Kingdom of Aragon

The Kingdom of Aragon (Aragonese: Reino d'Aragón, Catalan: Regne d'Aragó, Latin: Regnum Aragonum, Spanish: Reino de Aragón) was a medieval and early modern kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain. It should not be confused with the larger Crown of Aragon, that also included other territories — the Principality of Catalonia (which included the County of Barcelona and the other Catalan Counties), the Kingdom of Valencia, the Kingdom of Majorca, and other possessions that are now part of France, Italy, and Greece — that were also under the rule of the King of Aragon, but were administered separately from the Kingdom of Aragon.

In 1479, upon John II of Aragon’s death, the crowns of Aragon and Castile were united to form the nucleus of modern Spain. The Aragonese lands, however, retained autonomous parliamentary and administrative institutions, such as the Corts, until the Nueva Planta decrees, promulgated between 1707 and 1715 by Philip V of Spain in the aftermath of the War of the Spanish Succession, finally put an end to it.[1]

Kingdom of Aragon

Reino d'Aragón (in Aragonese)
Regne d'Aragó (in Catalan)
Regnum Aragonum (in Latin)
Reino de Aragón (in Spanish)
1035–1707
In red, the modern territory of Aragon within Spain
In red, the modern territory of Aragon within Spain
Capital
Common languagesAragonese, Castilian, Catalan, Latin, Mozarabic
Religion
Roman Catholicism
GovernmentFeudal monarchy
LegislatureCortes of Aragon
Historical eraMedieval / Early Modern
• County of Aragon established as independent kingdom
1035
• Nueva Planta decrees dissolved Aragonese institutions in 1707
1707
Preceded by
Succeeded by
County of Aragon
Enlightenment in Spain
Today part of Spain

History

Independent kingdom

Aragon was originally a Carolingian feudal county around the city of Jaca, which in the first half of the 9th century became a vassal state of the kingdom of Pamplona (later Navarre), its own dynasty of counts ending without male heir in 922. The name Aragón is the same as that of the river Aragón, which flows by Jaca. It might derive from the Basque Aragona/Haragona meaning "good upper valley" (haran+goi+ona, where haran = "valley", goi = "upper, high", and ona = good). Alternatively, the name may be derived from the earlier Roman province of Hispania Tarraconensis.

On the death of Sancho III of Navarre in 1035, the Kingdom of Navarre was divided into three parts: (1) Pamplona and its hinterland along with western and coastal Basque districts, (2) Castile, and (3) Sobrarbe, Ribagorza and Aragon. Sancho's son Gonzalo inherited Sobrarbe and Ribargorza, whereas his illegitimate son Ramiro received Aragon, but Gonzalo was killed soon after and all the land he owned went to his brother Ramiro, thus becoming the first de facto king of Aragon,[2] although he never used that title.

By defeating his brother, García Sánchez III of Navarre, Ramiro achieved independence for Aragon. His son Sancho Ramírez, who also inherited the kingdom of Navarre, was the first to call himself "King of the Aragonese and Pamplonese".[3] As the Aragonese domains expanded to the south, conquering land from Al Andalus, the capital city moved from Jaca to Huesca (1096), and later to Zaragoza (1118). After Alfonso the Battler died childless in 1135, different rulers were chosen for Navarre and Aragon, and the two kingdoms ceased to have the same ruler. By 1285 the southernmost areas of what is nowadays Aragon had been taken from the Moors.

Dynastic union with the County of Barcelona

The Kingdom of Aragon gave the name to the Crown of Aragon, born in 1150 with the dynastic union resulting from the marriage of the Princess of Aragon Petronilla and the Count of Barcelona Ramon Berenguer IV; their son Alfonso II would inherit all different territories in the House of Aragon and the House of Barcelona. The King of Aragon had also the title of Count of Barcelona and ruled territories that consisted of not only the present administrative region of Aragon but also Catalonia, and later the kingdoms of Majorca, Valencia, Sicily, Naples and Sardinia. The King of Aragón was the direct King of the Aragonese region, and held also the title of Count of Provence, Count of Barcelona, Lord of Montpellier, and Duke of Athens and Neopatria. Each of these titles gave him sovereignty over a certain region, and these titles changed as he lost and won territories. In the 14th century, his power was greatly restricted by the Union of Aragon.

