The Kingdom of Montenegro (Serbian: Краљевина Црнa Горa / Kraljevina Crna Gora) was a monarchy in southeastern Europe, present-day Montenegro, during the tumultuous years on the Balkan Peninsula leading up to and during World War I. Legally it was a constitutional monarchy, but absolutist in practice. On 28 November 1918, following the end of World War I, with the Montenegrin government still in exile, the Podgorica Assembly proclaimed unification with the Kingdom of Serbia which itself was merged into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes three days later, on 1 December 1918.
Kingdom of Montenegro
Краљевина Црнa Горa
Kraljevina Crna Gora
Anthem: Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori
Убавој нам Црној Гори
"To Our Beautiful Montenegro"
The Kingdom of Montenegro in 1914.
|Religion||Montenegrin Orthodox (official) |
|Lazar Tomanović (first)|
|Evgenije Popović (last)|
|Historical era||World War I|
|28 August 1910|
|30 May 1913|
|20 July 1917|
|28 November 1918|
|1910||9,475 km2 (3,658 sq mi)|
|1912||14,442 km2 (5,576 sq mi)|
|ISO 3166 code||ME|
|Today part of|| Montenegro|
Prince Nicholas of Montenegro proclaimed the Kingdom of Montenegro in Cetinje on 28 August 1910, elevating the country from the rank of Principality. King Nicholas I had ruled the country as Prince since 1860, and had initiated several modernising reforms at the beginning of the 20th century, such as introducing a constitution and a new currency, the Montenegrin perper.
Montenegro joined the First Balkan War in 1912, hoping to win a share in the last Ottoman-controlled areas of Rumelia. Montenegro did make further territorial gains by splitting Sandžak with Serbia on 30 May 1913. But the Montenegrins had to abandon the newly captured city of İşkodra (Skadar in Serbian, modern-day Shkodër) to the new state of Albania in May 1913, at the insistence of the Great Powers, despite the Montenegrins having invested 10,000 lives into the capture of the town (April 1913) from the Ottoman-Albanian forces of Esad Pasha. Essad Pasha made a deal to surrender the town to the Montenegrins in exchange for Montenegro supporting his claims in Central Albania. However, as Shkodër and the surroundings had a large ethnic Albanian majority, the area went to the state of Albania instead.
When the Second Balkan War broke out in June 1913, Serbia fought against Bulgaria, and King Nicholas sided with Serbia.
During World War I (1914–1918) Montenegro allied itself with the Triple Entente, in line with King Nicholas' pro-Serbian policy. Accordingly, Austria-Hungary occupied Montenegro from 15 January 1916 to October 1918.
On 20 July 1917, the signing of the Corfu Declaration foreshadowed the unification of Montenegro with Serbia. On 26 November 1918, Podgorica Assembly, an elected body claiming to represent Montenegrin people, unanimously adopted a resolution deposing king Nicholas I (who was still in exile) and unifying Montenegro with Serbia. Upon this event Nicholas I, who had previously supported unification with Serbia into a greater state with his dynasty playing the pivotal role, switched to promoting Montenegrin nationalism and opposing the union with Serbia, a position he maintained until his death in France in 1921.
On 1 December 1918, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was created, where both Serbia and Montenegro were parts.
Esad Mekuli (Serbian Cyrillic: Есад Мекули) (17 December 1916, Plav, Kingdom of Montenegro – 6 August 1993, Pristina, FR Yugoslavia) was an Albanian poet and scholar. He was the first president of the Academy of Sciences and Arts of Kosovo. Robert Elsie considered him the father of modern Albanian poetry in Yugoslavia, and his influence in Kosovo remains immense.Grahovo, Nikšić
Grahovo (pronounced [ɡrâxoʋo]) is a historical Montenegrin clan and settlement in the Nikšić municipality of southwestern Montenegro.Greens (Montenegro)
The Greens (Montenegrin: Zelenaši/Зеленаши) were a group of Montenegrin nationalists which originated from the membership of True People's Party, most notable for instigating the Christmas Uprising of 1919 in an attempt to prevent the annexation of Montenegro into the unitary Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Greens were supporters of the Petrović-Njegoš dynasty, which was dethroned after the World War I, and fought for the establishment of Montenegro as either an independent state, or a federal unit within the Yugoslav federation. Following the defeat in Christmas uprising, Greens continued with guerrilla warfare until 1929. The motto of the movement, as inscribed on their flag, was "For the Right, Honour and Freedom of Montenegro".
