Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Neapolitan: Regno dê Doje Sicilie; Sicilian: Regnu dî Dui Sicili; Italian: Regno delle Due Sicilie; Spanish: Reino de las Dos Sicilias)[3] was a state of Italy, and the largest one before the Italian unification as well.[4]

The kingdom was based in Southern Italy and extended over the surface of today's Italian Mezzogiorno. It was formed as a union of the Kingdom of Sicily and the Kingdom of Naples, which collectively had long been called the "Two Sicilies" (Utraque Sicilia, literally "both Sicilies").

The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies lasted from 1815 until 1860, when it was annexed by the Savoyard Kingdom of Sardinia to form the Kingdom of Italy in 1861. The capitals of the Two Sicilies were in Naples and in Palermo. Jordan Lancaster notes that the integration of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies into the Kingdom of Italy changed the status of Naples forever: "Abject poverty meant that, throughout Naples and Southern Italy, thousands decided to leave in search of a better future." Many went to the new world.[5] The kingdom was heavily agricultural, like the other Italian states;[6] the church owned 50–65% of the land by 1750.[7]

Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

Regno delle Due Sicilie  (Italian)
Regno dê Doje Sicilie  (Neapolitan)
Regnu dî Dui Sicili  (Sicilian)
1816–1861
Anthem: "Inno al Re"
("Hymn to the King")
Location of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies within Europe in 1839.
Location of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies within Europe in 1839.
CapitalPalermo (1816–1817)
Naples (1817–1861)
Common languagesNeapolitan, Sicilian, Italian, Arberesh, Molise Croatian, Griko, Greek-Bovesian, Gallo-Italic of Sicily
Religion
Roman Catholicism
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy
(1816–1848; 1849–1861)
Constitutional monarchy
(1848–1849)
King 
• 1816–1825
Ferdinand I (first)
• 1859–1861
Francis II (last)
History 
• Edict of Ferdinand IV of Naples
12 December 1816
5 May 1860
17 March 1861
Area
1860111,900 km2 (43,200 sq mi)
Population
• 1860
8,703,000
CurrencyTwo Sicilies ducat
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Naples
Kingdom of Italy
Today part of Italy
 Croatia[a]
a. ^ The archipelago of Palagruža was part of the province of Capitanata.

Name

The name "Two Sicilies" originated from the partition of the medieval Kingdom of Sicily. Until 1285, the island of Sicily and the Mezzogiorno were constituent parts of the Kingdom of Sicily. As a result of the War of the Sicilian Vespers (1282–1302),[8] the King of Sicily lost the Island of Sicily (also called Trinacria) to the Crown of Aragon, but remained ruler over the peninsular part of the realm. Although his territory became known unofficially as the Kingdom of Naples, he and his successors never gave up the title "King of Sicily" and still officially referred to their realm as the "Kingdom of Sicily". At the same time, the Aragonese rulers of the Island of Sicily also called their realm the "Kingdom of Sicily". Thus, there were two kingdoms called "Sicily":[8] hence, the Two Sicilies.

Background

Establishment of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies resulted from the re-unification of the Kingdom of Sicily with the Kingdom of Naples (called the Kingdom of Peninsular Sicily), by King Alfonso V of Aragon in 1442. The two states had functioned as separate realms since the War of the Sicilian Vespers in 1282. At the death of King Alfonso in 1458, the kingdom again became divided between his brother John II of Aragon, who kept the island of Sicily, and his illegitimate son Ferdinand, who became King of Naples.

In 1501, King Ferdinand II of Aragon, son of John II, conquered Naples and reunified the two kingdoms under the authority of the newly united Spanish throne. The Kings of Spain then bore the title King of Both Sicilies[9] or King of Sicily and of the Two Coasts of the Strait until the War of the Spanish Succession. At the end of that war, the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 granted Sicily to the Duke of Savoy until the Treaty of Rastatt in 1714 left Naples to the Emperor Charles VI. In 1720 the Emperor and Savoy exchanged Sicily for Sardinia, thus reuniting Naples and Sicily.

In 1734, Charles, Duke of Parma, son of Philip V of Spain, took the Sicilian crown from the Austrians and became Charles VII & V, giving Parma to his younger brother, Philip. In 1759, Charles became King Carlos III of Spain and resigned Sicily and Naples to his younger son, who became Ferdinand III of Sicily and Ferdinand IV of Naples, later crowned Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies in 1816. Apart from an interruption under Napoleon, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies remained under the Bourbon line (Bourbon Duo-Sicilie) continually until 1860.

In January 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte, in the name of the French Republic, captured Naples and proclaimed the Parthenopaean Republic, a French client state, as successor to the kingdom. King Ferdinand fled from Naples to Sicily until June of that year. In 1806, Napoleon, by then French Emperor, again dethroned King Ferdinand and appointed his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, as King of Naples. In the Edict of Bayonne of 1808 Napoleon moved Joseph to Spain and appointed their brother-in-law, Joachim Murat, as King of the Two Sicilies, though this only meant control of the mainland portion of the kingdom.[10][11] Throughout this Napoleonic interruption, King Ferdinand remained in Sicily, with Palermo as his capital.

