A kinglet, or crest, is a small bird in a group that is sometimes included in the Old World warblers, but is frequently placed in its own family, Regulidae, because of resemblance to titmice. "Regulidae" is derived from the Latin word regulus for "petty king" or prince, and refers to the coloured crowns of adult birds. This family has representatives in North America and Eurasia. There are seven species in this family; one, the Madeira firecrest, Regulus madeirensis, was only recently split from common firecrest as a separate species. One species, the ruby-crowned kinglet, differs sufficiently in its voice and plumage to occasionally be afforded its own genus, Corthylio.

Regulus regulus japonensis face
Goldcrest (Regulus regulus) in Japan
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Regulidae
Vigors, 1825
Genus: Regulus
Cuvier, 1800

See text


Kinglets are among the smallest of all passerines, ranging in size from 8–11 cm (3–4.5 in) and weighing 6–8 g (0.21–0.28 oz); the sexes are the same size. They have medium-length wings and tails, and small needle-like bills. The plumage is overall grey-green, offset by pale wingbars, and the tail tip is incised. Five species have a single stiff feather covering the nostrils, but in the ruby-crowned kinglet, this is replaced by several short, stiff bristles. Most kinglets have distinctive head markings, and the males possess a colourful crown patch. In the females, the crown is duller and yellower. The long feathers forming the central crown stripe can be erected; they are inconspicuous most of the time, but are used in courtship and territorial displays when the raised crest is very striking.[1]

There are two species in North America with largely overlapping distributions, and two in Eurasia which also have a considerable shared range. In each continent, one species (goldcrest in Eurasia and golden-crowned kinglet in North America) is a conifer specialist; these have deeply grooved pads on their feet for perching on conifer twigs, and a long hind toe and claw for clinging vertically. The two generalists, ruby-crowned kinglet and common firecrest hunt more in flight, and have smoother soles, shorter hind claws and a longer tail.[1]


The kinglets are a small group of birds sometimes included in the Old World warblers, but frequently given family status,[2] especially as recent research showed that, despite superficial similarities, the crests are taxonomically remote from the warblers.[3][4] The names of the family, Regulidae, and its only genus, Regulus, are derived from the Latin regulus, a diminutive of rex, "a king",[5] and refer to the characteristic orange or yellow crests of adult kinglets. The kinglets were allocated to the warbler genus Sylvia by English naturalist John Latham in 1790,[6] but moved to their current genus by French zoologist Georges Cuvier in 1800.[7]

Several forms have only recently had their status clarified. The Madeira firecrest was formerly considered to be a subspecies, R. i. madeirensis, of the common firecrest R. ignicapillus. A phylogenetic analysis based on the cytochrome b gene showed that the Madeiran form is distinct at the species level from the firecrest nominate subspecies R. i. ignicapillus. Cytochrome b gene divergence between the Madeira firecrest and the European bird is 8.5%, comparable with the divergence level between other recognised Regulus species, such as the 9% between the goldcrest and the golden-crowned kinglet.[1] The split was accepted by the Association of European Rarities Committees (AERC) in 2003,[8] but some authorities, like Clements, have not yet recognised the new species.[9] The golden-crowned kinglet is similar in appearance to the common firecrest and has been considered to be its New World equivalent, but it is actually closer to the goldcrest.[1]

Goldcrests from the Canary Islands are particularly distinctive having a black forehead, pink-buff underparts and a darker closed wing,[10] and have been sometimes treated either as a subspecies of the common firecrest or as a different Regulus species altogether.[11] They were sometimes called the Tenerife goldcrest, no matter which of the islands they lived on; however, a 2006 study of the vocalisations of these birds indicate that they actually comprise two subspecies of the Goldcrest that are separable on voice; R. r. teneriffae occurring on Tenerife and the newly described subspecies, R. r. ellenthalerae, occurring on the smaller islands of La Palma and El Hierro.[12] The three goldcrest taxa on the Azores, Santa Maria goldcrest, Sao Miguel goldcrest and Western Azores goldcrest, represent recent colonisations from Europe, and are best treated as subspecies.[13]

