Kingdom of Israel (Samaria)

According to the Hebrew Bible, the Kingdom of Israel (Hebrew: מַמְלֶכֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Modern: Mamlekhet Yisra'el, Tiberian: Mamléḵeṯ Yiśrāʼēl) was one of two successor states to the former United Kingdom of Israel and Judah. Historians often refer to the Kingdom of Israel as the "Northern Kingdom" or as the "Kingdom of Samaria" to differentiate it from the Southern Kingdom of Judah.

Some researchers in modern scholarship, incorporating textual criticism and archaeology, have challenged the biblical account that the northern kingdom of Israel broke off from a united monarchy with the southern kingdom of Judah, suggesting instead that the northern Kingdom of Israel developed independently of Judah (a comparatively small and rural area), and that it first reached the political, economic, military and architectural sophistication of a kingdom under the Omride dynasty around 884 BCE.[1]:169–195[2][3]

The Kingdom of Israel existed roughly from 930 BCE until 720 BCE, when it was conquered by the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The major cities of the kingdom were Shechem, Tirzah and Samaria (Shomron).

Kingdom of Israel

מַמְלֶכֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל
930 BCE–720 BCE
Map of Israel and Judah in the 9th century BCE
Map of Israel and Judah in the 9th century BCE
StatusKingdom
CapitalShechem (930 BCE)
Penuel (930–909)
Tirzah (909–880)
Samaria (880–720)
Common languagesHebrew
Religion
Monolatristic or monotheistic Yahwism
Canaanite polytheism
Mesopotamian polytheism
Folk religion
GovernmentMonarchy
Historical eraIron Age
930 BCE
720 BCE
ISO 3166 codeIL
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy)
Neo-Assyrian Empire
Today part ofIsrael
Palestine
Jordan
Lebanon
Syria

Biblical narrative

In the Hebrew Bible, the Kingdom of Israel has been referred to as the "House of Joseph".[4][5] It is also frequently referenced (particularly in poetry) as Ephraim, the tribe whose territory housed the capital cities and the royal families. It has also been referred to as "Israel in Samaria".[6]

According to the Hebrew Bible, the territory of the Kingdom of Israel comprised the territories of the tribes of Zebulun, Issachar, Asher, Naphtali, Dan, Manasseh, Ephraim, Reuben and Gad. Its capital was Samaria according to the Book of Isaiah.

Background

United Monarchy

The United Kingdom of Israel and Judah is said to have existed from about 1030 to about 930 BCE. It was a union of all the twelve Israelite tribes living in the area that presently approximates modern Israel and the other Levantine territories including much of western Jordan, and western Syria.

Division

After the death of Solomon in about 931 BCE, most of the Israelite tribes (ten Northern tribes) except for Judah and Benjamin refused to accept Rehoboam, the son and successor of Solomon, as their king.[7] The rebellion against Rehoboam arose after he refused to lighten the burden of taxation and services that his father had imposed on his subjects.[8]

Jeroboam, who was not of the Davidic line, was sent forth from Egypt by the malcontents.[9] The Tribe of Ephraim and all Israel raised the old cry, "Every man to his tents, O Israel".[10] Rehoboam fled to Jerusalem,[11][12] and in 930 BCE (some date it in 920 BCE), Jeroboam was proclaimed king over all Israel at Shechem. After the revolt at Shechem at first only the tribe of Judah remained loyal to the house of David. But very soon after the tribe of Benjamin joined Judah. The northern kingdom continued to be called the Kingdom of Israel or Israel, while the southern kingdom was called the Kingdom of Judah. 2 Chronicles 15:9[13] also says that members of the tribes of Ephraim, Manasseh and Simeon fled to Judah during the reign of Asa of Judah.

Both Eusebius and Josephus place the division in 997 BCE – lunar dates of Venus can be mistaken as 64 years later (c. 930 BCE). The crossing of the sun over Mars as Tamuz would be 10 July 997 BCE.

History

Early kings and Omride dynasty

Shechem was the first capital of the Kingdom of Israel.[14] Afterwards it was Tirzah.[15] King Omri built his capital in Samaria (1 Kings 16:24), which continued as such until the destruction of the Kingdom by the Assyrians (2 Kings 17:5).

Today, among archaeologists, Samaria is one of the most universally accepted archaeological sites from the biblical period[16] At around 850 BCE, the Mesha Stele, written in Old Hebrew alphabet, records a victory of King Mesha of Moab against king Omri of Israel and his son Ahab.[17]

Relations between the kingdoms of Israel and Judah

For the first sixty years, the kings of Judah tried to re-establish their authority over the northern kingdom, and there was perpetual war between them. For the following eighty years, there was no open war between them, and, for the most part, they were in friendly alliance, co-operating against their common enemies, especially against Damascus.

The conflict between Israel and Judah was resolved when Jehoshaphat, King of Judah, allied himself with the house of Ahab through marriage. Later, Jehosophat's son and successor, Jehoram of Judah, married Ahab's daughter Athaliah, cementing the alliance. However, the sons of Ahab were slaughtered by Jehu following his coup d'état around 840 BCE.