The Congress of Vienna restored King Ferdinand in 1815. He established a concordat with the Papal States, which previously had a claim to the land.[12]

Several rebellions took place on the island of Sicily against King Ferdinand II (reigned 1830–1859), but the end of the kingdom came only with the Expedition of the Thousand in 1860, led by Garibaldi – an icon of Italian unification – with the support of the House of Savoy and their Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. The expedition resulted in a striking series of defeats for the Sicilian armies facing the growing troops of Garibaldi. After the capture of Palermo and Sicily, Garibaldi disembarked in Calabria and moved towards Naples, while in the meantime the Piedmontese also invaded the Kingdom from the Marche. The last battles took place at Volturnus in 1860 and at the siege of Gaeta, where King Francis II (reigned 1859–1861) had sought shelter, hoping for French help, which never came. The last towns to resist Garibaldi's expedition, Messina and Civitella del Tronto, capitulated on 13 March 1861 and on 20 March 1861 respectively. The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies dissolved and the new Kingdom of Italy, founded in the same year annexed its territory. The fall of the Sicilian aristocracy in the face of Garibaldi's invasion forms the subject of the novel The Leopard by Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa and its film adaptation.

Origins of the two kingdoms

Chapelle Palatine
Cappella Palatina, church of first unifier Roger II of Sicily.

A monarchy over the areas which would later become known as the Two Sicilies existed as one single kingdom, including a peninsular and an insular part, dating from the Middle Ages. The Norman king Roger II formed the Kingdom of Sicily by combining the County of Sicily with the southern part of the Italian Peninsula (then known as the Duchy of Apulia and Calabria) as well as with the Maltese Islands. The capital of this kingdom was Palermo — which is on the island of Sicily.

The state existed in that form from 1130 until 1285. In the period of the Capetian House of Anjou during the reign (1266–1285) of King Charles I, the kingdom was split by the War of the Sicilian Vespers of 1282–1302.[8] Charles, who was of French origin, lost Sicily proper to the House of Barcelona, who were Aragonese and Catalan, after they were able to gain the support of the natives. Charles remained king over the peninsular part of the realm, thereafter informally known as the Kingdom of Naples. Officially Charles never gave up the title of "The Kingdom of Sicily", thus there existed two separate kingdoms calling themselves "Sicily".[8]

Aragonese and Spanish direct rule

Imperi de la Corona d'Aragó
Crown of Aragon, greatest extent

Only with the Peace of Caltabellotta (1302), sponsored by Pope Boniface VIII, did the two kings of "Sicily" recognize each other's legitimacy; the island kingdom then became the "Kingdom of Trinacria" in official contexts, though the populace still called it Sicily.[8] Eventually by 1442 the Angevin line of the Kings of Naples was coming to an end. Alfonso V of Aragon, king of insular Sicily, conquered Naples and became king of both (1442).

Alfonso V described the geographical area in Latin as Utriusque Siciliæ, meaning "of both Sicilies", and used the name as part of his title.[13] After the death of Alfonso in 1458, both Sicilies remained under the direct rule of the Crown of Aragon, but Naples had a different Aragonese king from the island of Sicily from 1458 until 1501. For a brief period Naples was controlled by a different power other than Sicily, in the form of French king Louis XII of France, who took the mainland kingdom and held it (1501–1504) for around three years. After the French lost the Battle of Garigliano (1503), the last Aragonese king, Ferdinand II of Aragon, re-united the two areas once again under control of the same power and the same king.

From 1516, when Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor became the first King of Spain, both Naples and Sicily came under direct Spanish rule. In 1530 Charles V granted the islands of Malta and Gozo, which had been part of the Kingdom of Sicily for four centuries, to the Knights Hospitaller (thereafter known as the Order of Malta). The period of direct Spanish rule under the same line of kings lasted until 1713, when control of Spain and of both Sicilies passed to the French prince Philip, duke of Anjou, who founded the Spanish branch of the House of Bourbon. After an eight-year spell of Savoy rule in Sicily (1713–1720), the two Sicilian kingdoms once again came under the same king after the Treaty of The Hague (1720) appointed the Austrian king Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor as their ruler.

