King of Saudi Arabia

The King of Saudi Arabia is Saudi Arabia's absolute monarch who serves as head of state and head of government. He is the head of the Saudi royal family, the House of Saud. The King is called the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques (خادم الحرمين الشريفين), a title that signifies Saudi Arabia's jurisdiction over the mosques of Masjid al Haram in Mecca and Al-Masjid an-Nabawi in Medina, replacing His Majesty in 1986.

King of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
ملك المملكة العربية السعودية
Royal Standard of Saudi Arabia
Incumbent
Rodrigo Duterte meets with Salman of Saudi Arabia (2017-04-11) (cropped)
Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques

since 23 January 2015
Details
StyleCustodian of the Two Holy Mosques (Formal)
or
His Majesty (Diplomatic relations)
Heir apparentMohammad bin Salman
First monarchIbn Saud
Formation22 September 1932
ResidenceAl-Yamamah Palace

History

King Abdulaziz (known in the West as Ibn Saud) began conquering today's Saudi Arabia in 1902, by restoring his family as emirs of Riyadh. He then proceeded to conquer first the Nejd (1922) and then the Hejaz (1925).

Ibn Saud proclaimed his dominions as the Sultanate of Nejd in 1921, shortly before completing the conquest of the region. He was proclaimed king/malik of Hejaz in 1926, and raised Nejd to a kingdom as well in 1927. For the next five years, Ibn Saud administered the two parts of his realm as separate units. In 1932, he formally united his territories into the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Succession

The kings since Ibn Saud's death have all been his sons, and all likely immediate successors to the reigning King Salman will be from among his progeny. Sons of Ibn Saud are considered to have primary claim on the throne of Saudi Arabia. This makes the Saudi monarchy quite distinct from Western monarchies, which usually feature large, clearly defined royal families and orders of succession, and use the absolute primogeniture system of succession. Muhammad bin Nayef was the first grandson of Ibn Saud to be in the line of succession before being deposed from the position of Crown Prince by a royal decree in 2017.

Legal position

Saudi Arabia is ruled by Islamic law (Sharia) and is an Islamic state.[1]

Other functions

The King of Saudi Arabia is also considered the Head of the House of Saud and Prime Minister. The Crown Prince is also the "Deputy Prime Minister". The kings after Faisal have named a "second Deputy Prime Minister" as the subsequent heir after the Crown Prince.

Kings of Saudi Arabia (1932–present)

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Ibn Saud
  • Ibn Saud
  • عبد العزيز
15 January 1875 –
9 November 1953 (aged 78)
22 September 1932 (age 57)9 November 1953
(Died)
Reign established by conquestSaudIbn Saud
Saud
  • سعود
12 January 1902 –
23 February 1969 (aged 67)
9 November 1953 (age 51)2 November 1964
(Deposed)
Son of Ibn Saud and Wadhah bint Muhammad bin 'AqabSaudSaud of Saudi Arabia
Faisal
  • فيصل
14 April 1906 –
25 March 1975 (aged 68)
2 November 1964 (age 57)25 March 1975
(Assassinated)
Son of Ibn Saud and Tarfa bint Abduallah bin Abdulateef al SheekhSaudKing Faisal of Saudi Arabia on on arrival ceremony welcoming 05-27-1971 (cropped)
Khalid
  • خالد
13 February 1913 –
13 June 1982 (aged 69)
25 March 1975 (age 62)13 June 1982
(Died)
Son of Ibn Saud and Al Jawhara bint Musaed bin JiluwiSaudKing Khalid bin Abdulaziz 1
Fahd
  • فهد
16 March 1921 – 1 August 2005 (aged 84)13 June 1982 (age 61)1 August 2005
(Died)
Son of Ibn Saud and Hussa bint Ahmed Al SudairiSaudFahd bin Abdul Aziz
Abdullah
  • عبد الله
1 August 1924 –
23 January 2015 (aged 90)
1 August 2005 (age 81)23 January 2015
(Died)
Son of Ibn Saud and Fahda bint Asi Al ShuraimSaudKing Abdullah bin Abdul al-Saud January 2007
Salman
  • سلمان
31 December 1935 (age 83)23 January 2015 (age 79)IncumbentSon of Ibn Saud and Hussa bint Ahmed Al SudairiSaudSalman bin Abdull aziz December 9, 2013

Current heirs-presumptive

Royal Standard

The Royal Standard consists of a green flag, with an Arabic inscription and a sword featured in white, and with the national emblem embroidered in gold in the lower right canton.

