Co-Ed Championship), 2013 (NCA Division I Co-Ed Championship), 2014 (NCA Division I All-Girl Championship), 2015 (NCA Division I Co-Ed Championship) & 2016 (NCA Mascot Championship & NCA Division I Co-Ed Championship).

Sun bear

The sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) is a bear species occurring in tropical forest habitats of Southeast Asia. It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. The global population is thought to have declined by more than 30% over the past three bear generations. Suitable habitat has been dramatically reduced due to the large-scale deforestation that has occurred throughout Southeast Asia over the past three decades.The sun bear is also known as the "honey bear", which refers to its voracious appetite for honeycombs and honey. However, "honey bear" can also refer to a kinkajou, which is an unrelated member of the Procyonidae.

Tapantí National Park

Tapantí National Park, sometimes called Orosí National Park, is a National Park in the Pacific La Amistad Conservation Area of Costa Rica located on the edge of the Talamanca Range, near Cartago. It protects forests to the north of Chirripó National Park, and also contains part of the Orosí River. The area known as Macizo de la Muerte was added to the park on January 14, 2000.The park covers 12,500 acres (5,058 ha) and two life zones—lower montane rainforest and pre-montane rainforest. These forests provide habitat for some 45 mammal species, including the Baird's tapir, kinkajou, white-faced capuchin monkey, paca, agouti, ocelet, and jaguarundi. The park's 400 bird species include sparrow hawks, resplendent quetzals, emerald toucanets, and violaceous trogons. There are 28 species of reptiles and amphibians, and a large insect population that includes the thysania agrippina, the largest moth on the American continent.Three new species of Lepanthes orchids were discovered in the park in 2009 and is so far their only known habitat. All three species, L. graciosa, L. machogaffensis, and L. pelvis, are miniature orchids and neither is longer than 5 mm. They were discovered by a team from the Lankester Botanical Garden and the University of Costa Rica.

Western lowland olingo

The western lowland olingo (Bassaricyon medius) is a species of olingo from Central and South America, where it is known from Panama and from Colombia and Ecuador west of the Andes.

Extant species of family Procyonidae
Extant Carnivora species

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