Destruction of the kingdom

Deportation of Jews by Assyrians
Deportation of the Northern Kingdom by the Assyrian Empire

In c. 732 BCE, Pekah of Israel, while allied with Rezin, king of Aram, threatened Jerusalem. Ahaz, king of Judah, appealed to Tiglath-Pileser III, the king of Assyria, for help. After Ahaz paid tribute to Tiglath-Pileser[18] Tiglath-Pileser sacked Damascus and Israel, annexing Aram[19] and territory of the tribes of Reuben, Gad and Manasseh in Gilead including the desert outposts of Jetur, Naphish and Nodab. People from these tribes including the Reubenite leader, were taken captive and resettled in the region of the Khabur River system. Tiglath-Pilesar also captured the territory of Naphtali and the city of Janoah in Ephraim and an Assyrian governor was placed over the region of Naphtali. According to 2 Kings 16:9 and 15:29, the population of Aram and the annexed part of Israel was deported to Assyria.

Israel continued to exist within the reduced territory as an independent kingdom until around 720 BCE, when it was again invaded by Assyria and the rest of the population deported. During the three-year siege of Samaria by the Assyrians, Shalmaneser V died and was succeeded by Sargon II of Assyria, who himself records the capture of that city thus: "Samaria I looked at, I captured; 27,280 men who dwelt in it I carried away" into Assyria. Thus, around 720 BCE, after two centuries, the kingdom of the ten tribes came to an end. The remainder of the northern kingdom was conquered by Sargon II, who captured the capital city Samaria in the territory of Ephraim. He took 27,290 people captive from the city of Samaria resettling some with the Israelites in the Khabur region and the rest in the land of the Medes thus establishing Hebrew communities in Ecbatana and Rages. The Book of Tobit additionally records that Sargon had taken other captives from the northern kingdom to the Assyrian capital of Nineveh, in particular Tobit from the town of Thisbe in Naphtali.

The Hebrew Bible relates that the population of the Kingdom of Israel was exiled, becoming known as the Ten Lost Tribes. To the south, the Tribe of Judah, the Tribe of Simeon (that was "absorbed" into Judah), the Tribe of Benjamin and the people of the Tribe of Levi, who lived among them of the original Israelites nation, remained in the southern Kingdom of Judah. The Kingdom of Judah continued to exist as an independent state until 586 BCE, when it was conquered by the Neo-Babylonian Empire. The Samaritan version to the events claims that actually much of the population of the Northern Kingdom of Israel remained in place upon the Exile, including the Tribes of Naphtali, Menasseh, Benjamin and Levi - being the progenitors of the Samaritans. In their book The Bible Unearthed, authors Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman estimate that only a fifth of the population (about 40,000) were actually resettled out of the area during the two deportation periods under Tiglath-Pileser III and Sargon II.[1]:221 Many of the Northern Tribes also fled south to Jerusalem, which appears to have expanded in size five-fold during this period, requiring a new wall to be built, and a new source of water Siloam to be provided by King Hezekiah.

In medieval Rabbinic fable, the concept of the ten tribes who were taken away from the House of David (who continued the rule of the southern kingdom of Judah), becomes confounded with accounts of the Assyrian deportations leading to the myth of the "Ten Lost Tribes". The recorded history differs from this fable: No record exists of the Assyrians having exiled people from Dan, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun or western Manasseh. Descriptions of the deportation of people from Reuben, Gad, Manasseh in Gilead, Ephraim and Naphtali indicate that only a portion of these tribes were deported and the places to which they were deported are known locations given in the accounts. The deported communities are mentioned as still existing at the time of the composition of the books of Kings and Chronicles and did not disappear by assimilation. 2 Chronicles 30:1-11[20] explicitly mentions northern Israelites who had been spared by the Assyrians, in particular people of Ephraim, Manasseh, Asher, Issachar and Zebulun, and how members of the latter three returned to worship at the Temple in Jerusalem during the reign of Hezekiah.

Royal houses

Genealogy of the kings of Israel and Judah
The genealogy of the kings of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judea, the Kingdom of Israel and the kings of the Kingdom of Judah. Most historians follow either of the older chronologies established by William F. Albright or Edwin R. Thiele, or the newer chronologies of Gershon Galil and Kenneth Kitchen, all of which are shown below. All dates are BC/BCE.
Albright Thiele Galil Kitchen Common/Biblical name Regnal Name and style Notes

The House of Jeroboam

922–901 BCE 931–910 BCE 931–909 BCE 931–911 BCE Jeroboam I ירבעם בֵּן-נבט מלך ישראל
Yerav’am ben Nevat, Melekh Yisra’el
Led the rebellion and divided the kingdoms. Reigned in Israel (Northern Kingdom) for 22 years. Death: Natural Causes
901–900 BCE 910–909 BCE 909–908 BCE 911–910 BCE Nadab נדב בֵּן-ירבעם מלך ישראל
Nadav ben Yerav’am, Melekh Yisra’el
Reigned in Israel for 2 years. Death: Killed by Baasha, son of Ahijah of the house of Issachar, along with his whole family.

The House of Baasha

900–877 BCE 909–886 BCE 908–885 BCE 910–887 BCE Baasha בעשא בֵּן-אחיה מלך ישראל
Ba’asha ben Achiyah, Melekh Yisra’el
Reigned over Israel in Tirzah for 24 years. Death: Natural Causes
877–876 BCE 886–885 BCE 885–884 BCE 887–886 BCE Elah אלה בֵּן-בעשא מלך ישראל
’Elah ben Ba’asha, Melekh Yisra’el
Reigned over Israel in Tirzah for 2 years. Death: Zimri, one of his officials, got him drunk and killed him at his house in Azra.

The House of Zimri

876 BCE 885 BCE 884 BCE 886 BCE Zimri זמרי מלך ישראל
Zimri, Melekh Yisra’el
Reigned over Israel in Tirzah for 7 days. Death: He set his palace on fire when Omri and all the Israelites with him withdrew from Gibbethon and laid siege to Tirzah.