History

Unification of the Crowns

The kingdoms were conquered from the Austrians by a young Spanish prince during the War of the Polish Succession; he became Charles VII of Naples. The two kingdoms were then recognised as both independent and under Charles' rule as a cadet branch of the Spanish Bourbons by the Treaty of Vienna.[14] After Charles' brother, Fernando VI of Spain died childless, Charles inherited the Spanish Crown in 1759, reigning as Charles III of Spain. His son Ferdinand then became king of the two kingdoms so as to maintain them as separate realms as required by the treaties restoring the junior Spanish royalty to the southern Italian kingdoms. Ferdinand was highly popular with the poorest class. Ferdinand's reign was highly eventful. For a brief period the Parthenopaean Republic controlled Naples with the support of those who supported the French Revolution. However, a counter-revolutionary army of the poorest class retook Naples in order to restore royal power.[15]

Eight years later, Napoleon conquered the peninsular portion of the kingdom during the War of the Third Coalition and placed his brother Joseph Bonaparte on the throne as King he conferred the title "Prince of Naples" on his children and grandchildren.[16]

Ferdinand fled to his other kingdom, on the island of Sicily itself. Here the alliance he had previously made with George III of the United Kingdom and Tory Prime Minister the Earl of Liverpool saved him. The British protected Ferdinand and the island of Sicily from Napoleonic conquest with the presence of a powerful Royal Navy fleet.[17]

Back on the mainland, Joachim Murat had become the second Bonapartist king. In the Edict of Bayonne he was named as "King of the Two Sicilies",[10] though de facto he never actually held the island of Sicily where Ferdinand was, and is usually referred to as just the King of Naples.[18] Murat actually switched sides for a while, abandoning the Grand Army after the disastrous Battle of Leipzig in an attempt to save his Neapolitan throne. However, as the Congress of Vienna progressed, tensions arose as there was strong pressure to restore Ferdinand to the Neapolitan kingdom as well as keeping his Sicilian one.[16] Murat returned to Napoleon and together they declared war on the Austrian Empire, leading to the Neapolitan War in March 1815. Ferdinand and his allies Austria, Britain and Tuscany were victorious, restoring him to his Neapolitan throne. To avoid further French attempts, it was agreed at the Congress of Vienna that Ferdinand would reunite his kingdom.

When talking about the period from 1816 until 1861, historians refer to the Kingdom of Naples and the Kingdom of Sicily together as one state - the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. For the period prior to 1816, instead, historians refer to them separately with their own name, as they were separate kingdoms.

Invasion by Piedmont

Between 1816 and 1848, the island of Sicily experienced three popular revolts against Bourbon rule, including the revolution of independence of 1848, when the island was fully independent of Bourbon control for 16 months.

In 1860, Sicily was invaded by a corps of volunteers, led by Giuseppe Garibaldi from the Kingdom of Sardinia. They successfully conquered the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, and incorporated the territory into the new Kingdom of Italy.

Geography

Departments

Suddivisione amministrativa del Regno delle Due Sicilie
Departments and Districts of Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

The peninsula was divided into fifteen departments[19] and Sicily was divided into seven departments.[20] The island itself had a special administrative status, with its base at Palermo. In 1860, when the Two Sicilies were conquered by the Kingdom of Sardinia, the departments became provinces of Italy, according to the Rattazzi law.

Peninsula Capital
1 Coat of Arms of Abruzzo Ultra I (last version).svg Abruzzo Ultra I Teramo
2 Coat of Arms of Abruzzo Ultra (wings inverted).svg Abruzzo Ultra II Aquila
3 Coat of Arms of Abruzzo Citra.svg Abruzzo Citra Chieti
4 Coat of Arms of Contado di Molise.svg Contado di Molise Campobasso
5 Coat of Arms of Terra di Lavoro.svg Terra di Lavoro Capua,
Caserta from 1818
6 Coat of Arms of the Province of Naples (historical province).svg Province of Naples Naples
7 Coat of Arms of Principato Ultra.svg Principato Ultra Avellino[a]
8 Coat of Arms of Principato Citra.svg Principato Citra Salerno
9 Coat of Arms of Capitanata.svg Capitanata originally San Severo, then Foggia
10 Coat of Arms of Terra di Bari.svg Terra di Bari Bari
11 Coat of Arms of Terra d'Otranto.svg Terra d'Otranto Lecce
12 Coat of Arms of Basilicata.svg Basilicata Potenza
13 Coat of Arms of Calabria Citra.svg Calabria Citra Cosenza
14 Coat of Arms of Calabria Ultra.svg Calabria Ultra II Catanzaro
15 Coat of Arms of the Province of Reggio-Calabria.svg Calabria Ultra I Reggio
 
Insular Capital
16 Caltanissetta-Stemma.png Caltanissetta Caltanissetta
17 Provincia di Catania-Stemma.svg Catania Catania
18 Girgenti Girgenti
19 Messina Messina
20 Noto Noto
21 Palermo Palermo
22 Trapani Trapani
  1. ^ The city of Benevento was formally included in this department, but it was occupied by the Papal States and was de facto an exclave of that country.

Economy

Industry

Industry was the largest source of income if compared with the other preunitarian states. One of the most important industrial complexes in the kingdom was the shipyard of Castellammare di Stabia, which employed 1800 workers. The engineering factory of Pietrarsa was the largest industrial plant in the Italian peninsula, producing tools, cannons, rails, locomotives. The complex also included a school for train drivers, and naval engineers and, thanks to this school, the kingdom was able to replace the English personnel who had been necessary until then. The first steamboat with screw propulsion known in the Mediterranean Sea was the "Giglio delle Onde", with mail delivery and passenger transport purposes after 1847.