The relationships of the flamecrest or Taiwan firecrest (Regulus goodfellowi) of Taiwan have also been a source of much debate. It is sometimes viewed as a race of firecrest, but its territorial song resembles those of the Himalayan races of goldcrest, and genetic data show that it is the closest relative of that species, and, despite its alternative name, only distantly related to the firecrest.[14] The flamecrest diverged from the Goldcrest 3.0–3.1 mya (million years ago).[15]

Most members of the genus Regulus are similar in size and colour pattern. The exception is the ruby-crowned kinglet, the largest species, which has a strongly red crest and no black crown stripes. It has distinctive vocalisations, and is different enough from the Old World kinglets and the other American species, the golden-crowned kinglet, to be sometimes assigned to a separate genus, Corthylio.[1]


Species in taxonomic sequence
Common and binomial name Image Description Range
Regulus regulus
Regulus regulus 1
Olive-green upperparts, buff-white underparts and a plain face with conspicuous black irides. The crown of the head has black sides and a narrow black front, and a bright crest, yellow with an orange centre in the male, and entirely yellow in the female.[16] Most of Europe and Asia
Common firecrest
Regulus ignicapilla
Regulus ignicapilla Arundel
Bright olive-green upperparts with bronze shoulder patches, and whitish underparts with brownish-grey on the breast and flanks. The head has a black eye stripe, long white supercilium, and a crest, bright yellow in the female and mainly orange in the male.[17] Southern Europe and North Africa
Madeira firecrest
Regulus madeirensis
Compared to the common firecrest, this species has a longer bill and legs, a shorter white supercilium, more black on the wings and a deeper golden-bronze shoulder patch; the male's crest is duller orange.[18] Madeira
Taiwan firecrest or flamecrest
Regulus goodfellowi
Upperparts green, rump and flanks yellow, and underparts are buff. There is a white wing bar. The crown has black stripes and a crest, orange-yellow in male and yellow in female. White around the eye and a white supercilium. Throat and neck sides are grey.[19][20] Taiwan
Golden-crowned kinglet
Regulus satrapa
Regulus satrapa 0624 (cropped)
Olive-grey upperparts and white underparts. They have white wing bars, a black stripe through the eyes and a yellow crown surrounded by black. The adult male has an orange patch in the middle of the yellow crown.[21] North America
Ruby-crowned kinglet
Regulus calendula
Regulus calendula1
Grey-green upperparts and olive-buff underparts.[22] A relatively plain face and head with broken white eye ring. The male has a scarlet-red crown patch, which is usually concealed by the surrounding feathers.[23] North America


There are a few Pleistocene (2.6 million to 12,000 years BP) records from Europe of extant Regulus species, mostly goldcrests or unidentifiable to species. The only fossil of an extinct Regulus is a left ulna from 2.6–1.95 mya in Bulgaria, which was identified as belonging to an extinct species, Regulus bulgaricus. The goldcrest lineage diverged from this apparent ancestor of the common firecrest in the Middle Pleistocene.[24]

Distribution and habitat

Kinglets are birds of the Nearctic and Palearctic ecozones, with representatives in temperate North America, Europe and Asia, northernmost Africa, Macaronesia and the Himalayas. They are adapted to conifer forests, although there is a certain amount of adaptability and most species will use other habitats, particularly during migration. In Macaronesia, they are adapted to laurisilva and tree heaths.[1]


Diet and feeding

The tiny size and rapid metabolism of kinglets means that they must constantly forage in order to provide their energy needs. They will continue feeding even when nest building. Kinglets prevented from feeding may lose a third of their body weight in twenty minutes and may starve to death in an hour. Kinglets are insectivores, preferentially feeding on insects such as aphids and springtails that have soft cuticles. Prey is generally gleaned from the branches and leaves of trees, although in some circumstances prey may be taken on the wing or from the leaf litter on the ground.