The House of Omri

876–869 BCE 885–874 BCE 884–873 BCE 886–875 BCE Omri עמרי מלך ישראל
’Omri, Melekh Yisra’el
Reigned over Israel in Samaria for 12 years. Death: Natural Causes
869–850 BCE 874–853 BCE 873–852 BCE 875–853 BCE Ahab אחאב בֵּן-עמרי מלך ישראל
Ah’av ben ’Omri, Melekh Yisra’el
Reigned over Israel in Samaria for 22 years. Death: Shot by an archer during the battle at Ramoth Gilead. He died upon his arrival at Samaria.
850–849 BCE 853–852 BCE 852–851 BCE 853–852 BCE Ahaziah אחזיהו בֵּן-אחאב מלך ישראל
’Ahazyahu ben 'Ah’av, Melekh Yisra’el
Reigned over Israel in Samaria for 2 years. Death: He fell through the lattice of his upper room and injured himself. Elijah the prophet told him he would never leave his bed and would die on it.
849–842 BCE 852–841 BCE 851–842 BCE 852–841 BCE Joram יורם בֵּן-אחאב מלך ישראל
Yehoram ben ’Ah’av, Melekh Yisra’el
Reigned over Israel in Samaria for 12 years. Death: Killed by Jehu, the next king of Israel,

The House of Jehu

842–815 BCE 841–814 BCE 842–815 BCE] 841–814 BCE Jehu יהוא בֵּן-נמשי מלך ישראל
Yehu ben Nimshi, Melekh Yisra’el
Reigned over Israel in Samaria for 28 years.[21] Death: Natural Causes
815–801 BCE 814–798 BCE 819–804 BCE 814–806 BCE Jehoahaz יהואחז בֵּן-יהוא מלך ישראל
Yeho’ahaz ben Yehu, Melekh Yisra’el
Reigned over Israel in Samaria for 17 years. Death: Natural Causes
801–786 BCE 798–782 BCE 805–790 BCE 806–791 BCE Jehoash
(Joash)
יואש בֵּן-יואחז מלך ישראל
Yeho’ash ben Yeho’ahaz, Melekh Yisra’el
Reigned over Israel in Samaria for 16 years. Death: Natural Causes
786–746 BCE 782–753 BCE 790–750 BCE 791–750 BCE Jeroboam II ירבעם בֵּן-יואש מלך ישראל
Yerav’am ben Yeho’ash, Melekh Yisra’el
Reigned over Israel in Samaria for 41 years. Death: Natural Causes. The Book of Jonah or Jonah's journey to Nineveh (when he was swallowed by a whale or fish) happened at that time.
746 BCE 753 BCE 750–749 BCE 750 BCE  Zachariah זכריה בֵּן-ירבעם מלך ישראל
Zekharyah ben Yerav’am, Melekh Yisra’el
Reigned over Israel in Samaria for 6 months. Death: Shallum son of Jabesh killed him in front of the people and succeeded as king.

The House of Shallum

745 BCE 752 BCE 749 BCE 749 BCE Shallum שלם בֵּן-יבש מלך ישראל
Shallum ben Yavesh, Melekh Yisra’el
Reigned over Israel in Samaria for 1 month. Death: Menahem son of Gadi attacked Shallum and assassinated him.

The House of Menahem (also known as the House of Gadi)

745–738 BCE 752–742 BCE 749–738 BCE 749–739 BCE Menahem מְנַחֵם בֵּן-גדי מלך ישראל
Menachem ben Gadi, Melekh Yisra’el
Reigned over Israel in Samaria for 10 years. Death: Natural Causes
738–737 BCE 742–740 BCE 738–736 BCE 739–737 BCE Pekahiah פקחיה בֵּן-מְנַחֵם מלך ישראל
Pekahyah ben Menahem, Melekh Yisra’el
Reigned over Israel in Samaria for 2 years. Death: Pekah son of Remaliah, one of the chief officers, took 50 men with him and assassinated the king in his palace at Samaria.

The House of Pekah

737–732 BCE 740–732 BCE 736–732 BCE 737–732 BCE Pekah פקח בֵּן-רמליהו מלך ישראל
Pekah ben Remalyahu, Melekh Yisra’el
Reigned over Israel in Samaria for 20 years. Death: Hoshea son of Elah conspired against him and assassinated him.

The House of Hoshea

732–722 BCE 732–722 BCE 732–722 BCE 732–722 BCE] Hoshea הושע בֵּן-אלה מלך ישראל
Hoshe’a ben ’Elah, Melekh Yisra’el
Reigned over Israel in Samaria for 9 years.[22] Death: King Shalmanser attacked and captured Samaria. He charged Hoshea of treason and he put him in prison, then, he deported the Israelites to Assyria.

Religion

The religious climate of the Kingdom of Israel appears to have followed two major trends. The first, that of worship of Yahweh, and the second that of worship of Baal as detailed in the Hebrew Bible (1 Kings 16:31) and in the Baal cycle discovered at Ugarit.

According to the Hebrew Bible Jeroboam built two places of worship, one at Bethel and one at far northern Dan, as alternatives to the Temple in Jerusalem.[23](1 Kings 12:29) He did not want the people of his kingdom to have religious ties to Jerusalem, the capital city of the rival Kingdom of Judah. He erected golden bulls at the entrance to the Temples to represent the national god.[24] The Hebrew Bible, written from the perspective of scribes in Jerusalem, referred to these acts as the way of Jeroboam or the errors of Jeroboam.[24] (1 Kings 12:26-29)

The Bible states that Ahab allowed the cult worship of Baal to become an acceptable religion of the kingdom. His wife Jezebel was a devotee to Baal worship. (1 Kings 16:31)

List of proposed Assyrian references to Kingdom of Israel (Samaria)

The table below lists all the historical references to the Kingdom of Israel (Samaria) in Assyrian records.[25] King Omri's name takes the Assyrian shape of "Humri", his kingdom or dynasty that of Bit Humri or alike - the "House of Humri/Omri".

