Kingdom of Iberia

Kingdom of Iberia may refer to:

Also identified as "Kingdom of Iberia" or "Iberian kingdom" may refer to:

See also

  • Not to be confused with the Iberian Union in the Iberian Peninsula.
Arsacid dynasty of Iberia

The Arsacid dynasty or Arshakiani (Georgian: არშაკიანი Arshak’iani), a branch of the Arsacid dynasty of Parthia, ruled the ancient Kingdom of Iberia (Kartli, eastern Georgia) from c. 189 until 284 AD. The Arsacid dynasty of Iberia was succeeded by the Chosroid dynasty.

Bagratid Iberia

Bagratid Iberia (since 888) refers to a Georgian monarchy under the Bagrationi dynasty ruling over political entities concentrated in Georgian historical region of Tao-Klarjeti, succeeding the Principality of Iberia, in what is now parts of the provinces of Erzurum, Artvin, Ardahan and Kars in north-eastern Turkey as well parts of modern southwestern Georgia.

Tao and Klarjeti were originally only the names of the two most important provinces in Kingdom of Iberia, or upper Iberia that stretched from the Iberian Gates in the south and to the Lesser Caucasus in the north. Historically, the area comprised the following provinces: West of the Arsiani Mountains were Tao, Klarjeti, Nigali, and Shavsheti, to the east lay Samtskhe, Erusheti, Javakheti, Artaani, Abotsi, Kola and Basiani. The landscape is characterised by mountains and the river-systems of the Çoruh and the Kura. The region played a crucial role in the unification of all Georgian lands and principalities into a single feudal state, Kingdom of Georgia in 1008.

Christianization of Iberia

The Christianization of Iberia (Georgian: ქართლის გაქრისტიანება kartlis gakrist'ianeba) refers to the spread of Christianity in the early 4th century by the sermon of Saint Nino in an ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli, known as Iberia in classical antiquity, which resulted in declaring it as a state religion by then-pagan King Mirian III of Iberia. Per Sozomen, this led the king's "large and warlike barbarian nation to confess Christ and renounce the religion of their fathers". The king would become the main sponsor, architect, initiator and an organizing power of all building processes. Per Socrates of Constantinople, the "Iberians first embraced the Christian faith" alongside the Abyssinians, but most probably Kartli would become a second state after the Kingdom of Armenia, its longtime southern neighbor, that officially embraced the new religion. The Georgian and Armenian monarchs were among the first anywhere in the world to convert to a Christian faith. Prior to the Christological controversies their Caucasian Christianity was extraordinarily inclusive, pluralistic and flexible that only saw the rigid ecclesiological hierarchies established much later, particularly as "national" churches crystallized from the 6th century. Despite the tremendous diversity of the region, the Christianization process was a pan-regional and a cross-cultural phenomenon in the Caucasus. The Jews of Mtskheta, the royal capital of Kartli, that did play a significant role in the Christianization of the kingdom, would give a strong impetus to deepen the ties between the Georgian monarchy and the Holy Land leading to an increasing presence of Georgians in Palestine, as the activities of Peter the Iberian confirm, including the oldest attested Georgian Bir el Qutt inscriptions found in the Judaean Desert.Iberia was a factor in a competitive diplomacy of the Roman and Sasanian Empires, and on occasion became a major player in proxy wars between the two empires. Iberia, a Georgian monarchy, that shared many institutions and concepts with the neighboring Iranians, being physically connected to their "Iranian Commonwealth" since the Achaemenid period through commerce, war or marriage, its adoption of Christianity meant that King Mirian III made a cultural and historical choice with profound international implications, though his decision was never tied with the Roman diplomatic initiatives. Iberia, from its Hellenistic-era establishment to the conversion of the crown, embarked on a new multi-phased process that took centuries to complete, resulting in the emergence of a strong Georgian identity.

Georgian campaign of Pompey

Georgian campaign of Pompey (Georgian: პომპეუსის ლაშქრობა საქართველოში) was a military campaign led by Pompey that took place in 65 BC and was a consequence of the third Mithridatic War fought over Georgian lands and its neighboring frontiers. Rome sought to expand its influence and establish itself as the overlord of the Middle East. After conquering the Kingdom of Pontus and receiving the subjugation of Tigranes II of Armenia the Romans marched on the Kingdom of Iberia, whose king, Artoces had been an ally of Mithridates VI of Pontus, Rome's premier enemy during the 80's, 70's and early 60's BC.

Grapevine cross

The grapevine cross (Georgian: ჯვარი ვაზისა, Jvari Vazisa), also known as the Georgian cross or Saint Nino's cross, is a major symbol of the Georgian Orthodox Church and dates from the 4th century AD, when Christianity became the official religion in the kingdom of Iberia (Kartli).