Union of the Crowns of Aragon and Castile and afterwards

The Crown of Aragon became a part of the Spanish monarchy after the dynastic union with Castile, which supposed the de facto unification of both kingdoms under a common monarch. In 1412, after the extinction in 1410 of the house of Barcelona, which had ruled the crown up to that date, the Aragonese procured the election of a Castilian prince, Ferdinand of Antequera, for the vacant Aragonese throne, over strong Catalan opposition. One of Ferdinand's successors, John II of Aragon (1458–1479), countered residual Catalan resistance by arranging for his heir, Ferdinand, to marry Isabella, the heir apparent of Henry IV of Castile. In 1479, upon John II's death, the crowns of Aragon and Castile were united to form the nucleus of modern Spain. The Aragonese lands, however, retained autonomous parliamentary and administrative institutions, such as the Corts, until the Nueva Planta decrees, promulgated between 1707 and 1715 by Philip V of Spain in the aftermath of the War of the Spanish Succession, finally put an end to it.[4] The decrees ended the kingdoms of Aragon, Valencia and Mallorca and the Principality of Catalonia, and merged them with Castile to officially form the Spanish kingdom.[5] A new Nueva Planta decree in 1711 restored some rights in Aragon, such as the Aragonese Civil Rights, but preserved the end of the political independence of the kingdom.[5]

The old kingdom of Aragon survived as an administrative unit until 1833, when it was divided into the three existing provinces. In the aftermath of Francisco Franco's death in 1982, Aragon became one of the autonomous communities of Spain.

Historic Coat of Arms of Aragon
Historic Coat of Arms of Aragon
Reino d'Aragón en a Corona d'Aragón

Location of Aragon in Crown of Aragon

Petronila Ramon Berenguer

Petronilla of Aragon, and Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona depicted later in a 16th-century painting

Cortes de Aragón

Aljafería Palace

See also

References

  1. ^ I. Ruiz Rodríguez, Apuntes de historia del derecho y de las instituciones españolas, Dykinson, Madrid, 2005, p. 179. (In Spanish)
  2. ^ CAI Tourism of Aragon. Retrieved 2010-03-05
  3. ^ Antonio Ubieto, Creación y desarrollo de la Corona de Aragón, Anubar, Zaragoza, 1987, pp. 58–59. ISBN 84-7013-227-X
  4. ^ I. Ruiz Rodríguez, Apuntes de historia del derecho y de las instituciones españolas, Dykinson, Madrid, 2005, p. 179. (In Spanish)
  5. ^ a b Albareda Salvadó, Joaquim (2010). La Guerra de Sucesión de España (1700-1714). Barcelona: Crítica. pp. 228–229. ISBN 978-84-9892-060-4.


Coordinates: 41°39′N 0°54′W / 41.650°N 0.900°W

Alfonso III of Aragon

Alfonso III (4 November 1265, in Valencia – 18 June 1291), called the Liberal (el Liberal) or the Free (also "the Frank," from el Franc), was the King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona (as Alfons II) from 1285. He conquered the Kingdom of Majorca between his succession and 1287.

He was a son of King Peter III of Aragon and Constance, daughter and heiress of King Manfred of Sicily.

Soon after assuming the throne, he conducted a campaign to reincorporate the Balearic Islands into the Kingdom of Aragon - which had been lost due to the division of the kingdom by his grandfather, James I of Aragon. Thus in 1285 he declared war on his uncle, James II of Majorca, and conquered both Majorca (1285) and Ibiza (1286), effectively reassuming suzerainty over the Kingdom of Majorca. He followed this with the conquest of Menorca - until then, an autonomous Muslim state (Manûrqa) within the Kingdom of Majorca - on 17 January 1287, the anniversary of which now serves as Menorca's national holiday.