Life cycle

The nest are small, very neat cups, almost spherical in shape, made of moss and lichen held together with spiderwebs and hung from twigs near the end of a high branch of a conifer. They are lined with hair and feathers, and a few feathers are placed over the opening. These characteristics provide good insulation against the cold environment. The female lays 7 to 12 eggs, which are white or pale buff, some having fine dark brown spots. Because the nest is small, they are stacked in layers. The female incubates; she pushes her legs (which are well supplied with blood vessels, hence warm) down among the eggs. A unique feature of kinglets is the "size hierarchy" among eggs, with early-laid eggs being smaller than later ones.[25]

Eggs hatch asynchronously after 15 to 17 days. The young stay in the nest for 19 to 24 days. After being fed, nestlings make their way down to the bottom of the nest, pushing their still-hungry siblings up to be fed in their turn (but also to be cold).

Kinglets are the most fecund and shortest-living of all altricial birds,[26] and probably the shortest-lived apart from a few smaller galliform species. Adult mortality for the goldcrest is estimated at over 80 percent per year[27] and the maximum lifespan is only six years.[28]


The four continental Regulus species all have very large ranges and populations. The two single-island endemics are common within their habitat, and are not thought to be at risk. All kinglets are therefore classed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.[29]


  1. ^ a b c d e f Martens, Jochen; Päckert, Martin "Family Regulidae (Kinglets & Firecrests)" pp. 330–349 in Del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew; Christie, David A., eds. (2006). Handbook of the Birds of the World, Volume 11: Old World Flycatchers to Old World Warblers. Barcelona, Spain: Lynx Edicions. ISBN 978-84-96553-06-4.
  2. ^ Monroe, Burt L. (February 1992). "The new DNA-DNA avian classification: What's it all about?". British Birds. 85 (2): 53–61.
  3. ^ Barker, F Keith; Barrowclough, George F; Groth, Jeff G (2002). "A phylogenetic hypothesis for passerine birds: taxonomic and biogeographic implications of an analysis of nuclear DNA sequence data" (PDF). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. 269 (1488): 295–308. doi:10.1098/rspb.2001.1883. PMC 1690884. PMID 11839199.
  4. ^ Spicer, Greg S; Dunipace, Leslie (2004). "Molecular phylogeny of songbirds (Passerifor-mes) inferred from mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 30 (2): 325–335. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00193-3. PMID 14715224.
  5. ^ Brookes, Ian (editor-in-chief) (2006). The Chambers Dictionary, ninth edition. Edinburgh: Chambers. pp. 223, 735, 1277. ISBN 978-0-550-10185-3.
  6. ^ Latham, John (1790). Index ornithologicus, sive, Systema ornithologiae, complectens avium divisionem in classes, ordines, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates, adjectis synonymis, locis, descriptionibus, &c (in Latin). ii. London: Leigh & Sotheby. p. 548.
  7. ^ Cuvier, Georges (1800). Lecons d'anatomie comparee de M. G. Cuvier, Recueillies et publiees sous ses yeux, par C. Dumeril et Duvernoy (in French). 1, table 2. Paris: Crochard et cie.
  8. ^ AERC Taxonomy Committee (2003). AERC TAC's Taxonomic Recommendations (PDF). Association of European Rarities Committees. p. 22.
  9. ^ Clements, J F; Schulenberg, T S; Iliff, M J; Sullivan, B L; Wood, C L. "The Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.4". Cornell University Laboratory of Ornithology. Archived from the original on 21 August 2010. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
  10. ^ Mullarney, Killian; Svensson, Lars; Zetterström, Dan; Grant, Peter J. (1999). Collins Bird Guide. London: Collins. p. 336. ISBN 978-0-00-219728-1.
  11. ^ Löhrl, Hans; Thaler, Ellen; Christie, David A (September 1996). "Status and behaviour of the Tenerife Kinglet". British Birds. 89: 379–386.
