Kingdom of Portugal

The Kingdom of Portugal (Latin: Regnum Portugalliae, Portuguese: Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal. It was in existence from 1139 until 1910. After 1415, it was also known as the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, and between 1815 and 1822, it was known as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. The name is also often applied to the Portuguese Empire, the realm's extensive overseas colonies.

The nucleus of the Portuguese state was the County of Portugal, established in the 9th century as part of the Reconquista, by Vímara Peres, a vassal of the King of Asturias. The county became part of the Kingdom of León in 1097, and the Counts of Portugal established themselves as rulers of an independent kingdom in the 12th century, following the battle of São Mamede. The kingdom was ruled by the Alfonsine Dynasty until the 1383–85 Crisis, after which the monarchy passed to the House of Aviz.

During the 15th and 16th century, Portuguese exploration established a vast colonial empire. From 1580 to 1640, the Kingdom of Portugal was in personal union with Habsburg Spain.

After the Portuguese Restoration War of 1640–1668, the kingdom passed to the House of Braganza and thereafter to the House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. From this time, the influence of Portugal declined, but it remained a major power due to its most valuable colony, Brazil. After the independence of Brazil, Portugal sought to establish itself in Africa, but was ultimately forced to yield to the British interests, leading to the collapse of the monarchy in the 5 October 1910 revolution and the establishment of the First Portuguese Republic.

Portugal was a decisive absolute monarchy before 1822. It rotated between absolute and constitutional monarchy from 1822 until 1834, and was a decisive constitutional monarchy after 1834.

Coordinates: 38°42′N 9°11′W / 38.700°N 9.183°W

Kingdom of Portugal[a]

Regnum Portugalliae (Latin)
Reino de Portugal (Portuguese)
1139–1910
Flag of Portugal
Flag (1830–1910)
thumbborder
Coat of Arms
Anthem: "Hymno Patriótico" (1808–1826)
"Patriotic Anthem"

Hino da Carta (1826–1910)
"Anthem of the Charter"
Kingdom of Portugal in 1800
Kingdom of Portugal in 1800
CapitalCoimbra
(1139–1255)
Lisbon[a]
(1255–1808)
Rio de Janeiro
(1808–1821)
Lisbon
(1821–1830)
Angra do Heroísmo
(1830–1834)
Lisbon
(1834–1910)
Common languagesOfficial languages: Unofficial languages:
Religion
Majority:
Roman Catholicism (official)
Minority:
Sephardic Judaism[g]
Islam[h]
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy
(1139–1822; 1823–1826; 1828–1834)
Constitutional monarchy
(1822–1823; 1826–1828; 1834–1910)
Monarch 
• 1139–1185
Afonso I (first)
• 1908–1910
Manuel II (last)
Prime Minister 
• 1834–1835
Marquis of Palmela (first)
• 1910
Teixeira de Sousa (last)
LegislatureCortes Gerais
• Upper house
Chamber of Peers
• Lower house
Chamber of Deputies
History 
25 July 1139
1 December 1640
1 February 1908
5 October 1910
Area
1910 (metro)92,391 km2 (35,672 sq mi)
Population
• 1910 (metro)
5,969,056
CurrencyPortuguese dinheiro,
(1139–1433)
Portuguese real
(1433–1910)
ISO 3166 codePT
Preceded by
Succeeded by
County of Portugal
Couto Misto
First Portuguese Republic
Empire of Brazil
Canada
Dahomey
Today part of
a. ^ The capital was de facto located at Rio de Janeiro from 1808 to 1821.

History

Origins

The Kingdom of Portugal finds its origins in the County of Portugal (1093–1139). The Portuguese County was a semi-autonomous county of the Kingdom of León. Independence from León took place in three stages:

  1. The first on 26 July 1139 when Afonso Henriques was acclaimed King of the Portuguese[1] internally.
  2. The second was on 5 October 1143, when Alfonso VII of León and Castile recognized Afonso Henriques as king through the Treaty of Zamora.
  3. The third, in 1179, was the Papal Bull Manifestis Probatum, in which Portugal's independence was recognized by Pope Alexander III.

Once Portugal was independent, D. Afonso I's descendants, members of the Portuguese House of Burgundy, would rule Portugal until 1383. Even after the change in royal houses, all the monarchs of Portugal were descended from Afonso I, one way or another, through both legitimate and illegitimate links.