In Calabria, the Fonderia Ferdinandea was a large foundry where cast iron was produced. The Reali ferriere ed Officine di Mongiana was an iron foundry and weapons factory. Founded in 1770, it employed 1600 workers in 1860 and closed in 1880. In Sicily (near Catania and Agrigento), sulfur was mined to make gunpowder. The Sicilian mines were able to satisfy most of the global demand for sulfur. Silk cloth production was focused in San Leucio (near Caserta). The region of Basilicata also had several mills in Potenza and San Chirico Raparo, where cotton, wool and silk were processed. Food processing was widespread, especially near Naples (Torre Annunziata and Gragnano).

Transport

Italia ferrovie 1861.03.17
Rail lines of the Italian Peninsula in 1861
Italia ferrovie 1870 09 20
Rail lines in Italy in 1870

With all of its major cities boasting successful ports, transport and trade in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was most efficiently conducted by sea. The Kingdom possessed the largest merchant fleet in the Mediterranean. Urban road conditions were to the best European standards, by 1839, the main streets of Naples were gas-lit. Efforts were made to tackle the tough mountainous terrain, Ferdinand II built the cliff-top road along the Sorrentine peninsula. Road conditions in the interior and hinterland areas of the kingdom made internal trade difficult. The first railways and iron-suspension bridges in Italy were developed in the south, as was the first overland electric telegraph cable.

Technological and scientific achievements

The kingdom achieved several scientific and technological accomplishments, such as the first steamboat in the Mediterrean Sea (1818), built in the shipyard of Stanislao Filosa al ponte di Vigliena, near Naples, and the first railway in the Italian peninsula (1839), which connected Naples to Portici. However, until the Italian unification, the railway development was highly limited. In the year 1859, the kingdom had only 99 kilometers of rails, compared to the 800 kilometers of Piedmont. This was because the kingdom could count on a very large and efficient merchant navy, which was able to compensate for the need for railways. Also, southern landscape was mainly mountainous making the process of building railways quite difficult, as building railway tunnels was much harder at the time. However, the first railway tunnel in the world was built there. Among the other achievements, one worth mentioning is the first suspension bridge in Continental Europe (1832), the first gaslight in Italy (1839), the first volcano observatory in the world, l'Osservatorio Vesuviano (1841), the first and actual archaeological excavations in the world (in the ancient cities of Pompei and Ercolano), the first faculty of Economics in Europe and the first faculty of Astronomy in Italy. The first suspension bridge, built in iron, the "Real Ferdinando" on the river Garigliano and it was built in the Reali Ferriere factory and Weapons factory in Mongiana. The rails for the first Italian railways were built in Mongiana as well. All the rails of the old railways that went from the south to as far as Bologna were built in Mongiana. Naples was the most populated city in Italy, and the third most populated city in Europe.

Monarchy

Kings of the Two Sicilies

Ferdinand i twosicilies

Ferdinand I, 1816–1825

Francis I of the Two Sicilies

Francis I, 1825–1830

Fernando II de las Dos Sicilias 2

Ferdinand II, 1830–1859

Ignoto, Ritratto di Francesco II, 1859. Caserta, Palazzo Reale

Francis II, 1859–1861

In 1860–61 the kingdom was conquered by the Kingdom of Sardinia, and the title dropped. It is still claimed by the head of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies.

Titles of King of the Two Sicilies

Francis I, King of the Two Sicilies, of Jerusalem, etc., Duke of Parma, Piacenza, Castro, etc., Hereditary Grand Prince of Tuscany, etc.

House of Bourbon in exile

Some sovereigns continued to maintain diplomatic relations with the exiled court, including the Emperor of Austria, the Kings of Bavaria, Württemberg and Hanover, the Queen of Spain, the Emperor of Russia, and the Papacy.

Heads of the Royal House of the Two Sicilies, 1861–present

Upon Ferdinando Pio's death in 1960, there was a dispute about who inherited the headship of the house. Ferdinando's next brother Carlo had, in anticipation of his marriage to the eldest sister and heiress presumptive of King Alfonso XIII of Spain, signed the so-called Act of Cannes on 14 December 1900:

Here present is His Royal Highness Prince Don Carlo our dearest loved Son and he has declared that he shall be entering into marriage with Her Royal Highness the Infanta Doña Maria Mercedes, Princess of the Asturias, and assuming by that marriage the nationality and quality of Spanish Prince, intends to renounce, and by this present act solemnly renounces for Himself and for his Heirs and Successors to any right and rights to the eventual succession to the Crown of the Two Sicilies and to all the Properties of the Royal House found in Italy and elsewhere and this according to our laws, constitutions and customs of the Family and in execution of the Pragmatic Decree of King Charles III, Our August ancestor, of the 6th October 1759, to whose prescriptions he declares freely and explicitly to subscribe to and obey.[21]