During World War II, Greens were activated once again under the leadership of Krsto Popović in an attempt to re-establish the Kingdom of Montenegro as an Axis client state.Italian governorate of Montenegro
The Italian governorate of Montenegro (Italian: Governatorato del Montenegro) existed from October 1941 to September 1943 as an occupied territory under military government of Fascist Italy during World War II. Although the Italians had intended to establish a quasi-independent Montenegrin kingdom, these plans were permanently shelved after a popular uprising in July 1941. Following the Italian surrender in September 1943, the territory of Montenegro was occupied by German forces which withdrew in December 1944.Janko Vukotić
Janko Vukotić (Serbian Cyrillic: Јанко Вукотић; 18 February 1866 – 4 February 1927) was a Serdar, general in the armies of the Principality and Kingdom of Montenegro in the Balkan Wars and World War I.Kingdom of Serbia
The Kingdom of Serbia (Serbian: Краљевина Србија / Kraljevina Srbija) was created when Milan I, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was proclaimed king in 1882.
Since 1817, the Principality was ruled by the Obrenović dynasty (replaced by the Karađorđević dynasty for a short time). The Principality, suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire, de facto achieved full independence when the last Ottoman troops left Belgrade in 1867. The Congress of Berlin in 1878 recognized the formal independence of the Principality of Serbia, and in its composition Nišava, Pirot, Toplica and Vranje districts entered the South part of Serbia.
In 1882, Serbia was elevated to the status of a kingdom, maintaining a foreign policy friendly to Austria-Hungary. Between 1912 and 1913, Serbia greatly enlarged its territory through engagement in the First and Second Balkan Wars—Sandžak-Raška, Kosovo Vilayet and Vardar Macedonia were annexed. At the end of World War I in 1918 it united with Vojvodina and the Kingdom of Montenegro, and towards the end of 1918 it joined with the newly created State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs to form the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later known as Kingdom of Yugoslavia) under the continued rule of the Serbian Karađorđević dynasty.Lazar Mijušković
Lazar Mijušković (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Лазар Мијушковић; 1867 - 1936) was a Montenegrin politician and diplomat.Mihailo Lalić
Mihailo Lalić (pronounced [mixǎilɔ lâlit͡ɕ]; 7 October 1914, in Trepča, Andrijevica, Kingdom of Montenegro – 30 December 1992, in Belgrade, FRY) was a Montenegrin and Serbian writer.Montenegrin nobility
The Montenegrin nobility (1852–1918) are notable people of the Principality of Montenegro and the Kingdom of Montenegro who hold titles such as knez (prince), vojvoda (duke), veliki vojvoda (grand duke), serdar (count), and guvernadur (governor). The titles are hereditary or for life. Focusing on the Montenegrin nobility of the late 19th century surrounding the then recent secularisation of the principality under Danilo II and his court, excluding the older traditional clan nobility.Montenegrin perper
The perper (Serbian: Перпер; plural перпери) was the currency of Montenegro between 1906 and 1916. It was divided into 100 para.
At the end of the 20th century, Montenegro contemplated issuing the perper again. However, it decided to adopt the Deutsche mark instead, and later followed the change to the euro.Nicholas I of Montenegro
Nikola I Petrović-Njegoš (Serbian Cyrillic: Никола I Петровић-Његош; 7 October [O.S. 25 September] 1841 – 1 March 1921) was the ruler of Montenegro from 1860 to 1918, reigning as sovereign prince from 1860 to 1910 and as king from 1910 to 1918.Peko Dapčević
Petar "Peko" Dapčević (25 June 1913 – 10 February 1999) was a famous Montenegrin and Yugoslav communist who fought as a volunteer in the Spanish Civil War, joined the Partisan uprising in Montenegro, and became commander of the Yugoslav 1st and 4th Armies.