He initially sought to maintain Aragonese control over Sicily early in his reign by supporting the claims to the island of his brother, James II of Aragon. However, he later retracted the support for his brother shortly before his death and instead tried to make peace with the Papal States France.His reign was marred by a constitutional struggle with the Aragonese nobles, which eventually culminated in the articles of the Union of Aragon - the so-called "Magna Carta of Aragon", which devolved several key royal powers into the hands of lesser nobles. His inability to resist the demands of his nobles was to leave a heritage of disunity in Aragon and further dissent amongst the nobility, who increasingly saw little reason to respect the throne, and brought the Kingdom of Aragon close to anarchy.

During his lifetime a dynastic marriage with Eleanor, daughter of King Edward I of England, was arranged. However Alfonso died before meeting his bride. He died at the age of 26 in 1291, and was buried in the Franciscan convent in Barcelona; since 1852 his remains have been buried in Barcelona Cathedral.

Dante Alighieri, in the Divine Comedy, recounts that he saw Alfonso's spirit seated outside the gates of Purgatory with the other monarchs whom Dante blamed for the chaotic political state of Europe during the 13th century.

Aragon

Aragon ( or , Spanish and Aragonese: Aragón [aɾaˈɣon], Catalan: Aragó [əɾəˈɣo]) is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon. Located in northeastern Spain, the Aragonese autonomous community comprises three provinces (from north to south): Huesca, Zaragoza, and Teruel. Its capital is Zaragoza (also called Saragossa in English).

Covering an area of 47720 km2 (18420 sq mi), the region's terrain ranges diversely from permanent glaciers to verdant valleys, rich pasture lands and orchards, through to the arid steppe plains of the central lowlands. Aragon is home to many rivers—most notably, the river Ebro, Spain's largest river in volume, which runs west-east across the entire region through the province of Zaragoza. It is also home to the highest mountains of the Pyrenees.

As of January 2016, the population of Aragon was 1308563, with over half of it living in its capital city, Zaragoza. During the same year, the economy of Aragon generates a GDP of €34687 million, which represents 3.1% of Spain's national GDP, and is currently 6th in per capita production behind Madrid, Basque Country, Navarre, Catalonia and La Rioja.In addition to its three provinces, Aragon is subdivided into 33 comarcas or counties. All comarcas of Aragon have a rich geopolitical and cultural history from its pre-Roman, Celtic and Roman days, and four centuries of Islamic period as Marca Superior of Al-Andalus or kingdom (or taifa) of Saraqusta, and as lands that once belonged to the Frankish Marca Hispanica, counties that later formed the Kingdom of Aragon and eventually the Crown of Aragon.

Aragonese

Aragonese or Aragones may refer to:

Something related to Aragon, an autonomous community and former kingdom in Spain

the Aragonese people, those originating from or living in the historical region of Aragon, in north-eastern Spain

the Aragonese language, a Romance language currently spoken in the northernmost area of Aragon

the Navarro-Aragonese language, a Romance language spoken in the Middle Ages in parts of the Ebro basin and Middle Pyrenees

Aragonese cuisine, refers to the typical dishes and ingredients of cuisine in the Aragon region of Spain

the Aragonese grape, also known as Grenache

the Aragones grape, also known as Alicante Bouschet

the music of Aragon

the medieval Kingdom of Aragon

the medieval Crown of Aragon, which included the Kingdom of Aragon as a constituent part

the list of Aragonese monarchs from the medieval Kingdom of Aragon

Aragonese Castle on the Italian island of Ischia, also known as Castello Aragonese

the Aragonese Crusade, part of the War of the Sicilian Vespers

Aragonés (surname)

Aragonese people

The Aragonese (Aragonese and Spanish: aragoneses, Catalan: aragonesos) are a subgroup of Spaniards and the inhabitants of Aragon, in inland northeastern Spain. Their Aragonese language, which might have been spoken in the whole of the Kingdom of Aragon, Kingdom of Navarre and La Rioja in the Middle Ages, is nowadays a seriously endangered language, natively spoken only by a few thousands in some northern villages.

Most Aragonese (90% or more) speak the Spanish language in its northern form but with some regional traits, particularly in intonation and vocabulary. The use of the native Aragonese language is decreasing and maybe dying out. In the easternmost areas, La Franja, varieties of the Catalan language are spoken by about 90% of the Population.