Portugal Império total

An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire.

Fall of the Monarchy

With the start of the 20th century, Republicanism grew in numbers and support in Lisbon among progressive politicians and the influential press. However a minority with regard to the rest of the country, this height of republicanism would benefit politically from the Lisbon Regicide on 1 February 1908. While returning from the Ducal Palace at Vila Viçosa, King Carlos I and the Prince Royal Luís Filipe were assassinated in the Terreiro do Paço, in Lisbon. With the death of the King and his heir, Carlos I's second son would become monarch as King Manuel II. Manuel's reign, however, would be short-lived, ending by force with the 5 October 1910 revolution, sending Manuel into exile in Great Britain and giving way to the Portuguese First Republic.

On 19 January 1919, the Monarchy of the North was proclaimed in Porto. The monarchy would be deposed a month later and no other monarchist counterrevolution in Portugal has happened since.

After the republican revolution in October 1910, the remaining colonies of the empire became overseas provinces of the Portuguese Republic until the late 20th century, when the last overseas territories of Portugal were handed over (most notably Portuguese Africa which included the overseas provinces of Angola and Mozambique in 1975, and finally Macau in 1999).

Gallery

Shield of the Kingdom of Portugal (1139-1247)

Flag of the Kingdom of Portugal (1185–1248)

Shield of the Kingdom of Portugal (1248-1385)

Flag of the Kingdom of Portugal (1248–1385)

Shield of the Kingdom of Portugal (1385-1481)

Flag of the Kingdom of Portugal (1385–1481)

Shield of the Kingdom of Portugal (1481-1910)

Flag of the Kingdom of Portugal (1481–1495)

PortugueseFlag1495

Flag of the Kingdom of Portugal (1495–1521)

PortugueseFlag1521

Flag of the Kingdom of Portugal (1521–1578)

PortugueseFlag1580

Flag of the Kingdom of Portugal (1580–1610)

Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Portugal (1640-1910)

Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Portugal (1610–1815)

LDAM (f. 010) Rei de Portugal

Arms of the King of Portugal depicted in the Livro do Armeiro-Mor (c. 1509)

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ After 1415, it was also known as the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves (Latin: Regnum Portugalliae et Algarbiae, Portuguese: Reino de Portugal e dos Algarves), and between 1815 and 1822, it was known as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (Portuguese: Reino Unido de Portugal, Brasil e Algarves).
  2. ^ Galician-Portuguese (until 16th century)
    Modern Portuguese (16th century onward)
  3. ^ Widely used for administrative and liturgical purposes. Medieval Latin replaced by Renaissance Latin by the 15th century.
  4. ^ Until 13th century.
  5. ^ Until 1497, mainly in the Algarve.
  6. ^ Until 1497.
  7. ^ Until 1497.
  8. ^ Until 1497.

Citations

  1. ^ Wilner, Hero, Weiner, p. 190

References

  • Joaquim Veríssimo Serrão, História de Portugal: Do mindelo á regeneração (1832–1851)
  • José Mattoso, António Manuel Hespanha, História de Portugal 4: O Antigo Regime (1620–1807), (1998) ISBN 972-33-1311-1
  • Simão José da Luz Soriano, Historia da Guerra Civil e do estabelecimento do governo parlamentar em Portugal: comprehedendo a historia diplomatica, militar e politica d'este reino desde 1777 até 1834 Volume 9 (1893)
  • Jacinto de São Miguel (Frei), Martinho Augusto Ferreira da Fonseca, Mosteiro de Belém: Relação da insigne e real casa de Santa Maria de Belém (1901)
  • Mark Willner, George Hero, Jerry Weiner, Global History Volume I: The Ancient World to the Age of Revolution (2006) ISBN 978-0-7641-5811-7
  • Douglas L. Wheeler, Republican Portugal: A Political History, 1910–1926 (1998) ISBN 978-0-299-07454-8
Coat of arms of Portugal

The coat of arms of Portugal is the main heraldic insignia of Portugal. The present model was officially adopted on 30 June 1911, along with the present model of the Flag of Portugal. It is based on the coat of arms used by the Portuguese Kingdom since the Middle Ages. The coat of arms of Portugal is popularly referred as the Quinas (a quina being a group of five things).