  12. ^ Päckert, Martin (2006). "Song dialects as diagnostic characters—acoustic differentiation of the Canary Island Goldcrest subspecies Regulus regulus teneriffae Seebohm 1883 and R. r. ellenthalerae Päckert et al. 2006 (Aves: Passeriformes: Regulidae)" (PDF excerpt). Zootaxa. 1325: 99–115.
  13. ^ Päckert, Martin; Christian Dietzen; Jochen Martens; Michael Wink; Laura Kvist (2006). "Radiation of Atlantic goldcrests Regulus regulus spp.: evidence of a new taxon from the Canary Islands". Journal of Avian Biology. 37 (4): 364–380. doi:10.1111/j.2006.0908-8857.03533.x.
  14. ^ Päckert, Martin; Martens, Jochen; Severinghaus, Lucia Liu (2008). "The Taiwan Firecrest (Regulus goodfellowi) belongs to the goldcrest assemblage (Regulus regulus s. l.): evidence from mitochondrial DNA and the territorial song of the Regulidae". Journal of Ornithology. 150 (1): 205–220. doi:10.1007/s10336-008-0335-5.
  15. ^ Päckert, Martin; Martens, Jochen; Sun, Yue-Hua; Tietze, Dieter Thomas (2009). "Phylogeography and the Evolutionary time-scale of Passerine Radiations in the Sino-Himalayan Region (Aves: Passeriformes)" (PDF). In Hartmann, Matthias; Weipert, Jörg (eds.). Biodiversität und Naturausstattung im Himalaya/Biodiversity and natural heritage of the Himalaya III. Erfurt: Verein der Freunde & Förderer des Naturkundemuseums Erfurt. pp. 71–80. ISBN 978-3-00-027117-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2011.
  16. ^ Snow, David; Perrins, Christopher M., eds. (1998). The Birds of the Western Palearctic concise edition (2 volumes). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 1342–1346. ISBN 978-0-19-850188-6.
  17. ^ Baker, Kevin (1997). Warblers of Europe, Asia and North Africa (Helm Identification Guides). London: Helm. pp. 383–384. ISBN 978-0-7136-3971-1.
  18. ^ Mullarney, Killian; Svensson, Lars; Zetterstrom, Dan; Grant, Peter (1999). Collins Bird Guide. London: Collins. p. 336. ISBN 978-0-00-219728-1.
  19. ^ Brazil, Mark (2009). Birds of East Asia. London: Christopher Helm. p. 388.
  20. ^ Ogilvie-Grant, W R (1906). "125th meeting, 20 June 1906". Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club. 16: 122.
  21. ^ Sibley, David Allen (2000). The Sibley Guide to Birds. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 394. ISBN 978-0-679-45122-8.
  22. ^ Knight, Ora Willis (1908). The birds of Maine. Bangor: C. H. Glass & co. pp. 616–619. ISBN 978-1-145-46819-1. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
  23. ^ Ingold, J L; Wallace, G E (28 July 2008). "Ruby-crowned Kinglet: Distinguishing Characteristics". The Birds of North America Online. Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Retrieved 3 November 2010.
  24. ^ Boev, Zlatozar (1999). "Regulus bulgaricus sp. n. - the first fossil Kinglet (Aves: Sylviidae) from the Late Pliocene of Varshets, Western Bulgaria" (PDF). Historia Naturalis Bulgarica. 10: 109–115. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 July 2014.
  25. ^ Haftorn, Svein; "Clutch size, intraclutch egg size variation, and breeding strategy in the Goldcrest Regulus regulus"; in Journal of Ornithology, Volume 127, Number 3 (1986), 291-301.
  26. ^ Sibly Richard M., Witt, Christopher C., Wright, Natalie A., Venditti, Chris, Jetze, Walter and Brown, James H.; "Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds"; in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences; 109 (27); pp. 10937-10941
  27. ^ In Ricklefs, R.E.; "Sibling competition, hatching asynchrony, incubation period, and lifespan in altricial birds"; in Power, Dennis M. (editor); Current Ornithology. Vol. 11. ISBN 9780306439902
  28. ^ Wasser, D. E. and Sherman, P.W.; "Avian longevities and their interpretation under evolutionary theories of senescence" in Journal of Zoology 2 November 2009
  29. ^ "BirdLife International: Regulus ". BirdLife International. Retrieved 28 December 2010.

External links

Big Lake, Edmonton

Big Lake is a residential area in the northwest portion of the City of Edmonton in Alberta, Canada. It was established in 1991 through Edmonton City Council's adoption of the Big Lake Area Structure Plan, which guides the overall development of the area.