Battle of Fraga

The Battle of Fraga was a battle of the Spanish Reconquista that took place on 17 July 1134 at Fraga, Aragon, Spain. The battle was fought between the forces of the Kingdom of Aragon, commanded by Alfonso the Battler and a variety of Almoravid forces that had come to the aid of the town of Fraga which was being besieged by King Alfonso I. The battle resulted in an Almoravid victory. The Aragonese monarch Alfonso I died shortly after the battle.

Catalan counties

The Catalan counties (Catalan: Comtats Catalans, IPA: [kumˈtats kətəˈlans]) were the administrative Christian divisions of the eastern Carolingian Marca Hispanica and southernmost part of the March of Gothia in the Pyrenees created after its Frankish quick counter conquest.

The various counties roughly defined what later came to be known as the Principality of Catalonia.

In 778, Charlemagne led the first military Frankish expedition into Hispania to create the Marca Hispanica, a buffer zone between the Umayyad Moors and Arabs of Al-Andalus and the Frankish Kingdom of Aquitaine. The territory that he subdued was the kernel of Catalonia (not yet known like that since the first written mention of Catalonia and the Catalans as an ethnicity appears almost a century later in 1113 at the Liber maiolichinus) which was already a no man's land since the defeat of the visigoths and the arrival of the Muslims in 714 who crossed the Pyrinees with an army to be defeated in 732 at the Battle of Tours. In 781, Charlemagne made his 3-year-old son Louis the Pious (778 – 840) king of Aquitaine, who was sent there with regents and a court in order to secure the southern border of his kingdom against the Arabs and the moors and to expand southwards into Muslim territory.

These counties were originally feudal entities ruled by a small military elite. Originally, counts were appointed directly by and owed allegiance to the Carolingian (Frankish) emperor. The appointment to heirs could not be taken for granted. However, with the rise of the importance of the Bellonids and strong figures among them such as, Sunifred (fl. 844–848) and Wilfred the Hairy (c.870-897), and the weakening of Carolingian royal power, the appointment of heirs eventually become a formality. This trend resulted in the counts becoming de facto independent of the Carolingian crown under Borrell II in 987, starting since, to call themselves and to be known as dei gratia comes (counts by the grace of god) and dux catalanensis (Catalan dukes) or even Hispaniae subjogator (attorney of Hispania) and Propugnator et murus christiani populi (wall and defender of the Christian folk).

The many counties (aside from the counties of County of Pallars, County of Urgell and County of Empuries) were to be soon absorbed into the County of Barcelona and one of his counts, prince Ramon Berenguer IV, count of Barcelona would marry princess Petronilla of Aragon of the Kingdom of Aragon in 1150, uniting as equals the County of Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon, thus being their son the first king of the Crown of Aragon, first king of both the Catalans and the Aragonese.

County of Aragon

The County of Aragon or County of Jaca was a small Frankish marcher county in the central Pyrenean valley of the Aragon river, comprising Ansó, Echo, and Canfranc and centered on the small town of Jaca (Iacca in Latin and Chaca in Aragonese), an area now part of Spain. It was created by the Carolingians late in the 8th or early in the 9th century, but soon fell into the orbit of the Kingdom of Navarre, into which it was absorbed in 922. It would later form the core of the 11th century Kingdom of Aragon.

Crown of Aragon

The Crown of Aragon (; Aragonese: Corona d'Aragón, Catalan: Corona d'Aragó, Spanish: Corona de Aragón) was a composite monarchy, also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king, with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a thalassocracy controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, and a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, Southern Italy (from 1442) and parts of Greece (until 1388). The component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each Corts or Cortes. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon (mainly the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia and the Kingdom of Valencia) functioned more as a confederation than as a single kingdom. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name.

In 1469, a new dynastic familial union of the Crown of Aragon with the Crown of Castile by the Catholic Monarchs, joining what contemporaries referred to as "the Spains" led to what would become the Kingdom of Spain under King Philip II. The Crown existed until it was abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees issued by King Philip V in 1716 as a consequence of the defeat of Archduke Charles (as Charles III of Aragon) in the War of the Spanish Succession.