Flag of Brazil

The flag of Brazil (Portuguese: Bandeira do Brasil), known in Portuguese as Verde e amarela, or less usually 'Auriverde ( both means: The Yellow-and-green One), is a blue disc depicting a starry sky (which includes the Southern Cross) spanned by a curved band inscribed with the national motto "Ordem e Progresso" ("Order and Progress"), within a yellow rhombus, on a green field. Brazil officially adopted this design for its national flag on November 19, 1889 — four days after the Proclamation of the Republic, to replace the flag of the Empire of Brazil. The concept was the work of Raimundo Teixeira Mendes, with the collaboration of Miguel Lemos, Manuel Pereira Reis and Décio Villares.

The green field and the yellow rhombus from the previous imperial flag, though slightly modified in hue and shape, were preserved — the green represented the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil, while the yellow represented the House of Habsburg of his wife, Empress Maria Leopoldina. A blue circle with white five-pointed stars replaced the arms of the Empire of Brazil — its position in the flag reflects the sky over the city of Rio de Janeiro on November 15, 1889. The motto Ordem e Progresso is inspired by Auguste Comte's motto of positivism: "L'amour pour principe et l'ordre pour base; le progrès pour but" ("Love as a principle and order as the basis; progress as the goal").Each star corresponds to a Brazilian Federative Unit and, according to Brazilian Law, the flag must be updated in case of creation or extinction of a state. At the time the flag was first adopted in 1889, it held 21 stars. Then it received one more star in 1960 (representing the city-state of Guanabara), then another in 1968 (representing Acre), and finally four more stars in 1992 (representing Amapá, Roraima, Rondônia and Tocantins), totalling 27 stars in its current version.

History of Portugal (1415–1578)

The Kingdom of Portugal in the 15th century was the first European power to begin building a colonial empire. The Portuguese Renaissance was a period of exploration during which Portuguese sailors discovered several Atlantic archipelagos like the Azores, Madeira, and Cape Verde, explored and colonized the African coast, discovered an eastern route to India that rounded the Cape of Good Hope, discovered Brazil, explored the Indian Ocean and established trading routes throughout most of southern Asia, and sent the first direct European maritime trade and diplomatic missions to Ming China and to Japan.

The Portuguese Renaissance produced a plethora of poets, historians, critics, theologians, and moralists, for whom the Portuguese Renaissance was their golden age. The Cancioneiro Geral by Garcia de Resende (printed 1516) is taken to mark the transition from Old Portuguese to the modern Portuguese language.

History of Portugal (1777–1834)

The history of the kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, from the First Treaty of San Ildefonso and the beginning of the reign of Queen Maria I in 1777, to the end of the Liberal Wars in 1834, spans a complex historical period in which several important political and military events led to the end of the absolutist regime and to the installation of a constitutional monarchy in the country.

In 1807, Napoleon ordered the invasion of Portugal and subsequently the royal family and its entire court migrated to Brazil, Maria I declaring the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves in 1816. This would be one of the causes for the declaration of Brazilian independence by Pedro I of Brazil in 1822, following a liberal revolution in Portugal.

The liberal period was stormy and short as Miguel of Portugal (Pedro's brother) supported an absolutist revolution endeavoring to restore all power to the monarchy. Pedro eventually returned to Portugal and fought and defeated his brother in the Liberal Wars in which liberalism prevailed and Portugal became a constitutional monarchy.

House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

The House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (; German: Haus Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) is a German dynasty that ruled the duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, which was one of the Ernestine duchies. It is a cadet branch of the Saxon House of Wettin.

Founded by Ernest Anton, the sixth duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, it has been the royal house of several European monarchies. Agnatic branches currently reign in Belgium through the descendants of Leopold I and in the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms through the descendants of Prince Albert. Due to anti-German sentiment in the United Kingdom during World War I, George V changed the name of his branch from "Saxe-Coburg and Gotha" to "Windsor" in 1917. The same happened in 1920 in Belgium, where the name was changed to "de Belgique" (French) or "van België" (Dutch) or "von Belgien" (German), meaning "of Belgium".

Independence of Brazil

The Independence of Brazil comprised a series of political and military events that occurred in 1821–1824, most of which involved disputes between Brazil and Portugal regarding the call for independence presented by the Brazilian Empire.