Assyrian King Inscription Year Transliteration Translation
Shalmaneser III Kurkh Monoliths 853 BCE KUR sir-'i-la-a-a "Israel"
Shalmaneser III Black Obelisk, Calah Fragment, Kurba'il Stone, Ashur Stone 841 BCE mar Hu-um-ri-i "[Bit ]-Humrite"
Adad-nirari III Tell al-Rimah Stela 803 BCE KUR Sa-me-ri-na-a-a "land of Samaria"
Adad-nirari III Nimrud Slab 803 BCE KUR <Bit>-Hu-um-ri-i "the 'land of Bit-Humri"
Tiglath-Pileser III Layard 45b+ III R 9,1 740 BCE [KUR sa-me-ri-i-na-a-a] ["land of Samaria"]
Tiglath-Pileser III Iran Stela 739–738 BCE KUR sa-m[e]-ri-i-na-a-[a] "land of Samaria"
Tiglath-Pileser III Layard 50a + 50b + 67a 738–737 BCE URU sa-me-ri-na-a-a "city of Sarnaria"
Tiglath-Pileser III Layard 66 732–731 BCE URU Sa-me-ri-na "city of Sarnaria")
Tiglath-Pileser III III R 10,2 731 BCE KUR E Hu-um-ri-a "land of Bit-Humri"
Tiglath-Pileser III ND 4301 + 4305 730 BCE KUR E Hu-um-ri-a "land of Bit-Humri"
Shalmaneser V Babylonian Chronicle ABC1 725 BCE URU Sa-ma/ba-ra-'-in "city of Sarnaria"
Sargon II Nimrud Prism, Great Summary Inscription 720 BCE URU Sa-me-ri-na "city of Samerina"
Sargon II Palace Door, Small Summary Inscription, Cylinder Inscription, Bull Inscription 720 BCE KUR Bit-Hu-um-ri-a "land of Bit-Humri"

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2002) The Bible Unearthed : Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-684-86912-8
  2. ^ Kuhrt, Amiele (1995). The Ancient Near East. Routledge. p. 438. ISBN 978-0-41516-762-8.
  3. ^ "The Bible and Interpretation - David, King of Judah (Not Israel)". www.bibleinterp.com.
  4. ^ *Zechariah 10:6
  5. ^ *II Samuel 2:10
  6. ^ 1 Kings 22:51 and many subsequent passages
  7. ^ 1 Kings 12:17-22
  8. ^ 1 Kings 12:4, 1 Kings 12:14
  9. ^ 1 Kings 12:2-3
  10. ^ 2Samuel 20:1
  11. ^ 1 Kings 12:1-18
  12. ^ 2 Chronicles 10
  13. ^ 2 Chronicles 15:9
  14. ^ 1 Kings 12:25
  15. ^ 1 Kings 14:17
  16. ^ See Yohanan Aharoni, et al. (1993) The Macmillan Bible Atlas, p. 94, Macmillan Publishing: New York; and Amihai Mazar (1992) The Archaeology of the Land of the Bible: 10,000 – 586 B.C.E, p. 404, New York: Doubleday, see pp. 406-410 for discussion of archaeological significance of Shomron (Samaria) under Omride Dynasty.
  17. ^ 2 Kings 3
  18. ^ 2 Kings 16:7-9
  19. ^ Lester L. Grabbe (2007). Ancient Israel: What Do We Know and How Do We Know It?. New York: T&T Clark. p. 134. ISBN 978-05-67-11012-1.
  20. ^ 2 Chronicles 30:1-18
  21. ^ Considered to be a contemporary of the Assyrian King Shalmaneser III (858–824 BC) to whom he paid tribute. This is based on an inscription on The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III showing "Yaua" son of Omri paying tribute, dated to 841 BCE.
  22. ^ Paid tribute to the Assyrian King Shalmaneser V (727–722 BCE) but rebelled in 725 BCE. Shalmaneser besieged the capital, Samaria, but died shortly before the fall of the city. His brother Sargon II (722–705 BCE) completed the siege with success in 722. Some of the population of the Northern Kingdom was exiled to other parts of the Assyrian Empire and new population groups were resettled in the new Assyrian province of Samaria. A small group of people fled south to take refuge in Judah.
  23. ^ Jonathan S. Greer (2015) "The Sanctuaries at Dan and Bethel"
  24. ^ a b "Israelite Temple", Tel Dan Excavations
  25. ^ Kelle, Brad (2002), "What's in a Name? Neo-Assyrian Designations for the Northern Kingdom and Their Implications for Israelite History and Biblical Interpretation", Journal of Biblical Literature, 121 (4): 639–646, JSTOR 3268575

External links

Assyrian captivity

The Assyrian captivity (or the Assyrian exile) is the period in the history of Ancient Israel and Judah during which several thousand Israelites of ancient Samaria were resettled as captives by Assyria. This is one of the many instances of forcible relocations implemented by the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The Northern Kingdom of Israel was conquered by the Neo-Assyrian monarchs, Tiglath-Pileser III (Pul) and Shalmaneser V. The later Assyrian rulers Sargon II and his son and successor, Sennacherib, were responsible for finishing the twenty-year demise of Israel's northern ten-tribe kingdom, although they did not overtake the Southern Kingdom. Jerusalem was besieged, but not taken. The tribes forcibly resettled by Assyria later became known as the Ten Lost Tribes.