Dynastic union

A dynastic union is a kind of federation with only two different states that are governed by the same dynasty, while their boundaries, their laws and their interests remain distinct. It differs from a personal union in that a personal union is under a monarch, but not under a dynasty, although it depends on the country.

Ejea de los Caballeros

Ejea de los Caballeros (pronounced [eˈxea de los kaβaˈʎeɾos]); Aragonese: Exeya d'os Caballers; (commonly known simply as Ejea) is a town and municipality in the province of Zaragoza, part of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It is one of the five main towns in the Comarca de las Cinco Villas ("Shire of the Five Villages"). The five villages are Ejea de los Caballeros itself, Sos del Rey Católico, Uncastillo, Sádaba and Tauste.

They became part of the medieval Kingdom of Aragon in 1105 during the Spanish Reconquista, as Muslim rule in the region was falling back.

House of Aragon

The (Royal) House of Aragon is the name given to several royal houses that ruled the County, the Kingdom or the Crown of Aragon.Some historians use the term for the house that started with Ramiro I, a member of the Jiménez dynasty who established the autonomous county of Aragon that would become the Kingdom of Aragon. Later Petronila of Aragon would marry Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona as response to the needs of Ramiro II of Aragon to protect his kingdom against the expansionism of Castile. This union between the House of Jimenez and the House of Barcelona, led the creation of the Crown of Aragon.

The end of this dynasty is in dispute. Some historians consider that the House of Aragón was extinguished when Ramiro II of Aragon died without male descent, and that later holders of this crown should be called members of the House of Barcelona. However, the marriage provisions of his daughter Petronila say that her husband was never given the title of king, their descendants used both titles, King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona equally. Although the total loss of the Count's family rights and dominions in Occitania, the title of King of Aragon was not prominent until the Trastamara Dynasty was crowned and the monarchs called themselves just "de Aragon" (of Aragon).

A separate branch of the latter house governed the Kingdom of Sicily from the crowning of Frederick III of Sicily in 1285 until the death of Martin the Younger in 1407 without descendents, with the kingdom returning then to the main branch. Another separate branch reigned from the crowning of the bastard Ferdinand I of Naples in 1458 to the death of Frederick IV of Naples in 1504. This part of the house is sometimes called "House of Aragon and Sicily".

House of Barcelona

The House of Barcelona was a medieval dynasty that ruled the County of Barcelona continuously from 878 and the Crown of Aragon from 1137 (as kings from 1162) until 1410. They descend from the Bellonids, the descendants of Wifred the Hairy. They inherited most of the Catalan counties by the thirteenth century and established a territorial Principality of Catalonia, uniting it with the Kingdom of Aragon through marriage and conquering numerous other lands and kingdoms until the death of the last legitimate male of the main branch, Martin the Humanist, in 1410. Cadet branches of the house continued to rule Urgell (since 992) and Gandia. Cadet branches of the dynasty had also ruled Ausona intermittently from 878 until 1111, Provence from 1112 to 1245, and Sicily from 1282 to 1409. By the Compromise of Caspe of 1412 the Crown of Aragon passed to a branch of the House of Trastámara, descended from the infanta Eleanor of the house of Barcelona.

Jaca

Jaca (in Aragonese: Chaca or Xaca) is a city of northeastern Spain in the province of Huesca, located near the Pyrenees and the border with France. Jaca is an ancient fort on the Aragón River, situated at the crossing of two great early medieval routes, one from Pau to Zaragoza. Jaca was the city out of which the County and Kingdom of Aragon developed. It was the capital of Aragon until 1097 and also the capital of Jacetania.

List of Aragonese monarchs

This is a list of the kings and queens of Aragon. The Kingdom of Aragon was created sometime between 950 and 1035 when the County of Aragon, which had been acquired by the Kingdom of Navarre in the tenth century, was separated from Navarre in accordance with the will of King Sancho III (1004–35). In 1164, the marriage of the Aragonese princess Petronila (Kingdom of Aragon) and the Catalan count Ramon Berenguer IV (County of Barcelona) created a dynastic union from which what modern historians call the Crown of Aragon was born. In the thirteenth century the kingdoms of Valencia, Majorca and Sicily were added to the Crown, and in the fourteenth the Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica. The Crown of Aragon continued to exist until 1713 when its separate constitutional systems (Catalan Constitutions, Aragon Fueros, and Furs of Valencia) were swept away in the Nueva Planta decrees at the end of the War of the Spanish Succession.