It is celebrated on 7 September, the anniversary of the date in 1822 that prince regent Dom Pedro declared Brazil's independence from the former United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves. Formal recognition came with a treaty three years later, signed by both the new Empire of Brazil and the Kingdom of Portugal in late 1825.

Kingdom of Brazil

Not to be confused with Empire of Brazil

The Kingdom of Brazil (Portuguese: Reino do Brasil) was a constituent kingdom of United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves.

Kingdom of the Algarve

The Kingdom of the Algarve (Portuguese: Reino do Algarve, from the Arabic Gharb al-Andalus غرب الأندلس‎), after 1471 Kingdom of the Algarves (Portuguese: Reino dos Algarves), was a nominal kingdom within the Kingdom of Portugal, located in the southernmost region of continental Portugal.

It was the second dominion of the Portuguese Crown and supposedly a kingdom apart from Portugal, though in fact the Algarvian kingdom had no institutions, special privileges, or autonomy.

In actuality, it was just an honorific title for the Algarve based on its history and was very similar to the rest of the Portuguese provinces.The title King of Silves was first used by Sancho I of Portugal after the first conquest of the city Silves in 1189. As this conquest did not take all of the Algarve, Sancho never used the title King of Portugal and the Algarve, but instead it was adopted by his grandson Afonso III of Portugal as a part of the titles and honours of the Portuguese Crown.

Line of succession to the former Portuguese throne

The Portuguese monarchy was abolished on 5 October 1910, when King Manuel II was deposed following a republican revolution. The present head of the House of Braganza, the former ruling house, is Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, a position he has held since the death of his father, Duarte Nuno, in 1976. The succession law for the former Portuguese throne was male-preference cognatic primogeniture.

List of monarchs of Brazil

Brazil was ruled by a series of monarchs in the period 1815–1889; first as a kingdom united with Portugal in the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (1815–1822), subsequently as a sovereign and independent state, the Empire of Brazil (1822–1889). All four of the country's monarchs were members of the House of Braganza.

Before 1815, Brazil was a colony of the Kingdom of Portugal. Thus, from the formal arrival of the Portuguese in 1500, when the land was claimed by the Portuguese Crown, until 1815 when the Kingdom of Brazil was created and the colonial bond was formally terminated and replaced by a political union with Portugal, the Kings of Portugal were monarchs over Brazil.

During the colonial era, from 1645 onwards, the heir apparent of the Portuguese Crown was styled Prince of Brazil. In 1817, in the wake of the creation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, the heir apparent's title was changed to Prince Royal.

Brazil had two monarchs during the United Kingdom epoch: Queen Maria I (1815–1816) and King John VI (1816–1822). By the time of the creation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, Queen Maria I was long incapacitated, and the Portuguese Empire was ruled by Prince John, the future King John VI, as Prince Regent.

As an independent nation-state, Brazil had two monarchs: Emperors Pedro I (1822–1831) and Pedro II (1831–1889). In 1889, the monarchy was abolished in a military coup d'état that proclaimed Brazil a republic.

During the imperial era, King John VI of Portugal briefly held the honorific style of Emperor of Brazil under the 1825 Treaty of Rio de Janeiro, by which Portugal recognized the independence of Brazil. The style of emperor was a life title, and became extinct upon the holder's demise. John VI held the imperial title for a few months only, from the ratification of the Treaty in November 1825 until his death in March 1826. During those months, however, as John's imperial title was purely honorific, Emperor Pedro I remained the sole monarch of the empire.

List of titles and honours of the Portuguese Crown

This List of titles and honours of the Portuguese Crown sets out the many titles of the monarchs of the Kingdom of Portugal while the monarchy was still in place.

Maria I of Portugal

Dona Maria I (English: Mary I; 17 December 1734 – 20 March 1816) was Queen of Portugal from 1777 until her death. Known as Maria the Pious in Portugal and Maria the Mad in Brazil, she was the first undisputed queen regnant of Portugal and the first monarch of Brazil. With Napoleon's European conquests, her court, then under the direction of her son João, the Prince Regent, moved to Brazil, then a Portuguese colony. Later on, Brazil would be elevated from the rank of a colony to that of a kingdom, with the consequential formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.