The laws of the deposed Sicilian dynasty and the Pragmatic Decree of Charles III, issued by him as King of Spain and the Two Sicilies on 6 October 1759, required a renunciation only if the Crown of Spain (or the heir apparent thereto) and the "Italian sovereignties" were united in the same person, and in no other circumstances. This could only have happened in 1900 if the Count of Caserta, his oldest son Ferdinand, and King Alfonso XIII had all died, thereby leaving Prince Carlo as heir to the Two Sicilies crown and his wife as Queen of Spain, and if the Two Sicilies crown had been restored. It is claimed that theories advanced to suggest that the 1900 renunciation were in some way unnecessary have been formulated long after the fact, but by 1907 a son (the first of four, along with two daughters) had been born to Alfonso XIII and Queen Victoria Eugenia and Prince Carlos's older brother Ferdinand had also had a son, Roggero, Duke of Noto, so it soon became irrelevant.

Calabria line

Prince Carlo's son, Infante Alfonso, became the senior male of the house on the death of his uncle, Ferdinando Pio, Duke of Calabria, in 1960 and was proclaimed Head of the Royal House of the Two Sicilies, with the recognition of the Heads of the royal houses of Spain, Parma and Portugal, and the senior line (Bourbon) pretender to the throne of France. Prince Carlo and his descendants continued to be included as Princes of the Two Sicilies in the Almanach de Gotha from 1901 to 1944, and in the Libro d'Oro of the Italian Nobility from the first edition in 1907 until 1964, at which time the editor came out in support of the cadet line claimant. Infante Don Alfonso took the title of Duke of Calabria, considering that the title of Duke of Castro (a Farnese inheritance) had been lost with the sale of the last portions of the duchy to the Italian government in 1941 (a sale from which Prince Carlo received his portion of the proceeds, along with his brothers and sisters, although if the alleged renunciation of 1900 had been valid he would not have been entitled to do so). Carlo married as his second wife, in 1907, Princess Louise of Orléans, and by her had a son (Carlos, killed in the Spanish Civil War) and three daughters (of whom Princess Maria Mercedes married Juan, Count of Barcelona and was the mother of King Juan Carlos I of Spain, and Princess Esperanza married Prince Pedro Gastão of Orléans-Braganza). The descent in the senior line is as follows:

The latter's immediate heir is Jaime, Duke of Noto.

Castro line

The rest of the Bourbon-Two Sicilies family rejected Alfonso's claims, however, and recognized Ranieri, the next surviving brother of Ferdinando Pius, as head of the house. Ranieri took the style of "Duke of Castro" as his title of pretence. The representatives of the junior branch are as follows:

They also claim the office of the Grand Master of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George.

Current lines of succession

Flags of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

Flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1816)

1816–1848; 1849–1860 flag

Flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1848)

1848–1849 flag

Flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1860)

1860–1861 flag

Arms of the flag of two sicilies
Description of the arms appearing in the flag. Corrections: the upper part of the block marked "Flanders" is Burgundy Ancient; Burgundy Modern (as it is called in English; shown here as New Burgundy) includes a red-and-white border; the block marked "Aragon Two Sicilies" is only for Sicily proper (the other "Sicily" being the Angevin kingdom of Naples).

Orders of knighthood

Further reading

See also

References

  1. ^ Colletta P., History of the Kingdom of Naples: 1734-1825, p.71
  2. ^ Proclaims with Murat's title. ‹See Tfd›(in Italian)
  3. ^ Swinburne, Henry (1790). Travels in the Two Sicilies (1790). British Library.
  4. ^ De Sangro, Michele (2003). I Borboni nel Regno delle Due Sicilie (in Italian). Lecce: Edizioni Caponi.
  5. ^ Jordan Lancaster, In the shadow of Vesuvius: a cultural history of Naples (2005) pp. 199–206
  6. ^ Nicola Zitara. "La legge di Archimede: L'accumulazione selvaggia nell'Italia unificata e la nascita del colonialismo interno" (PDF) (in Italian). Eleaml-Fora!.
  7. ^ Carlo M. Cipolla. Before the industrial revolution: European society and economy, 1000–1700 (1993), p. 36
  8. ^ a b c d e "Sicilian History". Dieli.net. 7 October 2007.
  9. ^ Waller, Maureen. Sovereign Ladies: The Six Reigning Queens of England. St. Martin's Press (New York), 2006. ISBN 0-312-33801-5.
  10. ^ a b Colletta, Pietro (1858). History of the Kingdom of Naples (1858). University of Michigan.
  11. ^ "The Battle of Tolentino > Joachim Murat". Tolentino815.it. 7 October 2007. Archived from the original on 1 February 2008. Retrieved 4 April 2008.
  12. ^ Blanch, L. Luigi de' Medici come uomo di stato e amministratore. Archivio Storico per le Province Napoletane. Archived from the original on 24 October 2008. Retrieved 4 April 2008.
  13. ^ "Alfonso V, or Alfonso el Magnánimo". Britannica.com. 7 October 2007.
  14. ^ "Charles of Bourbon – the restorer of the Kingdom of Naples". RealCasaDiBorbone.it. 7 October 2007. Archived from the original on 26 September 2009.
  15. ^ "The Parthenopean Republic". Faculty.ed.umuc.edu. 7 October 2007. Archived from the original on 29 June 2009.
  16. ^ a b "Austria Naples – Neapolitan War 1815". Onwar.com. 7 October 2007.
  17. ^ "Ferdinand IV King of Naples and Sicily (Ferdinand I as King of the Two Sicilies)". RealCasaDiBorbone.it. 7 October 2007. Archived from the original on 29 December 2006.
  18. ^ "Joachim Murat,". Emeliefr.club.fr. 7 October 2007. Archived from the original on 24 October 2008. Retrieved 3 April 2008.
  19. ^ Pompilio Petitti (1851). Repertorio amministrativo ossia collezione di leggi, decreti, reali rescritti ecc. sull'amministrazione civile del Regno delle Due Sicilie, vol. 1 (in Italian). Napoli: Stabilimento Migliaccio. p. 1.
  20. ^ Pompilio Petitti (1851). Repertorio amministrativo ossia collezione di leggi, decreti, reali rescritti ecc. sull'amministrazione civile del Regno delle Due Sicilie, vol. 1 (in Italian). Napoli: Stabilimento Migliaccio. p. 4.
  21. ^ Sainty, Guy Stair. "ChivalricOrders.org". The Two Sicilies Succession. Guy Stair Sainty. Archived from the original on 6 February 2012. Retrieved 13 June 2015.