Battle of Qarqar

The Battle of Qarqar (or Ḳarḳar) was fought in 853 BC, when the army of Assyria led by king Shalmaneser III encountered an allied army of eleven kings at Qarqar, led by Hadadezer (also called Adad-idr and possibly to be identified with Benhadad II) of Damascus and King Ahab of Israel. This battle, fought during the 854 BC–846 BC Assyrian Conquest of Syria, is notable for having a larger number of combatants than any previous battle, and for being the first instance in which some peoples enter recorded history (such as the Arabs). The battle is recorded on the Kurkh Monolith. The ancient town of Qarqar at which the battle took place has generally been identified with the modern-day archaeological site of Tell Qarqur near the village of Qarqur in north-western Syria.

According to an inscription later erected by Shalmaneser, he had started his annual campaign, leaving Nineveh on the 14th day of Iyar. He crossed both the Tigris and Euphrates without incident, receiving the submission and tribute of several cities along the way, including Aleppo. Once past Aleppo he encountered his first resistance from troops of Irhuleni, king of Hamath, whom he defeated; in retribution, he plundered both the palaces and the cities of Irhuleni's kingdom. Continuing his march after having sacked Qarqar, he encountered the allied forces near the Orontes River.

Bethel

Bethel (Ugaritic: bt il, meaning "House of El" or "House of God", Hebrew: בֵּית אֵל ḇêṯ’êl, also transliterated Beth El, Beth-El, Beit El; Greek: Βαιθηλ; Latin: Bethel) is a toponym often used in the Hebrew Bible. At first, it was a place where Jacob dreamt of seeing angels and God, which he therefore named Bethel, which means "House of God." The name is further used for a border city located between the territory of the Israelite tribe of Benjamin and that of the tribe of Ephraim, which first belonged to the Benjaminites and was later conquered by the Ephraimites.

Eusebius of Caesarea and Jerome describe Bethel in their time as a small village that lay 12 Roman miles north of Jerusalem, to the right or east of the road leading to Neapolis.Most academics identify Bethel with the Arab West Bank village Beitin, a minority opinion preferring El-Bireh.Ten years after the 1967 Six-Day War, the biblical name was applied to the Israeli settlement of Beit El, constructed adjacent to Beitin.

In several countries—particularly in the US—the name has been given to various locations (see Bethel (disambiguation)).

Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III

The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III is a black limestone Assyrian sculpture with many scenes in bas-relief and inscriptions. It comes from Nimrud (ancient Kalhu), in northern Iraq, and commemorates the deeds of King Shalmaneser III (reigned 858–824 BC). It is on display at the British Museum in London, and several other museums have cast replicas.

It is the most complete Assyrian obelisk yet discovered, and is historically significant because it is thought to display the earliest ancient depiction of a biblical figure – Jehu, King of Israel. The traditional identification of "Yaw" as Jehu has been questioned by some scholars, who proposed that the inscription refers to another king, Jehoram of Israel. Its reference to Parsua is also the first known reference to the Persians.

Tribute offerings are shown being brought from identifiable regions and peoples. It was erected as a public monument in 825 BC at a time of civil war, in the central square of Nimrud, close to the much earlier White Obelisk of Ashurnasirpal I. It was discovered by archaeologist Sir Austen Henry Layard in 1846 and is now in the British Museum.

Chronicles of the Kings of Israel

The Chronicles of the Kings of Israel is a book that gives a more detailed account of the reigns of the kings of ancient Kingdom of Israel than that presented in the Hebrew Bible, and may have been the source from which parts of the biblical account were drawn. The book was likely compiled by or derived from the kings of Israel's own scribes, and is likely the source for the basic facts presented in the Bible.

The book is referred to a number of times in the Hebrew Bible, but was either not included in the corpus of the biblical text or was removed from it at some stage. The book is counted as one of the Lost books of the Old Testament. This text is sometimes called The Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Israel or The Book of the Annals of the Kings of Israel.

A complementary book detailing the reigns of the kings of ancient Judah is the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah, a book which has also been lost. Another lost book dealing with the reigns of the kings of ancient Israel is the Book of the Kings of Judah and Israel. This book is referred to in 2 Chronicles and may be the same as the other two Chronicles named in Kings.

Jehoash of Israel

Jehoash (Hebrew: יהואש Yəhō’āš or יואש Yō’āš; Latin: Joas; fl. c. 790 BC), whose name means “Yahweh has given,” was a king of the ancient northern Kingdom of Israel (Samaria) and the son of Jehoahaz. He was the 12th king of Israel and reigned for 16 years. William F. Albright has dated his reign to 801 BC – 786 BC, while E. R. Thiele offers the dates 798 BC – 782 BC. When he ascended the throne, the Kingdom of Israel was suffering from the predations of the Arameans, whose king Hazael was reducing the amount of land controlled by Israel.