It is recognisable by the slight drooping of its horizontal arms. Traditional accounts credit Saint Nino, a Cappadocian woman who preached Christianity in Iberia (corresponding to modern eastern Georgia) early in the 4th century, with this unusual shape of cross. The legend has it that she received the grapevine cross from the Virgin Mary (or, alternatively, she created it herself on the way to Mtskheta) and secured it by entwining with her own hair. Nino came with this cross on her mission to Georgia. However, the familiar representation of the cross, with its peculiar drooping arms, did not appear until the early modern era.

According to traditional accounts, the cross of St. Nino was kept at Svetitskhoveli Cathedral in Mtskheta until 541. During the Persian invasions it was taken to Armenia and stayed there until David IV of Georgia recovered the Armenian city of Ani from the Muslims in 1124, and brought the cross to Mtskheta. King Vakhtang III of Georgia (1303-1307) enshrined the cross in a special envelope, decorated with the scenes from St. Nino's life. During the 1720s, when Georgia was subjected to Persian and Ottoman invasions, the cross was taken to safer areas, to Ananuri in highland Georgia. From there, the Georgian bishop Timothy brought the cross to the émigré Georgian prince Bakar, residing in Moscow and then in Lyskovo. The Georgian king Erekle II tried to recover the relic for Georgia from Bakar's family, to no avail. In 1801, Bakar's grandson Georgy presented the cross to the Russian tsar Alexander I, who returned it to Georgia in 1802 on the occasion of Georgia's incorporation within the Russian Empire. Since then, the cross has been preserved in the Sioni Cathedral in Tbilisi, Georgia.

Iberian

Iberian refers to Iberia, which has two basic meanings:

Someone or something originating in the Iberian Peninsula, namely from Spain, Portugal and Andorra.

Anything related to, or originating from the Kingdom of Iberia, an exonym for the Georgian kingdom of Kartli.

Iviron monastery, Georgian-built monastery in Greece on Mount Athos

Iberian War

The Iberian War was fought from 526 to 532 between the Byzantine Empire and Sassanid Empire over the eastern Georgian kingdom of Iberia.

King of Iberia

This list is part of the larger set of lists of Georgian monarchs.

Kingdom of Iberia (antiquity)

In Greco-Roman geography, Iberia (Ancient Greek: Ἰβηρία Iberia; Latin: Hiberia) was an exonym (foreign name) for the Georgian kingdom of Kartli (Georgian: ქართლი), known after its core province, which during Classical Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages was a significant monarchy in the Caucasus, either as an independent state or as a dependent of larger empires, notably the Sassanid and Roman empires. Iberia, centered on present-day Eastern Georgia, was bordered by Colchis in the west, Caucasian Albania in the east and Armenia in the south.

Its population, the Iberians, formed the nucleus of the Georgians (Kartvelians). Iberia, ruled by the Pharnavazid, Arsacid and Chosroid royal dynasties, together with Colchis to its west, would form the nucleus of the unified medieval Kingdom of Georgia under the Bagrationi dynasty.In the 4th century, after the Christianization of Iberia by Saint Nino during the reign of King Mirian III, Christianity was made the state religion of the kingdom. Starting in the early 6th century AD, the kingdom's position as a Sassanian vassal state was changed into direct Persian rule. In 580, king Hormizd IV (578-590) abolished the monarchy after the death of King Bakur III, and Iberia became a Persian province ruled by a marzpan (governor).

The term "Caucasian Iberia" is also used to distinguish it from the Iberian Peninsula in Southern Europe.

List of mothers to monarchs of Georgia

This list includes the biological mothers of the Georgian monarchs.

List of wars involving Georgia (country)

The following is an incomplete list of wars involving Georgia, by Georgian people or regular armies during periods when independent Georgian states existed, from antiquity to the present day. It also includes wars fought outside of Georgia by Georgian military.

The list gives the name, the date, combatants, and the result of these conflicts following this legend:

Georgian victory

Georgian defeat

Another result (e.g. a treaty or peace without a clear result, status quo ante bellum, result of civil or internal conflict, result unknown or indecisive)

Ongoing conflict

Nana of Iberia

Nana (Georgian: ნანა) was a Queen consort of Kingdom of Iberia as the second wife of Mirian III in the 4th century. For her role in the conversion of Georgians to Christianity she is regarded by the Georgian Orthodox Church as saint and is canonized as Saint Equal to the Apostles Queen Nana (Georgian: წმინდა მოციქულთასწორი დედოფალი ნანა).