Further reading

  • Alio, Jacqueline. Sicilian Studies: A Guide and Syllabus for Educators (2018), 250 pp.
  • Eckaus, Richard S. "The North-South differential in Italian economic development." Journal of Economic History (1961) 21#3 pp: 285-317.
  • Finley, M. I., Denis Mack Smith and Christopher Duggan, A History of Sicily (1987) abridged one-volume version of 3-volume set of 1969)
  • Imbruglia, Girolamo, ed. Naples in the eighteenth century: The birth and death of a nation state (Cambridge University Press, 2000)
  • Petrusewicz, Marta. "Before the Southern Question: 'Native' Ideas on Backwardness and Remedies in the Kingdom of Two Sicilies, 1815-1849." in Italy's 'Southern Question' (Oxford: Berg, 1998) pp: 27-50.
  • Pinto, Carmine. "The 1860 disciplined Revolution. The Collapse of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies." Contemporanea (2013) 16#1 pp: 39-68.
  • Riall, Lucy. Sicily and the Unification of Italy: Liberal Policy & Local Power, 1859-1866 (1998), 252pp
  • Zamagni, Vera. The economic history of Italy 1860-1990 (Oxford University Press, 1993)

External links

Brigandage in Southern Italy after 1861

Brigandage in Southern Italy had existed in some form since ancient times. However its origins as outlaws targeting random travellers would evolve vastly later on in the form of the political resistance movement. During the time of the Napoleonic conquest of the Kingdom of Naples, the first signs of political resistance brigandage came to public light, as the Bourbon loyalists of the country refused to accept the new Bonapartist rulers and actively fought against them until the Bourbon monarchy had been reinstated. Some claim that the word brigandage is a euphemism for what was in fact a civil war.

Caserta railway station

Caserta railway station (IATA: CTJ) (Italian: Stazione di Caserta) serves the city and comune of Caserta, in the region of Campania, southern Italy. Opened in 1843, it forms the junction between the Rome–Cassino–Naples railway and the Naples–Foggia railway.

The station is currently managed by Rete Ferroviaria Italiana (RFI). However, the commercial area of the passenger building is managed by Centostazioni. Train services are operated by Trenitalia. Each of these companies is a subsidiary of Ferrovie dello Stato (FS), Italy's state-owned rail company.

Dictatorship of Garibaldi

The Dictatorship of Garibaldi (or Dictatorial Government of Sicily) was the provisional executive that Giuseppe Garibaldi appointed to govern the territory of Sicily during the Expedition of the Thousand in 1860. It governed in opposition to the Bourbons of Naples.

Edward Joy Morris

Edward Joy Morris (July 16, 1815 – October 31, 1881) was a Whig and Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania.

Enos T. Throop

Enos Thompson Throop ( TROOP; August 21, 1784 – November 1, 1874) was an American lawyer, politician, and diplomat who was the tenth Governor of New York from 1829 to 1832.

Expedition of the Thousand

The Expedition of the Thousand (Italian Spedizione dei Mille) was an event of the Italian Risorgimento that took place in 1860. A corps of volunteers led by Giuseppe Garibaldi sailed from Quarto, near Genoa (now Quarto dei Mille) and landed in Marsala, Sicily, in order to conquer the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, ruled by the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies.

The project was an ambitious and risky venture aiming to conquer, with a thousand men, a kingdom with a larger regular army and a more powerful navy. The expedition was a success and concluded with a plebiscite that brought Naples and Sicily into the Kingdom of Sardinia, the last territorial conquest before the creation of the Kingdom of Italy on 17 March 1861.