Royal Standard of Saudi Arabia
Royal Standard of the King

The script on the flag is written in the Thuluth script. It is the shahada or Islamic declaration of faith:

لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا الله مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ الله
lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāh, muhammadun rasūlu-llāh
There is no other god but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.[2]

See also

References

  1. ^ Rabasa, Angel (2004). The Muslim world after 9/11. Rand Corporation. p. 164. ISBN 978-0-8330-3712-1.
  2. ^ "About Saudi Arabia: Facts and figures". The Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia, Washington D.C. Archived from the original on 17 April 2012. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
Abdullah of Saudi Arabia

Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (Arabic: عبدالله بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود‎, ‘Abd Allāh ibn ‘Abd al-‘Azīz Āl Sa‘ūd, Najdi Arabic pronunciation: [ʢæbˈdɑɫ.ɫɐ ben ˈʢæbdæl ʢæˈziːz ʔæːl sæˈʢuːd]; 1 August 1924 – 23 January 2015) was King of Saudi Arabia and Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques from 2005 to his death in 2015.

He ascended to the throne on 1 August 2005 upon the death of his half-brother, King Fahd.

Abdullah, like Fahd, was one of the many sons of Ibn Saud, the founder of modern Saudi Arabia. Abdullah held important political posts throughout most of his adult life. In 1961 he became mayor of Mecca, his first public office. The following year, he was appointed commander of the Saudi Arabian National Guard, a post he was still holding when he became king. He also served as deputy defense minister and was named crown prince when Fahd took the throne in 1982. After King Fahd suffered a serious stroke in 1995, Abdullah became the de facto ruler of Saudi Arabia until ascending the throne a decade later.

During his reign he maintained close relations with United States and United Kingdom and bought billions of dollars worth of defense equipment from both states. He also gave women the right to vote for municipal councils and to compete in the Olympics. Furthermore, Abdullah maintained the status quo when there were waves of protest in the kingdom during the Arab Spring. In November 2013, a BBC report claimed that, due to the close relations it had with Pakistan, Saudi Arabia could obtain nuclear weapons at will from that country. The King also had a longstanding relationship with Pakistan, and brokered a compromise between ousted Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and General Pervez Musharraf, whom he had requested to be exiled to Saudi Arabia for a 10-year exile, following his ouster in the 1999 Pakistani coup d'état.The King outlived two of his crown princes. Conservative Interior Minister Nayef bin Abdul-Aziz Al Saud was named heir to the throne on the death of Sultan bin Abdulaziz in October 2011, but Nayef himself died in June 2012. Abdullah then named 76-year-old defense minister, Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, as crown prince. According to various reports, Abdullah married up to 30 times and had more than 35 children. The king had a personal fortune estimated at US$18 billion, making him the third wealthiest head of state in the world. He died on 23 January 2015, at the age of 90, three weeks after being hospitalized for pneumonia, and was succeeded as king by his half-brother Salman of Saudi Arabia.

Afif

Afif (Arabic: عفيف‎ ʿAfīf) is a city in central Saudi Arabia, in the Najd region. It is situated approximately halfway between Riyadh and Mecca. The modern town was established in the 1910s as a hijra, or "settlement", for the nomadic tribes of the area, particularly the tribe of 'Utaybah (see Ikhwan). It has since then grown into a small city of 39,581 as of the 2004 census, not counting the surrounding towns and villages, which together with 'Afif form the 'Afif Governorate.

The city once served as a gateway between the central and western regions of Saudi Arabia. The city is also known to be the first landing site of the first airplane owned by King Abdulaziz the first king of Saudi Arabia.