Common firecrest

The common firecrest (Regulus ignicapilla) also known as the firecrest, is a very small passerine bird in the kinglet family. It breeds in most of temperate Europe and northwestern Africa, and is partially migratory, with birds from central Europe wintering to the south and west of their breeding range. Firecrests in the Balearic Islands and north Africa are widely recognised as a separate subspecies, but the population on Madeira, previously also treated as a subspecies, is now treated as a distinct species, the Madeira firecrest, Regulus madeirensis. A fossil ancestor of the firecrest has been identified from a single wing bone.

This kinglet is greenish above and has whitish underparts. It has two white wingbars, a black eye stripe and a white supercilium. The head crest, orange in the male and yellow in the female, is displayed during breeding, and gives rise to the English and scientific names for the species. This bird superficially resembles the goldcrest, which largely shares its European range, but the firecrest's bronze shoulders and strong face pattern are distinctive. The song is a repetition of high thin notes, slightly lower-pitched than those of its relative.

The common firecrest breeds in broadleaved or coniferous woodland and gardens, building its compact, three-layered nest on a tree branch. Seven to twelve eggs are incubated by the female alone. Both parents feed the chicks, which fledge 22–24 days after hatching. This kinglet is constantly on the move and frequently hovers as it searches for insects to eat, and in winter it is often found with flocks of tits. Despite some possible local declines, the species is not the subject of significant conservation concerns owing to its large European population and an expansion of its range over the last century. It may be hunted and killed by birds of prey, and can carry parasites. It is possible that this species was the original "king of the birds" in European folklore.


The goldcrest (Regulus regulus) is a very small passerine bird in the kinglet family. Its colourful golden crest feathers, as well as being called the "king of the birds" in European folklore, gives rise to its English and scientific names. The scientific name, R. regulus, means king or knight. Several subspecies are recognised across the very large distribution range that includes much of Eurasia and the islands of Macaronesia and Iceland. Birds from the north and east of its breeding range migrate to winter further south.

This kinglet has greenish upper-parts, whitish under-parts, and has two white wingbars. It has a plain face contrasting black irises and a bright head crest, orange and yellow in the male and yellow in the female, which is displayed during breeding. It superficially resembles the common firecrest, which largely shares its European range, but the latter's bronze shoulders and strong face pattern are distinctive. The song is a repetition of high thin notes, slightly higher-pitched than those of its relative. Birds on the Canary Islands are now separated into two subspecies of the goldcrest, but were formerly considered to be a subspecies of the firecrest or a separate species, Regulus teneriffae.

The goldcrest breeds in coniferous woodland and gardens, building its compact, three-layered nest on a tree branch. Ten to twelve eggs are incubated by the female alone, and the chicks are fed by both parents; second broods are common. This kinglet is constantly on the move as it searches for insects to eat, and in winter it is often found with flocks of tits. It may be killed by birds of prey or carry parasites, but its large range and population mean that it is not considered to present any significant conservation concerns.

Golden-crowned kinglet

The golden-crowned kinglet (Regulus satrapa) is a very small songbird in the family Regulidae that lives throughout much of North America.

Hutton's vireo

Hutton's vireo (Vireo huttoni) is a small songbird. It is approximately 5 inches (12–13 cm) in length, dull olive-gray above and below. It has a faint white eye ring and faint white wing bars. It closely resembles a ruby-crowned kinglet, but has a thicker bill and is slightly larger in size. Its most common song is a repeated chu-wee, or a chew, but will have other variations. Its call is a mewing chatter.

It is found from southern British Columbia in Canada to central Guatemala in Central America. Recent DNA studies suggest this species may be split into at least 2 different species, with coastal Pacific birds showing enough genetic variation when compared to interior ones.

This vireo makes a hanging cup nest suspended from a fork of a tree. The female lays 3–4 eggs. The eggs are mostly white in color, with scattered brown spotting. It prefers deciduous-mixed forests, and is particularly fond of live oak. It feeds by gleaning insects as it deliberately moves through the forest canopy.