The sea venture was the only desired action that was jointly decided by the "four fathers of the nation" Giuseppe Mazzini, Giuseppe Garibaldi, Victor Emmanuel II, and Camillo Cavour, pursuing divergent goals. However, the Expedition was instigated by Francesco Crispi, who utilized his political influence to bolster the Italian unification project.The various groups participated in the expedition for a variety of reasons: for Garibaldi, it was to achieve a united Italy; to the Sicilian bourgeoisie, an independent Sicily as part of the kingdom of Italy, and for common people, land distribution and the end of oppression.

Francis II of the Two Sicilies

Francis II (Italian: Francesco II, christened Francesco d'Assisi Maria Leopoldo; 16 January 1836 – 27 December 1894) was King of the Two Sicilies from 1859 to 1861. He was the last King of the Two Sicilies, as successive invasions by Giuseppe Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia ultimately brought an end to his rule, as part of Italian unification. After he was deposed, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and the Kingdom of Sardinia were merged into the newly formed Kingdom of Italy.

Giornale di Sicilia

Giornale di Sicilia is an Italian daily national newspaper for the island of Sicily. It is based in Palermo, and is the best-selling newspaper in Sicily. Since 2017, it is owned by the daily newspaper of Messina, Gazzetta del Sud.

John Nelson (lawyer)

John Nelson (June 1, 1791 – January 18, 1860) was Attorney General of the United States from 1843 to 1845 under John Tyler.

Joseph Ripley Chandler

Joseph Ripley Chandler (August 22, 1792 – July 10, 1880) was a Whig member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania.

Line of succession to the former throne of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was unified with the Kingdom of Italy in 1860. The headship of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies has been disputed since the death of claimant Prince Ferdinand Pius, Duke of Calabria on 7 January 1960 between Prince Ranieri, Duke of Castro and his descendants and Infante Alfonso, Duke of Calabria and his descendants. The two current claimants to the former realm of the Two Sicilies are Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro and Prince Pedro, Duke of Calabria, both descended in the male line from Charles III of Spain, who succeeded to the crowns of Naples and Sicily in 1734, reigning there until his succession to the throne of Spain with the death of his brother, Ferdinand VI of Spain on 10 August 1759. By the treaties of Vienna of 1738 and Naples of 1759 he was obliged to surrender the thrones of Naples and Sicily to preserve the European balance of power,

The treaties of Vienna and Naples required that King Charles separate the Spanish crown from the Italian sovereignties by designating Don Charles, his second surviving son (the eldest being severely mentally handicapped), as Prince of Asturias, the heir apparent to Spain, while his "Italian sovereignty" would pass immediately to his third son and his descendants in the male line, Infante Don Ferdinand, and then, in the event of the death of the latter without male heirs, to Charles's younger sons and their descendants, by primogeniture. This new semi-Salic, succession law of the defunct Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was laid out by Charles III in the Pragmatic Decree of 6 October 1759, and established a secondogeniture similar to that governing the successions to Tuscany and Modena in the House of Austria. It further stipulated that heirs male of the body of Charles III or, failing males, the female nearest in kinship to the last male in his descent or, that lineage also failing, the heirs male of Charles III's brothers, would inherit the Italian sovereignty (which meant the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily) but always separate from the Spanish crown and never combined in the same person. Should the male line descended from Charles III's younger sons fail, the Italian Sovereignty was always to be transferred to the next male dynast in the order of succession who was neither the monarch of Spain nor his declared heir, the Prince of Asturias. Even if Infante Alfonso, Duke of Calabria, whose mother was Princess of Asturias had inherited the Spanish Crown and if he had then succeeded in 1960 as head of the Two Sicilies Royal House, the Pragmatic Decree of 1759 would have still not applied as it refers to the Italian sovereignty and was designed to preserve the balance of power, a concept that no longer existed in the twentieth century.

The succession to the Sovereignty of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George is a separate dignity that descends to the heirs of the Farnese family and is not tied to any sovereignty; it was only held by the reigning Dukes of Parma from 1698 to 1734 and the Kings of Naples and Sicily from 1734-1860. The Apostolic Brief Sincerae Fidei and Imperial diploma of 1699 invested the grand mastership in Francesco Farnese and his family and this was confirmed in the Papal bull Militantis Ecclesiae of 1718, so when Francesco's brother Antonio died childless in 1731 it was inherited along with Parma by Infante Don Charles of Bourbon and Farnese. When, however, he surrendered Parma to the Emperor in 1736 he retained the grand mastership and control of the Order, and his rights as Grand Master were recognised by his brother Philip who became Duke of Parma in 1748, in several decrees, as did the latter's son, Ferdinand, Duke of Parma. On 8 March 1796 King Ferdinand IV and III of Naples and Sicily issued a decree which stated that “In his (the king's) royal person there exists together two very distinct qualities, the one of Monarch of the Two Sicilies, and the other of Grand Master of the illustrious, royal and military Constantinian order, which though united gloriously in the same person form nonetheless at the same time two separate independent Lordships." Numerous royal and papal acts, declarations by the government of the Order, the statutes of the Order including those of 1934 which governed the succession in 1960, and expert texts written before 1960, were unanimous in confirming that the grand mastership was not united with the crown but a separate dignity, with a different system of succession (absolute Salic law, whereas the Two Sicilies was governed by semi-Salic law). Hence no act concerned only with the succession to the Two Sicilies could have any bearing on the succession to the Constantinian grand mastership, an ecclesiastical office governed by canon law.