General Dapčević led the Partisan troops that, along with Soviet Red Army under General Vladimir Zhdanov, liberated Belgrade on October 20, 1944. He was the first person to be proclaimed as honorary citizen of Belgrade. In 1953 Dapčević was named Chief of the Yugoslav General Staff, but was demoted as a result of being indirectly involved in the Đilas troubles with the party. Born in the village of Ljubotinj (near Cetinje), Kingdom of Montenegro, his father Jovan was an Orthodox deacon. He had one sister Danica Dapčević who was a public teacher, and brothers Milutin - Yugoslavia Kingdom's Military Officer, Dragutin - Major of Yugoslav Armies and Vlado Dapčević - who was a famous revolutionary, dissident and anti-revisionist.
Petar, Dragutin and Vladimir took part in The Anti Fascist Movement since its very beginning until the end of The Second World War.
Petar Dapčević died at the age of 85 in his home in Belgrade, FR Yugoslavia.Petrović-Njegoš dynasty
Petrović-Njegoš (Montenegrin and Serbian Cyrillic: Петровић-Његош, pl. Petrović-Njegoši / Петровић-Његоши) were the family that ruled Montenegro from 1696 to 1916. Montenegro had enjoyed de facto independence from the Ottoman Empire since 1711, but it only received formal international recognition as an independent principality in 1878.
Montenegro was ruled from its inception by vladikas (prince-bishops), who had a dual temporal and spiritual role. In 1697, the office was made hereditary in the Petrović-Njegoš family. However, since Orthodox bishops are required to be celibate, the crown passed from uncle to nephew. In 1852, Prince-Bishop Danilo II opted to marry and to secularize Montenegro, becoming Prince Danilo I. His successor, Nikola I, raised Montenegro to a kingdom in 1910. In 1916, King Nikola I was ousted by the invasion and occupation of his country by Austria-Hungary. He was formally deposed by the Podgorica Assembly in 1918, and Montenegro was annexed by Serbia, which in turn merged into the emergent Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
A period of eighty years of control from Belgrade followed, during which time Nikola I died in exile in France in 1921, followed shortly afterwards by the surprise abdication of his son and heir, Danilo III, the same year. The latter's nephew, Michael Petrović-Njegoš, inherited the titles of his predecessors whilst in exile in France, and he survived arrest and internment by order of Adolf Hitler for refusing to head up a puppet Montenegrin state aligned to the Axis Powers. Later, he served the SFR Yugoslavia as Head of Protocol. He was succeeded by his son Nicholas Petrović-Njegoš in 1986. Nicholas returned to Montenegro to support the Montenegrin independence movement that went on to achieve full sovereignty in the 2006 referendum.
In 2011, Montenegro recognized an official role for the Royal House of Petrović-Njegoš in Montenegro: to promote Montenegrin identity, culture and traditions through cultural, humanitarian and other non-political activities, which has been interpreted as a "creeping restoration" of the monarchy.The present head of the house is Nicholas, Crown Prince of Montenegro, who would be titled Nicholas II were he recognised as king.Sekula Drljević
Sekula Drljević (7 September 1884 – 10 November 1945) was a Montenegrin lawyer and separatist politician who collaborated with the Italian military occupation authorities in Montenegro during World War II.
Born in the town of Kolašin, he earned a doctorate degree in law and became the Minister of Justice and Finance in the Kingdom of Montenegro before the outbreak of World War I. During the interwar period, he was a leading member of the "Greens" (zelenaši), a Montenegrin separatist movement. A proponent of the theory that Montenegrins were an ethnic group distinct from Serbs, he also founded and became the leader of the Montenegrin Federalist Party.
Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, Drljević began cooperating with the Italian authorities occupying Montenegro. In July, he proclaimed the reestablishment of the Kingdom of Montenegro, but his attempt to establish an Axis-aligned puppet state triggered an immediate uprising. That September, Italian authorities sent him to an internment camp in Italy after the outbreak of an anti-fascist revolt. Drljević escaped the camp several months later and made his way into the German-held half of the Independent State of Croatia (NDH). In the summer of 1944, he created the Montenegrin State Council in Zagreb.