List of viceroys of Aragon

This is a list of viceroys (or lieutenants) of the Kingdom of Aragon.

Alonso de Aragón, bishop of Zaragoza 1517-1520

Juan de Lanuza y Torrellas 1520-1535

Beltrán de la Cueva, 3rd Duke of Alburquerque 1535-1539

Pedro Manrique de Luna y de Urrea, count of Morata de Jalón 1539-1554

Diego Hurtado de Mendoza y de la Cerda, prince of Melito 1554-1564

Ferran d'Aragón i de Gurrea, Bishop of Zaragoza 1566-1575

Artal de Alagón y Luna, count of Sástago 1575-1588

Iñigo de Mendoza y de la Cerda y Manrique de Luna, marquis of Almenara 1588

Miguel Martinez de Luna y Mendoza, count of Morata de Jalón 1592-1593

Diego Fernández de Cabrera Bobadilla y Mendoza, count of Chincón 1593-1601

Beltrán de la Cueva y Castilla, duke of Alburquerque 1601-1602

Ascanio Colonna, cardinal 1602-1604

Gastón de Moncada, 2nd Marquis of Aitona 1604-1610

Diego Carrillo de Mendoza, 1st Marquis of Gelves 1617-1620

Fernando de Borja y Aragón, count of Mayalde 1621-1632

Girolamo Carraffa e Carrascciolo, marquis de Montenegro 1632-1636

Pedro Fajardo de Requesens de Zuñiga y Pimentel, marquis of Los Velez 1635-1638

Francesco Maria Carafa, Duke of Nocera 1639-1640

Enrique de Pimentel y Moscoso, marquis of Tavara 1641

Gian Giacomo Teodoro Trivulzio, prince of Trivulzio, cardinal 1642-1645

Bernardino Fernández de Velasco, 6th Duke of Frías 1645-1647

Francisco de Melo, count of Assmar 1647-1649

Francisco Fernández de Castro Andrade de Portugal e Legnano de Gattinara, count of Lemos and count of Andrade 1649-1653

Fabrizzio Pignatelli, prince of Nòia, duke (married with the duchess) of Monteleone 1654-1657

Niccolò Ludovisi, prince of Piombino and Venosa 1659-1662

Ferran de Borja d'Aragón i Barreto, count of Mayalde 1662-1664

Francisco de Idiáquez de Butrón Mogica y de Álava, duke of Ciudad Real 1664-1667

Ettore Pignatelli d'Aragona e Cortés, duke (married with the duchess) of Terranova, prince of Noia, duke of Moteleone 1668

Pedro Pablo Ximénez de Urrea Fernández de Heredia y Zapata, count of Aranda 1668-1669

Juan Jose de Austria 1669-1676

Lorenzo Onofrio Colonna e Gioeni-Cardona, Prince of Paliano 1678-1681

Jaime Fernández de Hixar-Silva Sarmiento de la Cerda, duke of Hixar 1681-1687

Carlo Antonio Spinelli, prince of Cariati, duke of Seminara 1688-1691

Baltasar de los Cobos Luna Sarmiento de Mendoza Zúñiga y Manrique, marquis of Camarasa 1692-1693

Juan Manuel Fernández Pacheco Cabrera y Bobadilla, marquis of Villena and duke of Escalona 1693-1695

Domenico del Giudice e Palagno, duke of Giovenazzo, prince of Cellamare 1695

Baltasar de los Cobos Luna Sarmiento de Mendoza Zúñiga y Manrique, marquis of Camarasa 1696-1699 (second time)

Lordship of Albarracín

The Lordship of Albarracín was an independent Christian lordship in the Kingdom of Aragón located in and around the city of Albarracín. Its location was a buffer wedged between the Kingdom of Aragón and the Kingdom of Castile. The Señorío was created after the partition of the Taifa of Albarracín belonging to the Berber line of Banu Razín.