List of consorts of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

The following is a list of consorts of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

List of monarchs of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

The following is a list of rulers of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, until the fusion into the Kingdom of Italy in 1861.

Paris Declaration Respecting Maritime Law

The Paris Declaration Respecting Maritime Law of 16 April 1856 was a diplomatic policy agreed to by 55 nations. Written by France and Great Britain, its primary goal was to abolish privateering, whereby a belligerent party gave formal permission for armed privately owned ships to seize enemy vessels. It also regulated the relationship between neutral and belligerent and shipping on the high seas introducing new prize rules. They agreed on three major points: free ships make free goods, effective blockade, and no privateering. In return for surrendering the practice of seizing neutral goods on enemy ships, France insisted on Britain's abandoning its Rule of 1756 prohibiting neutral assumption of enemy coastal and colonial trade.

Prince Ferdinand Pius, Duke of Calabria

Prince Ferdinand Pius (Ferdinando Pio Maria), Duke of Calabria (25 July 1869, Rome – 7 January 1960, Lindau), was head of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies and pretender to the throne of the extinct Kingdom of the Two Sicilies from 1934 to 1960.

Real Marina (Kingdom of the Two Sicilies)

The Royal Navy of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Real Marina del Regno delle Due Sicilie or Armata di Mare di S.M. il Re del Regno delle Due Sicilie) was the official term in documents of the era for the naval forces of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies - it and the Royal Army together formed the Kingdom's armed forces. The modern use of the term Regio for royal was only introduced into the force's title after the annexation of the Kingdom of Sardinia. It was the most important of the pre-unification Italian navies and Cavour made it the model of the new Italian Regia Marina after the annexation of the Two Sicilies.

Sicilian revolution of 1848

The Sicilian revolution of independence of 1848 occurred in a year replete with revolutions and popular revolts. It commenced on 12 January 1848, and therefore was the very first of the numerous revolutions to occur that year. Three revolutions against Bourbon rule had previously occurred on the island of Sicily starting from 1800: this final one resulted in an independent state surviving for 16 months. The constitution that survived the 16 months was quite advanced for its time in liberal democratic terms, as was the proposal of an Italian confederation of states. It was in effect a curtain raiser to the end of the Bourbon kingdom of the Two Sicilies which was started by Giuseppe Garibaldi's Expedition of the Thousand in 1860 and culminated with the Siege of Gaeta of 1860–1861.

Southern Italy

Southern Italy or Mezzogiorno (Italian pronunciation: [ˌmɛddzoˈdʒorno], "South", literally "Midday" or "Noon") is a macroregion of Italy meant to broadly denote the southern half of the Italian state.

Southern Italy covers in both historic and cultural terms the land once under the administration of the former Kingdoms of Naples and Sicily (officially denominated Regnum Siciliae citra Pharum and ultra Pharum, that is "Kingdom of Sicily on the other side of the Strait" and "across the Strait"), which shared a common organization into Italy's largest pre-unitarian state, the Kingdom of the two Sicilies. The island of Sardinia experienced different historical vicissitudes, but is nonetheless often grouped together with the Mezzogiorno because of the similar economic conditions.The Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) employs the term "South Italy" (Italia Meridionale) to identify one of the five statistical regions in its reportings without Sicily and Sardinia, which form a distinct statistical region denominated "Insular Italy" (Italia Insulare). These same subdivisions are at the bottom of the Italian First level NUTS of the European Union and the Italian constituencies for the European Parliament.

William Richard Hamilton

William Richard Hamilton, FRS, (1777–1859) was a British antiquarian, traveller and diplomat. He was the third son of Rev. Anthony Hamilton, Archdeacon of Colchester and Anne, daughter of Richard Terrick, Bishop of London.

Born in St Martin-in-the-Fields, London in 1777, he studied at Harrow School and St John's College, Cambridge. In 1799 he was appointed chief private secretary to Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin. He was in Egypt as the British took it over from the French, secured the Rosetta Stone and superintended its transport to England. After a voyage up the Nile, he wrote a well-known work of Egyptology, AEgyptica.From 1809 to 1822 Hamilton served as Permanent Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs, and from 1822 to 1825 he was Minister and Envoy Plenipotentiary at the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

In 1830 he succeeded Sir Thomas Lawrence as Secretary of the Society of Dilettanti, a post which he held until his death in 1859.

The geologist William John Hamilton and soldier Frederick William Hamilton were his sons.

Great Royal Coat of Arms of the Two Sicilies
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