Jeroboam's Revolt

Jeroboam's Revolt (Hebrew: יִפְשְׁעוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּבֵית דָּוִד, Modern: Yifš'u Yisraʾel B'veit Dāvíd, Tiberian: Yip̄š'ú Yiśrāʾēl Bəḇēiṯ Dāwîḏ, 'Israel's revolt against the House of David') was an armed insurrection against Rehoboam, king of the United Monarchy of Israel, and subsequently the Kingdom of Judah, lead by Jeroboam in the late 10th century BCE, as described by the First Book of Kings and the Second Book of Chronicles of the Hebrew Bible. The conflict, referring to the independence of the Kingdom of Samaria and the subsequent civil war during Jeroboam's rule, began shortly after the death of Solomon and lasted until the Battle of Mount Zemaraim. The conflict began due to conflict under the rule of Solomon's successor, his son Rehoboam, and was waged with the goal of breaking away from the United Monarchy of Israel. Though this goal was achieved very early on in the conflict, the war continued throughout the duration of Rehoboam's reign and well into the reign of his son, Abijah of Judah, who defeated the armies of Jeroboam but failed to reunite the kingdoms.Jeroboam had fled to Egypt decades prior to the war after he was discovered to be plotting to rule over ten of the twelve Tribes of Israel, and lived under the protection of the pharaoh Shishak, probably Shoshenq I. Following the news of Solomon's death in 931 BCE, Jeroboam ventured back to the kingdoms of Israel, now under the rule of Solomon's son Rehoboam. Rehoboam's rule had been comparatively less appreciated than his father's, having been advised to show no weakness to the people, and to tax them even more. Jeroboam, as part of a delegation, went before Rehoboam and petitioned for a cap on taxes, which Rehoboam refused. Following the rejection, ten of the tribes withdrew their allegiance to the house of David and proclaimed Jeroboam their king, forming Samaria. Only the tribes of Judah and Benjamin remained loyal to Rehoboam in the new kingdom of Judah.The Battle of Mount Zemaraim in c. 913 BCE proved to be Jeroboam's final defeat, as the armies of Rehoboam's son Abijam reportedly killed half a million of Jeroboam's soldiers and captured the important Samarian centers of Bethel, Jeshanah, and Ephron, with their surrounding villages. Following this defeat, Jeroboam posed little threat to the Davidic kingdom, and died three years later. Despite defeating the separatist forces of the ten rebel tribes, the kingdoms of Judah and Samaria failed to be reunified in the wake of the war's end, and remained increasingly divided until being destroyed by invaders in 586 BCE and 720 BCE respectively.

Jewish state (disambiguation)

The Jewish state refers to the modern-day state of Israel.

Jewish state may also refer to:

Proposals for a Jewish state

Homeland for the Jewish peopleNamesThe Jewish State, or Der Judenstaat, a book by Theodor Herzl

Jewish State (ship), or USCGC Northland (WPG-49), ship of the United States Coast GuardCountriesState of Israel (1948-)

Jewish Autonomous Oblast (1934-), of the Soviet Union

Khazar Khaganate (c. 8th to 10th centuries CE)

Sassanid Jewish Commonwealth - vassal state in Palestine (610 to 615 CE) of the Sassanid Empire

Yehud Medinata - province of the Achaemenid Empire (539 BCE - 332 BCE)

Khaybar (- 629 CE)

Himyarite Kingdom based in Yemen (500 CE - 525 CE)

Palaestina Prima (390 CE - 636 CE)

Syria Palaestina (135 CE - 390 CE)

Judea (Roman province) (6 CE - 135 CE)

Adiabene (15 CE - 116 CE)

Kingdom of Semien (c. 4th century CE - 1627)

Herodian Kingdom (37 BCE - 44 CE)

Hasmonean Kingdom (140 BCE - 37 BCE)

Second Jewish Commonwealth (530 BCE - 70 CE)

Kingdom of Judah (930 BCE - 582 BCE)

Kingdom of Israel (Samaria) (930 BCE - 722 BCE)

Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy) (1020 BCE - 930 BCE)

the states of the 12 Tribes, see Israelites (c.1200 BCE - 1020 BCE)

Kingdom of Israel

The Kingdom of Israel may refer to any of the historical kingdoms of ancient Israel, including:

Fully independent (c. 567 years)

Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy) (1050–931 BCE), the kingdom established by the Israelites and uniting them under a single king

Kingdom of Israel (Samaria) (931–722 BCE), the kingdom of northern Israel

Kingdom of Judah (931–586 BCE), kingdom of southern Israel

Hasmonean Kingdom (140–37 BCE), kingdom ruled by the Hasmoneans or "Maccabees", primarily known as Judea (or cognates) but also named Israel in the First Book of MaccabeesSelf-governing region (c. 134 years)

Yehud Medinata (539–332 BCE), autonomous province of the Persian Achaemenid Empire, translated as "the province of Judah" or Israel

Herodian Kingdom, client kingdom ruled by Herod the Great (37–4 BCE), and to varying degrees by his heirs (the last Agrippa II lived to c. 100 CE), primarily known as Roman Judea (or cognates) but also called Israel in the Gospels and Book of Acts

Kings of Israel and Judah

This article is an overview of the kings of the United Kingdom of Israel as well as those of its successor states and classical period kingdoms ruled by the Hasmonean dynasty and Herodian dynasty.

In contemporary scholarship, the united monarchy is debated, due to a lack of archaeological evidence for it. It is generally accepted that a "House of David" existed, but many believe that David could have only been the king or chieftain of Judah, which was likely small, and that the northern kingdom was a separate development. There are some dissenters to this view, including those who support the traditional narrative.