Birds are mostly resident year-round, but there may be some altitudinal and short distance migration. Hutton's vireo may join a mixed-species flock for the winter.

The scientific name commemorates the US surveyor William Rich Hutton.


Khui was an ancient Egyptian kinglet during the early First Intermediate Period. Khui may have belonged to the Eighth Dynasty of Egypt, as Jürgen von Beckerath has proposed, or he may instead have been a provincial nomarch who proclaimed himself king.

Kinglet Gardens, Edmonton

Kingtail Gardens is a future neighbourhood in northwest Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It was named for golden-crowned kinglets and ruby-crowned kinglets that are native to nearby Big Lake.Kingtail Gardens is located within the Big Lake area and is identified as Neighbourhood 4 within the Big Lake Area Structure Plan (ASP). It was officially named Kingtail Gardens on May 27, 2014.It is bounded on the west by 231 Street NW, north by the Hawks Ridge neighbourhood, east by 215 Street NW (Winterburn Road), and south by Yellowhead Trail (Highway 16).

Kinglet calyptura

The kinglet calyptura (Calyptura cristata) is a small passerine bird. It is the only member of the genus Calyptura in the family Tyrannidae. It had traditionally been considered a member of the family Cotingidae.

It is endemic to Atlantic forest in south-eastern Brazil. For a long time this species was feared to be extinct, as it went unrecorded during the 20th century until two birds were observed in Serra dos Órgãos on several days in October 1996. Since these sightings, there have not been any confirmed records, although at least one recent—but unconfirmed—record exists from near Ubatuba. Consequently, it is considered Critically Endangered by BirdLife International.

Kinglet manakin

The kinglet manakin or eastern striped manakin (Machaeropterus regulus) is a small South American species of passerine bird in the manakin family Pipridae. It is found in the Atlantic Forest of south eastern Brazil. It was formerly considered conspecific with the striolated manakin (Machaeropterus striolatus) with the common name "striped manakin". Males have a bright red crown, which the females lack.

The kinglet manakin was described by the German zoologist Carl Wilhelm Hahn in 1819 and given the binomial name Pipra regulus. The species is now placed in the genus Machaeropterus that was introduced by the French naturalist Charles Lucien Bonaparte in 1854. The species is monotypic.Like many other manakins, the males cluster in a leks to attract females. After mating, the females rear the chicks on without the help of the males.

Madeira firecrest

The Madeira firecrest, Madeira kinglet, or Madeiracrest (Regulus madeirensis) is a very small passerine bird endemic to the island of Madeira. It is a member of the kinglet family. Before it was recognised as a separate species in 2003, it was classified as a subspecies of the common firecrest. It differs in appearance and vocalisations from its relative, and genetic analysis has confirmed it as a different species. The Madeiran bird has green upperparts, whitish underparts and two white wingbars, and a distinctive head pattern with a black eye stripe, short white supercilium, and a crest that is mainly orange in the male and yellow in the female.

The female Madeira firecrest builds a spherical nest from cobwebs, moss and small twigs, and she incubates the eggs and broods the chicks on her own. Both parents feed the young. This species forages for insects and other small invertebrates in tree heath, laurisilva and other woodland. It is common within its restricted range, and is not considered to be threatened.

Regulus bulgaricus

Regulus bulgaricus is a fossil passerine from the Middle Villafranchian (upper Pliocene to lower Pleistocene ) of Bulgaria. This bird is a member of the kinglet family and genus, and is the only fossil kinglet found so far. It is known from a single ulna, which is 13.3 mm long. The fossil was discovered in 1991 near Varshets, Bulgaria, and described by Zlatozar Boev.

Ruby-crowned kinglet

The ruby-crowned kinglet (Regulus calendula) is a very small passerine bird found throughout North America. It is a member of the kinglet family. The bird has olive-green plumage with two white wing bars and a white eye-ring. Males have a red crown patch, which is usually concealed. The sexes are identical (apart from the crown), and juveniles are similar in plumage to adults. It is one of the smallest songbirds in North America. The ruby-crowned kinglet is not closely related to other kinglets, and is put in its own subgenus, Corthylio. Three subspecies are currently recognized.