The town taken the name Afif from an old well in the area called Afif "بئر عفيف - البير العود". People used to pass by this well in their way to Mekkah, for doing Hajj or Omrah, in order to get water for the rest of the way. Then during the month of Hajj, people started to come around this Well to sell their goods for the passengers, therefore, the majority of these traders started to live around the well to deal with passengers. Thereafter, the people from little villages around this Well started to recognise how profitable to live around this Well as houses started to be built around this Well. Hence, the city started to grow up.

Consultative Assembly of Saudi Arabia

The Consultative Assembly of Saudi Arabia, also known as Majlis Ash-Shura or Shura Council, is the formal advisory body of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which is an absolute monarchy. The Consultative Assembly has virtually no powers in government, including the power to propose laws to the King of Saudi Arabia and his cabinet, but it cannot pass or enforce laws, which is a power reserved for the King. It has 150 members, all of whom are appointed by the King. The Consultative Assembly is headed by a Speaker. The current chairman is Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al ash-Sheikh, in line with a tradition that kept the post in that family. The Assembly is based in the Al Yamamah Palace, Riyadh.

Faisal of Saudi Arabia

Faisal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (Arabic: فيصل بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود‎ Fayṣal ibn ‘Abd al-‘Azīz Āl Su‘ūd; 14 April 1906 – 25 March 1975) was King of Saudi Arabia from 1964 to 1975. He emerged as an influential royal politician under his father King Abdulaziz and brother King Saud. While crown prince in 1962, Faisal outlawed slavery in Saudi Arabia. He persuaded King Saud to abdicate in 1964 with the help of other members of the royal family and his maternal relative the grand mufti of Saudi Arabia, and Faisal became king.

Faisal implemented a policy of modernization and reform. His main foreign policy themes were pan-Islamism, anti-communism, and pro-Palestinian nationalism. He attempted to limit the power of Islamic religious officials while protesting against support that Israel received from the West. He led an oil boycott in 1973 which caused an oil crisis.

Faisal successfully stabilized the kingdom's bureaucracy, and his reign had significant popularity among Saudi Arabians despite his reforms facing some controversy. In 1975, he was assassinated by his nephew Faisal bin Musaid.

Farid-ud-Din Qadri

Farid-ud-Din Qadri (1918, in Jhang – November 2, 1974, in Jhang) was the father of Islamic Scholar Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri. His ancestors belong to Sial family of Jhang. They were landlords of Kheewa Village, Chiniot Road of Tehsil & District Jhang; two of them being very spiritual persons, gave up all their lands and properties and migrated to Jhang (then Known as Maghiana) and D.I Khan respectively.

He travelled worldwide for Arabic and Persian Literature and Islamic jurisprudence especially Tasawwuf. He graduated and specialized in Eastern Medicine from Lukhnow (India). He received a gold medal in 1940 from Punjab University.

He studied at Lukhnow, Hyderabad (Deccan), Delhi, Damascus, Baghdad at Madinatu-l-Munawara; was associated with Hakim Nabeena Ansari in Delhi and Hyderabad. He was a speaker, poet, medical practitioner and a spiritual student of Naqibul Ashraaf Hazrat Seyyed Ibrahim Saif—ud-din al Gilani of Baghdad. He remained associated with Muhammad Iqbal and worked with Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah in the Pakistan Movement; remained medical consultant to the King of Saudi Arabia, 1948. Farid-ud-Din died in Jhang on 2 November 1974, at the age 56.

Forbes list of The World's Most Powerful People

Since 2009, the business magazine, Forbes had compiled an annual list of the world's most powerful people. The list has one slot for every 100 million people, meaning in 2009 there were 67 people on the list and by 2018 there were 75. Slots are allocated based on the amount of human and financial resources that they have sway over, as well as their influence on world events.