Monarchy of the North

The Monarchy of the North (Portuguese: Monarquia do Norte), officially the Kingdom of Portugal (Portuguese: Reino de Portugal), was a short-lived revolution and monarchist government that occurred in the North of Portugal, in early 1919. The movement, also known as the Kingdom of Traulitânia (Portuguese: Reino da Traulitânia), based in Porto, lasted from 19 January to 13 February 1919.

The movement was led by Henrique Mitchell de Paiva Couceiro, a prominent member of the Portuguese imperial government, without any sanction from the deposed King of Portugal, Manuel II. Paiva Couceiro, who had led and participated in many previous attempts at restoring the Portuguese monarchy, stated that the revolution was necessary because "if the North does not agree with the South, I will be, until the end, on the side of the faithful to tradition".

The revolution's inability to gain strong popular support throughout the country, coupled with its unorganized structure, led to its quick demise and the re-establishment of the Portuguese republican regime in the north.

Portuguese nobility

The Portuguese nobility was the class of legally privileged and titled persons (nobility) recognized by the Kingdom of Portugal. During the absolute monarchy, nobles enjoyed the most privileged status and held the most important offices after members of the ruling dynasty and major hierarchs of the Roman Catholic Church.

With the introduction of the constitutional monarchy in 1834, the influence of nobles substantially decreased, although the erosion of their power had begun to accelerate from the time of the prime minister, the Marquis of Pombal, in the mid-18th century.

After Portugal became a republic in 1910, some descendants of the nobility continued to bear their families' titles according to standards sustained by the Portuguese Institute of Nobility (Instituto da Nobreza Portuguesa), headed honorarily by Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, the pretender to the Portuguese Crown.

Prince Royal of Portugal

Prince Royal of Portugal (Portuguese: Príncipe Real de Portugal), officially Prince Royal of Portugal and the Algarves (Príncipe Real de Portugal e dos Algarves), was the title held by the heir-apparent or presumptive to the Kingdom of Portugal, from 1825 to 1910. From 1815 to 1825 the title was Prince Royal of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.

Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking

The Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking was a trade treaty between the Kingdom of Portugal and the Qing dynasty of China, signed on 1 December 1887. It is counted by the Chinese as among the unequal treaties.

Treaty of Madrid (13 January 1750)

The Spanish–Portuguese treaty of 1750 or Treaty of Madrid was a document signed in the Spanish capital by Ferdinand VI of Spain and John V of Portugal on 13 January 1750, to end armed conflict over a border dispute between the Spanish and Portuguese empires in South America in the vicinity of the Uruguay River, an area known as the Banda Oriental (now comprising parts of Uruguay, Argentina and the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil). The treaty established borders between the Spanish and Portuguese empires, ceding much of what is today's country of Brazil to the Portuguese.

Treaty of Zamora

The Treaty of Zamora (5 October 1143) recognized Portuguese independence from the Kingdom of León. Based on the terms of the accord, King Alfonso VII of León recognized the Kingdom of Portugal in the presence of his cousin King Afonso I of Portugal, witnessed by the papal representative, Cardinal Guido de Vico, at the Cathedral of Zamora. Both kings promised durable peace between their kingdoms. By this treaty Afonso I of Portugal also recognized the suzerainty of the pope.

This treaty came as of a result of the Battle of Valdevez.

United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves

The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves was a pluricontinental monarchy formed by the elevation of the Portuguese colony named State of Brazil to the status of a kingdom and by the simultaneous union of that Kingdom of Brazil with the Kingdom of Portugal and the Kingdom of the Algarves, constituting a single state consisting of three kingdoms.

The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves was formed in 1815, following the transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil during the Napoleonic invasions of Portugal, and it continued to exist for about one year after the return of the Court to Europe, being de facto dissolved in 1822, when Brazil proclaimed its independence. The dissolution of the United Kingdom was accepted by Portugal and formalized de jure in 1825, when Portugal recognized the independent Empire of Brazil.

During its period of existence the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves did not correspond to the whole of the Portuguese Empire: rather, the united kingdom was the transatlantic metropolis that controlled the Portuguese colonial empire, with its overseas possessions in Africa and Asia.

Thus, from the point of view of Brazil, the elevation to the rank of a kingdom and the creation of the United Kingdom represented a change in status, from that of a colony to that of an equal member of a political union. In the wake of the Liberal Revolution of 1820 in Portugal, attempts to compromise the autonomy and even the unity of Brazil, led to the breakdown of the union.

Major events
Royal houses
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