The kinglet is migratory, and its range extends from northwest Canada and Alaska south to Mexico. Its breeding habitat is spruce-fir forests in the northern and mountainous regions of the United States and Canada. The ruby-crowned kinglet builds a cup-shaped nest, which may be pensile or placed on a tree branch and is often hidden. It lays up to 12 eggs, and has the largest clutch of any North American passerine for its size. It is mainly insectivorous, but also eats fruits and seeds.

Santa Maria goldcrest

The Santa Maria goldcrest, Regulus regulus sanctaemariae, Estrelinha-de-poupa in Portuguese, is a very small passerine bird in the kinglet family. It is endemic to Santa Maria Island in the Azores archipelago in the North Atlantic Ocean where it is a non-migratory resident.

São Miguel goldcrest

The São Miguel goldcrest (Regulus regulus azoricus), Estrelinha-de-poupa in Portuguese, is a very small passerine bird in the kinglet family. One of several goldcrest insular subspecies in the North Atlantic archipelagos of Macaronesia, it is endemic to São Miguel in the Azores where it is a non-migratory resident.

Tenerife goldcrest

The Tenerife goldcrest, Regulus regulus teneriffae, (sometimes considered a separate species, R. teneriffae) is a very small passerine bird in the kinglet family, closely resembling the goldcrest but with a broader black band across the forehead, slightly darker underparts and a longer bill. It breeds in the Canary Islands of Tenerife and La Gomera, where it is a non-migratory resident. It prefers Canary Island Pine forests, but also occurs in laurisilva forests.

The populations on La Palma and El Hierro, previously thought to belong to this taxon, are now recognized as, at least, a distinct subspecies, the Western Canary Islands goldcrest R. (r.) ellenthalerae (Päckert et al., 2006), which evolved from an independent colonisation of the islands.

V. R. Parton

Vernon Rylands Parton (2 October 1897 – 31 December 1974) was an English chess enthusiast and prolific chess variant inventor, his most renowned variant being Alice Chess. Many of Parton's variants were inspired by the fictional characters and stories in the works of Lewis Carroll. Parton's formal education background, like Lewis Carroll's, was in mathematics. Parton's interests were wide and he was a great believer in Esperanto.

Parton's early education stemmed from his father's schools, where he also assisted. Parton's father was headmaster of Cannock Grammar School as well as principal and proprietor of a small international boarding school for children. After completing mathematics at Chester Teaching College, Parton returned to his father's school to give private instruction to older children in Latin, French, German, English, shorthand, typing, bookkeeping, and mathematics. In the 1920s he was left in charge of the school while his father returned to teach in state schools. Ill health cut short Parton's teaching career.

In 1960 Parton moved from Cannock to Liverpool, into a terraced house near Penny Lane, and published a series of nine monographs from 1961 to 1974 (also 1975 posthumously) detailing his inventions. He died from emphysema at age 77 in Liverpool on 31 December 1974. The same year, variant inventor Philip M. Cohen created the variant Parton Chess in his honour.


The W58 was an American thermonuclear warhead used on the Polaris A-3 submarine-launched ballistic missile. Three W58 warheads were fitted as multiple warheads on each Polaris A-3 missile.

The W58 was 15.6 inches (400 mm) in diameter and 40.3 inches (1,020 mm) long, with a basic weight for the warhead of 257 pounds (117 kg). The yield was 200 kilotons.

The W58 design entered service in 1964 and the last models were retired in 1982 with the last Polaris missiles.

Researcher Chuck Hansen claims based on his US nuclear program research that the W55 and W58 warheads shared a common primary or fission first stage; this design was nicknamed the Kinglet primary by Hansen in 2001.

Western Azores goldcrest

The Western Azores goldcrest (Regulus regulus inermis), Estrelinha-de-poupa in Portuguese, is a very small passerine bird in the kinglet family. It is endemic to the Azores archipelago, in the North Atlantic Ocean, where it is a non-migratory resident of the islands of Flores, Faial, Terceira, São Jorge and Pico.


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