Principality of Catalonia

The Principality of Catalonia (Catalan: Principat de Catalunya, Latin: Principatus Cathaloniæ, Occitan: Principautat de Catalonha, French: Principauté de Catalogne, Spanish: Principado de Cataluña) was a medieval and early modern political entity in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula. During most of its history it was in dynastic union with the Kingdom of Aragon, constituting together the Crown of Aragon. Between the 13th and the 18th centuries it was bordered by the Kingdom of Aragon to the west, the Kingdom of Valencia to the south, the Kingdom of France and the feudal lordship of Andorra to the north and by the Mediterranean sea to the east. The term "Principality of Catalonia" remained in use until the Second Spanish Republic, when its use declined because of its historical relation to the monarchy. Today, the term Principat (Principality) is used primarily to refer to the autonomous community of Catalonia in Spain, as distinct from the other Catalan Countries. and usually including the historical region of Roussillon in southern France.

The first reference to Catalonia and the Catalans appears in the Liber maiolichinus de gestis Pisanorum illustribus, a Pisan chronicle (written between 1117 and 1125) of the conquest of Menorca by a joint force of Italians, Catalans, and Occitans. At the time, Catalonia did not yet exist as a political entity, though the use of this term seems to acknowledge Catalonia as a cultural or geographical entity.

The counties that would eventually make up the Principality of Catalonia were gradually unified under the rule of the Count of Barcelona. In 1137, the County of Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon were unified under a single dynasty, creating what modern historians call the Crown of Aragon; however, Aragon and Catalonia retained their own political structure and legal traditions, developing separate political communities along the next centuries. Under Alfons I the Troubador (reigned 1164–1196), Catalonia was regarded as a legal entity for the first time. Still, the term Principality of Catalonia was not used legally until the 14th century, when it was applied to the territories ruled by the Courts of Catalonia.

Its institutional system evolved over the centuries, establishing political bodies (such as the Courts, the Generalitat or the Consell de Cent) and legislation (constitutions, derived from the Usages of Barcelona) which limited the royal power and secured the political model of pactism. Catalonia contributed to further develop the Crown trade and military, most significantly their navy. Catalan language flourished and expanded as more territories were added to the Crown, including Valencia, the Balearic Islands, Sardinia, Sicily, Naples and Athens, constituting a thalassocracy across the Mediterranean. The crisis of the 14th century, the end of the rule of House of Barcelona (1410) and a civil war (1462–1472) weakened the role of the Principality in Crown and international affairs.

The marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile in 1469 laid the foundations of the Monarchy of Spain. In 1492 the Spanish colonization of the Americas began, and political power began to shift away towards Castile. Tensions between Catalan institutions and the Monarchy, alongside the peasants' revolts provoked the Reapers' War (1640–1659). By the Treaty of the Pyrenees the Roussillon was ceded to France. During the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714), the Crown of Aragon supported the Archduke Charles of Habsburg. After the surrender of Barcelona in 1714, the king Philip V of Bourbon, inspired by the model of France imposed the abolutism and a unifying administration across Spain, and enacted the Nueva Planta decrees for every realm of the Crown of Aragon, which suppressed the main Catalan, Aragonese, Valencian and Majorcan political institutions and rights and merged them into the Crown of Castile as provinces.

Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona

Ramon Berenguer IV (Catalan pronunciation: [rəˈmom bəɾəŋˈɡe]; c. 1114 – 6 August 1162, Anglicized Raymond Berengar IV), sometimes called the Saint, was the Count of Barcelona who brought about the union of his County of Barcelona with the Kingdom of Aragon to form the Crown of Aragon.

Treaty of Tudilén

The Treaty of Tudilén (or Treaty of Tudején) was signed between Alfonso VII of León and Castile and Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona on 27 January 1151 at Tudilén, near Aguas Caldas in Navarre.

Monarchs of Aragon
House of Jiménez
House of Barcelona
House of Trastámara
House of Habsburg

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