Rhadamistus

Rhadamistus (Georgian: რადამისტი, radamist'i, Armenian: Հռադամիզդ, Hřadamizd) (died 58) was a royal prince of the Pharnavazid dynasty of the Kingdom of Iberia who reigned over the Kingdom of Armenia from 51 to 53 and 54 to 55. He was considered a usurper and tyrant, who was overthrown in a rebellion supported by the Parthian Empire.

Sasanian Iberia

Sasanian Iberia (Georgian: სასანური ქართლი sasanuri kartli; known in Middle Persian sources as Wirōzān/Wiruzān/Wiručān) refers to the period the Kingdom of Iberia (Kartli, eastern Georgia) was under the suzerainty of the Sasanian Empire. The period includes when it was ruled by Marzbans (governors) appointed by the Sasanid Iranian king, and later through the Principality of Iberia.

Saspeires

Saspers (Georgian: სასპერები, sasp'erebi, other names include Saspeirs, Saspines, Sapinians, and Sapirians) are a people of uncertain origin mentioned by Herodotus. According to the most widespread theory, they are a Kartvelian tribe, however, their origins have also been attributed to Scythian people. Their approximate homeland was located between the Çoruh River and the sources of rivers Tigris and Euphrates. The toponym of modern day city İspir and ancient region of Speri is thought by some to be derived from their name. After its establishment, they constituted a significant part of the population of the early Georgian kingdom of Iberia and played a large role in the ethnogenesis of the Georgian nation.

Beyond the Persians, to the north, are the Medes; and next to them are the Saspirians. Contiguous to these, and where the Phasis empties itself into the northern sea, are the Colchians.

The Saspires were originally associated with the Iberians and appear to have emerged from the Lesser Caucasus to the east. The Saspires occupy the space in the line between Matiene and Colchis. The Sasperes must have extended through the space between the western bank of the river Cyrus and the Armenian Highland. The Saspires, should have occupied, in modern geography, the eastern part of Greater Armenia.

The Alarodians and Saspires were joined in one command, and both were dressed like the Colchians, thus implying strong connection between the three.

The Colchians themselves, were not classified as belonging to any Satrapy. The Colchians, however, attended the army of Xerxes as auxiliaries. This means that these tribes were of great number. The incredible number of tribes of Mount Caucasus is spoken by ancient as modern historians.

The Armenia of Herodotus extends eastwards from the Euphrates, which marks the border with Cilicia, and southwards to Mount Masius in Mesopotamia and from the position given to the Saspires, it should be confined on the east by the mountains which separate the course of the Araxes from the eastern sources of the Euphrates, amongst which is Mount Ararat. Herodotus assigns the valley traversed by the Araxes to the Kartvelian Saspires. They constituted a significant part of the population of the early Georgian Kingdom of Iberia and played a large role in the ethnogenesis of the Georgian nation.

Tao-Klarjeti

Tao-Klarjeti may refer to:

Tao-Klarjeti, part of Georgian historical region of Upper Kartli

Kingdom of Tao-Klarjeti, AD 888 to 1008

Timeline of Georgian (country) history

This is a timeline of Georgian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Georgia and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Georgia. See also the List of Georgian Kings and Queens.

Vakhtang I of Iberia

Vakhtang I Gorgasali (Georgian: ვახტანგ I გორგასალი, Vaxt’ang I Gorgasali) (c. 439 or 443 – 502 or 522), of the Chosroid dynasty, was a king of Iberia, natively known as Kartli (eastern Georgia) in the second half of the 5th and first quarter of the 6th century.

He led his people, in an ill-fated alliance with the Byzantine Empire, into a lengthy struggle against Sasanian Iranian hegemony, which ended in Vakhtang's defeat and weakening of the kingdom of Iberia. Tradition also ascribes him reorganization of the Georgian Orthodox Church and foundation of Tbilisi, Georgia's modern capital.Dating Vakhtang's reign is problematic. Ivane Javakhishvili assigns to Vakhtang's rule the dates c. 449–502 while Cyril Toumanoff suggests the dates c. 447–522. Furthermore, Toumanoff identifies Vakhtang with the Iberian king Gurgenes known from Procopius' Wars of Justinian.Vakhtang is a subject of the 8th or 11th century vita attributed to Juansher, which intertwines history and legend into an epic narrative, hyperbolizing Vakhtang's personality and biography. This literary work has been a primary source of Vakhtang's image as an example warrior-king and statesman, which has preserved in popular memory to this day.

He emerged as one of the most popular figures in Georgia's history already in the Middle Ages and has been canonized by the Georgian Orthodox Church as The Holy and Right-Believing King Vakhtang (Georgian: წმინდა დიდმოწამე მეფე ვახტანგი) and is commemorated on November 30 (O.S.: December 13).

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