Kingston Harbour in Jamaica is the seventh-largest natural harbour in the world. It is an almost landlocked area of water approximately 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) long by 3.2 kilometres (2.0 mi) wide. Most of it is deep enough to accommodate large ships, even close to shore. It is bordered to the north by the city of Kingston, the capital of Jamaica; to the west by Hunts Bay and the municipality of Portmore; and to the south and east by the Palisadoes spit, which protects it.
The harbour is home to the Kingston Container Terminal, Jamaica's largest port. Other docks on Kingston Harbour are at the Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica in downtown Kingston and at the Jamaica Flour Mills and the Caribbean Cement Company at Rockfort.
Norman Manley International Airport, Jamaica's second busiest international airport, is also located in the outer harbor, on the Palisadoes spit.
Kingston Harbour c. 1870
|• Water||52 km2 (20 sq mi)|
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
As a large, natural, well-protected harbour, it was doubtless used by indigenous people, and has been used by Europeans since the very beginning of their exploration and settlement of the island. Initially the main settlement was at Port Royal but following its destruction in the 1692 earthquake, the English founded Kingston and began development of its waterfront.
Throughout the 18th and early 19th centuries it handled a large local trade and was the chief entrepot for British exports to the Spanish colonies. For the remainder of the 19th century its development as a port was retarded by a decline in the Jamaican economy. Throughout this period there was a gradual increase in the number of finger piers and wharves along its long sheltered waterfront.
In modern times Kingston Harbour has suffered a number of pollution incidents. In one such during 2009, 300 tons of sulphuric acid are said to have been accidentally discharged from one of the wharves.