Kurkh Monoliths

The Kurkh Monoliths are two Assyrian stelae that contain a description of the reigns of Ashurnasirpal II and his son Shalmaneser III. The Monoliths were discovered in 1861 by a British archaeologist John George Taylor, who was the British Consul-General stationed in the Ottoman Eyalet of Kurdistan, in a town called Kurkh, which is now known as Üçtepe, in the district of Bismil, in the province of Diyarbakir of Turkey. Both stelae were donated by Taylor to the British Museum in 1863.The Shalmaneser III monolith contains a description of the Battle of Qarqar at the end. This description contains the name "A-ha-ab-bu Sir-ila-a-a" which is generally accepted to be a reference to Ahab king of Israel, although it is the only reference to the term "Israel" in Assyrian and Babylonian records, which usually refer to the Northern Kingdom as the "House of Omri", a fact brought up by some scholars who dispute the proposed translation. It is also one of four known contemporary inscriptions containing the name of Israel, the others being the Merneptah Stele, the Tel Dan Stele, and the Mesha Stele. This description is also the oldest document that mentions the Arabs.According to the inscription Ahab committed a force of 2,000 chariots and 10,000 foot soldiers to the Assyrian war coalition.

Omrides

The Omrides, Omrids or House of Omri were a ruling dynasty of the Kingdom of Israel (Samaria) founded by King Omri. According to the Bible, the Omride rulers of Israel were Omri, Ahab and Ahab's sons Ahaziah and Jehoram. Ahab's daughter (or perhaps sister) Athaliah also became queen regnant of the Kingdom of Judah.

Five Assyrian records, some of which with known duplicates, are known to refer to either "Land of Omri" or "House of Omri". An archaeological reference to Omri and his unnamed son is found in the Mesha Stele, the only Northwest Semitic inscription known to reference this name.

Penuel

In the Hebrew Bible, Penuel (or Pniel, Pnuel; Hebrew: פְּנוּאֵל) is a place not far from Succoth, on the east of the Jordan River and south of the river Jabbok.

It is also called Peniel "Face of God" by Jacob:

"It is because I saw God face to face, and yet my life was spared." (Gen. 32:30 NIV)Here Jacob wrestled (Gen. 32:24-32) "with a man" ("the angel", Hos. 12:4) "till the break of day." This episode resulted in God (or the angel) changing Jacob's name to "Israel" (Gen. 32:28) which literally means, "He who struggles with God."

A town was afterward built there (Judg. 8:8; 1 Kings 12:25). The men of this place refused to give bread to Gideon and his 300 men when they were in pursuit of the Midianites (Judg. 8:1-21). On his return, Gideon tore down the tower there and killed all the men of the city.

When the Northern Kingdom of Israel broke away from the United Monarchy c. 930 BCE, Jeroboam, its first king, established his capital in Shechem. A short time later, he left Shechem and fortified Penuel, declaring it as his new capital (I Kings 12:25). He and his son, Nadab, ruled there, until Baasha seized the throne in 909 BCE and moved the capital to Tirzah (I Kings 15:25-34).

Pnuel is a common name given to males in the Assyrian culture.

Samaria

Samaria (; Hebrew: שומרון‎, Standard Šoməron, Tiberian Šōmərôn; Arabic: السامرة‎, as-Sāmirah – also known as Jibāl Nāblus, "Nablus Mountains") is a historical and biblical name used for the central region of the ancient Land of Israel, also part of Palestine, bordered by Galilee to the north and Judaea to the south. For the beginning of the Common Era, Josephus set the Mediterranean Sea as its limit to the west, and the Jordan River as its limit to the east. Its territory largely corresponds to the biblical allotments of the tribe of Ephraim and the western half of Manasseh; after the death of Solomon and the splitting-up of his empire into the southern Kingdom of Judah and the northern Kingdom of Israel, this territory constituted the southern part of the Kingdom of Israel. The border between Samaria and Judea is set at the latitude of Ramallah.The name "Samaria" is derived from the ancient city of Samaria, the second capital of the northern Kingdom of Israel. The name likely began being used for the entire kingdom not long after the town of Samaria had become Israel's capital, but it is first documented after its conquest by Sargon II of Assyria, who turned the kingdom into the province of Samerina.Samaria was revived as an administrative term in 1967, when the West Bank was defined by Israeli officials as the Judea and Samaria Area, of which the entire area north of the Jerusalem District is termed as Samaria.

Jordan ceded its claim to the area to the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in August 1988. In 1994, control of Areas 'A' (full civil and security control by the Palestinian Authority) and 'B' (Palestinian civil control and joint Israeli-Palestinian security control) were transferred by Israel to the Palestinian Authority. The Palestinian Authority and the international community do not recognize the term "Samaria"; in modern times, the territory is generally known as part of the West Bank.

Samaria (ancient city)

Samaria (Hebrew: שומרון, Shomron; Ancient Greek: Σαμάρεια, Samareia; Arabic: السامرة‎, as-Samira) was an ancient city in the Land of Israel. It was the capital of the northern Kingdom of Israel in the 9th and 8th centuries BC. The ruins of the city are located in the Samaria mountains of the West Bank, almost 10 km to the northwest of Nablus.

Samaritans

The Samaritans (; Samaritan Hebrew: ࠔࠠࠌࠝࠓࠩࠉࠌ, translit. Shamerim (שַמֶרִים), "Guardians/Keepers/Watchers (of the Torah)") are an ethnoreligious group originating from the Israelites (or Hebrews) of the Ancient Near East.