Drljević moved back to Montenegro in 1945 and agreed to the formation of the Montenegrin National Army with Chetnik commander Pavle Đurišić. Đurišić and several other Chetnik commanders were later ambushed and murdered on behalf of Drljević and the NDH. Đurišić's men later joined Drljević's Montenegrin National Army and withdrew with him towards the Austrian border. In mid-1945, Drljević crossed over into Austria with his wife, and the two ended up in a camp for displaced persons in Judenburg, where they were killed by Chetnik agents seeking to avenge Đurišić's death.Serbian–Montenegrin unionism
Serbian–Montenegrin unionism is a political ideology which arose during Montenegro's affiliation with the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. It advocates Montenegro being in a federal political union with Serbia and opposes Montenegrin independence and separation from Serbia. The relationship between Serbs and Montenegrins is generally identified as being the most amicable of all the peoples of the former Yugoslavia.Treaty of Bucharest (1913)
The Treaty of Bucharest (Romanian: Tratatul de la Bucureşti; Serbian: Bukureštanski mir/ Букурештански мир; Bulgarian: Договорът от Букурещ; Greek: Συνθήκη του Βουκουρεστίου) was concluded on 10 August 1913, by the delegates of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro and Greece. The Treaty was concluded in the aftermath of the Second Balkan War and amended the previous Treaty of London, which ended the First Balkan War. About one month later, the Bulgarians signed a separate border treaty (the Treaty of Constantinople) with the Ottomans, who had regained some territory west of the Enos-Midia Line during the second war.Treaty of London (1913)
The Treaty of London (1913) was signed on 30 May during the London Conference of 1912–13. It dealt with the territorial adjustments arising out of the conclusion of the First Balkan War.Treaty of London (1915)
London Pact (Italian: Patto di Londra), or more correctly, the Treaty of London, 1915, was a secret pact between the Triple Entente and the Kingdom of Italy. The treaty was signed in London on 26 April 1915 by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the French Republic, the Russian Empire, and the Kingdom of Italy. Its intent was to gain the alliance of Italy against its former allies, including the German Empire and Austria-Hungary. The main lure was promising large swaths of Austria-Hungary to the north of Italy and to the east across the Adriatic. Britain also promised funding. Italy promised to enter the war the next month. The alliance with Italy's old enemy Austria had been promoted by some politicians as a realpolitik move and had never been popular with the public. Also, the Allies could easily outbid Austria-Hungary and thereby won a military alliance with 36 million Italians. The secret provisions were published by the Bolsheviks when they came to power in Russia in late 1917.
After the war, British and French leaders refused to fulfil the pact, giving rise to a belief in a so-called "mutilated victory" within Italy, which played a role in determining Italian inter-war expansion. It fueled the rhetoric of Italian irredentism and Italian nationalism before World War II and was a key point in the rise of fascism.
Kingdom of Dalmatia
Banat, Bačka and Baranja
Free State of Fiume
Italian province of Zadar
Fascist Italy and
|Democratic Federal Yugoslavia
Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Consisted of the
Socialist Republics of
| Republic of Slovenia|
Independent State of Croatia
| Republic of Croatiab|
Croatian War of Independence
|Bosnia|| Bosnia and Herzegovinac|
|Vojvodina||Part of the Délvidék region of Hungary||Autonomous Banatd
(part of the German
Territory of the
|Federal Republic of Yugoslavia||State Union of Serbia and Montenegro||Republic of Serbia|| Republic of Serbia|
Includes the autonomous province of Vojvodina
|Serbia||Kingdom of Serbia
|Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia|
|Kosovo||Part of the Kingdom of Serbia
|Mostly annexed by Albania
along with western Macedonia and south-eastern Montenegro
|Republic of Kosovog|
|Metohija||Kingdom of Montenegro|
Metohija controlled by Austria-Hungary 1915–1918
|Montenegro||Protectorate of Montenegrof
|North Macedonia||Part of the Kingdom of Serbia
|Annexed by the Kingdom of Bulgaria
|Republic of North Macedoniah|