Ancestrally, Samaritans claim descent from the tribe of Ephraim and tribe of Manasseh (two sons of Joseph) as well as from the Levites, who have links to ancient Samaria (now constituting the majority of the territory known as the West Bank) from the period of their entry into Canaan, while some Orthodox Jews suggest that it was from the beginning of the Babylonian captivity up to the Samaritan polity under the rule of Baba Rabba. Samaritans used to include descendants whose ancestry was ascribed to the Benjamin tribe, but this line became extinct in the 1960s. According to Samaritan tradition, the split between them and the Judean-led Southern Israelites began during the biblical time of the priest Eli when the Southern Israelites split off from the central Israelite tradition, as they perceive it.In the Talmud, a central post-exilic religious text of Rabbinic Judaism, the Samaritans are called Cutheans (Hebrew: כּוּתִים‎, Kutim), referring to the ancient city of Kutha, geographically located in what is today Iraq. In the biblical account, however, Kuthah was one of several cities from which people were brought to Samaria, and they worshiped Nergal. Modern genetics partially support both the claims of the Samaritans and the account in the Hebrew Bible (and Talmud), suggesting that the genealogy of the Samaritans lies in some combination of these two accounts. Genetically, modern Samaritan populations are found to have "much greater affinity" genetically to Jews than to neighbouring Palestinian Arabs. This suggests that the Samaritans remained a genetically isolated population.The Samaritans are adherents of Samaritanism, a religion closely related to Judaism. Samaritans believe that their worship, which is based on the Samaritan Pentateuch, is the true religion of the ancient Israelites from before the Babylonian captivity, preserved by those who remained in the Land of Israel, as opposed to Judaism, which they see as a related but altered and amended religion, brought back by those returning from the Babylonian Captivity. The Samaritans believe that Mount Gerizim was the original Holy Place of Israel from the time that Joshua conquered Canaan. The major issue between Jews and Samaritans has always been the location of the Chosen Place to worship God: The Temple Mount of Moriah in Jerusalem according to Judaism or Mount Gerizim according to Samaritanism.Once a large community, the Samaritan population appears to have shrunk significantly in the wake of the bloody suppression of the Samaritan Revolts (mainly in 529 CE and 555 CE) against the Byzantine Empire. Conversion to Christianity under the Byzantines also reduced their numbers. Conversions to Islam took place as well, and by the mid–Middle Ages, Benjamin of Tudela estimated only around 1,900 Samaritans remained in Palestine and Syria.The present-day population has been consistently divided between Qiryat Luza on Mount Gerizim and the city of Holon, just outside Tel Aviv. Most Samaritans in Holon and Qiryat Luza today speak Hebrew and Arabic. For liturgical purposes, Samaritan Hebrew, Samaritan Aramaic, and Arabic are used, all written with the Samaritan alphabet, a variant of the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, which is distinct from the Hebrew alphabet. Hebrew and later Aramaic were languages in use by the Jewish and Samaritan inhabitants of Judea (the name by which Israel was known during part of the Second Temple era) before the Roman exile.Samaritans have a stand-alone religious status in Israel, and there are occasional conversions from Judaism to Samaritanism and vice versa due to marriages. While the Israeli Rabbinic authorities consider Samaritanism to be a branch of Judaism, the Chief Rabbinate of Israel requires Samaritans to officially go through a formal conversion to Judaism in order to be recognized as Halakhic Jews. One example is Israeli TV personality Sofi Tsedaka, who formally converted to Rabbinic Judaism at the age of 18. Samaritans with Israeli citizenship are obligated to undertake mandatory service in the Israel Defense Forces, while those with dual Israeli-Palestinian citizenship (living in Qiryat Luza) are generally exempted.

Shechem

Shechem , also spelled Sichem (; Hebrew: שְׁכָם / שְׁכֶם Standard Šəḵem Tiberian Šeḵem, "shoulder"), was a Canaanite city mentioned in the Amarna letters, and is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as an Israelite city of the tribe of Manasseh and the first capital of the Kingdom of Israel. Traditionally associated with Nablus, it is now identified with the nearby site of Tell Balata in Balata al-Balad in the West Bank.

Ten Lost Tribes

The ten lost tribes were the ten of the Twelve Tribes of Israel that were said to have been deported from the Kingdom of Israel after its conquest by the Neo-Assyrian Empire circa 722 BCE. These are the tribes of Reuben, Simeon, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, Manasseh, and Ephraim. Claims of descent from the "lost" tribes have been proposed in relation to many groups, and some religions espouse a messianic view that the tribes will return.

In the 7th and 8th centuries CE, the return of the lost tribes was associated with the concept of the coming of the messiah.The Jewish historian Josephus (37–100 CE) wrote that "the ten tribes are beyond the Euphrates till now, and are an immense multitude and not to be estimated in numbers".Zvi Ben-Dor Benite, a professor of Middle Eastern history, states: "The fascination with the tribes has generated, alongside ostensibly nonfictional scholarly studies, a massive body of fictional literature and folktale." Anthropologist Shalva Weil has documented various differing tribes and peoples claiming affiliation to the Lost Tribes throughout the world.

Tirzah (ancient city)

Tirzah (Hebrew: תִּרְצָה) was a town in the Samarian highlands NE of Shechem; it is generally identified with Tell el-Far'ah (North), northeast of current-day Nablus, in the immediate vicinity of the Palestinian village of Wadi al-Far'a and the Far'a refugee camp, although Conder and Kitchener suggested that the ancient city may have actually been where Tayasir (Teiâsīr) is now located, based on its phonemes. Conversely, biblical researchers, Robinson and Guérin, suggested identifying the town with Talluza. The present identification is located in a valley named Wadi Far'a in Arabic and Tirzah Valley or Nahal Tirza in Hebrew.

The Biblical and Historical Israelites
Israel
(united monarchy)
Israel(northern kingdom)
Judah
(southern kingdom)
Judea
(Hasmonean dynasty)
See also
Ancient states and regions in the history of the Levant
Bronze Age
Iron Age
Classical Age

Languages

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