Hamed Shakernejad

Qari Hamed Shakernejad (Persian: حامد شاکرنژاد; born in May 1983, Mashhad, Iran), is an Iranian Qari (reciter of the Qur'an).Such as, many modern and young reciters try to imitate his style. Shakernejad won a world Qira'at competition on 15 March 1996 in Saudi Arabia. This win was followed by a gift from the king of Saudi Arabia, entering the Kaaba for an hour. This was the first time that an Iranian Qari had entered the Kaaba. In addition, Shakernejad is the first Iranian Qari who has had his own style of Qur'an reciting accepted by the leader of Iran.

House of Saud

The House of Saud (Arabic: آلسعود‎, translit. ʾĀl Suʿūd IPA: [ʔaːl sʊʕuːd]) is the ruling royal family of Saudi Arabia. It is composed of the descendants of Muhammad bin Saud, founder of the Emirate of Diriyah, known as the First Saudi state (1744–1818), and his brothers, though the ruling faction of the family is primarily led by the descendants of Ibn Saud, the modern founder of Saudi Arabia. The most influential position of the royal family is the King of Saudi Arabia. King Salman, who reigns currently, chose first his nephew and then his son as the crown prince without consulting the Allegiance Council. The family is estimated to comprise 15,000 members, but the majority of the power and wealth is possessed by a group of about 2,000 of them.The House of Saud has gone through three phases: the Emirate of Diriyah, the First Saudi State (1744–1818), marked by the expansion of Wahhabism; the Emirate of Nejd, the Second Saudi State (1824–1891), marked with continuous infighting; and the Third Saudi State (1902–present), which evolved into Saudi Arabia in 1932 and now wields considerable influence in the Middle East. The family has had conflicts with the Ottoman Empire, the Sharif of Mecca, the Al Rashid family of Ha'il and their vassal houses in Najd, numerous Islamist groups both inside and outside Saudi Arabia and Shia minority in Saudi Arabia.

The succession to the Saudi Arabian throne was designed to pass from one son of the first king, Ibn Saud, to another. The next in line, Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman, is the son of King Salman. The king-appointed cabinet includes more members of the royal family. The monarchy was hereditary by agnatic seniority until 2006, when a royal decree provided that future Saudi kings are to be elected by a committee of Saudi princes.

Hussam bin Saud bin Abdulaziz Al Saud

Hussam bin Saud bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (born 25 May 1960, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia) (Arabic: حسام بن سعود بن عبد العزيز آل سعود‎) is a member of House of Saud and Chairman of Zain Telecommunication company, based in Saudi Arabia. He is the governor of Al Bahah Province and a member of House of Saud. He is the son of King Saud, who was King of Saudi Arabia from 1953 till 1964.

Ibn Saud

Abdulaziz ibn Abdul Rahman ibn Faisal ibn Turki ibn Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al Saud (Arabic: عبد العزيز بن عبد الرحمن آل سعود‎, Abd al-'Azīz ibn 'Abd ar-Raḥman Āl Sa'ūd; 15 January 1875 – 9 November 1953), usually known within the Arab world as Abdulaziz and in the West as Ibn Saud, was the first monarch and founder of Saudi Arabia, the "third Saudi state".He reconquered his family's ancestral home city of Riyadh in 1902, starting three decades of conquests that made him the ruler of nearly all of central Arabia. He consolidated his control over the Najd in 1922, then conquered the Hejaz in 1925. He extended his dominions into what later became the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932. As King, he presided over the discovery of petroleum in Saudi Arabia in 1938 and the beginning of large-scale oil production after World War II. He fathered many children, including 45 sons, and all of the subsequent kings of Saudi Arabia.

Judiciary of Saudi Arabia

The judiciary of Saudi Arabia is a branch of the government of Saudi Arabia that interprets and applies the laws of Saudi Arabia. The legal system is based on the Islamic code of Sharia, with its judges and lawyers forming part of the country's religious leadership or ulama. There are also non-Sharia government tribunals which handle disputes relating to specific royal decrees. Final appeal from both Sharia courts and government tribunals is to the King of Saudi Arabia and all courts and tribunals follow Sharia rules of evidence and procedure.

Khalid of Saudi Arabia

Khalid bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (Arabic: خالد بن عبد العزيز آل سعود‎ Khālid ibn ‘Abd al ‘Azīz Āl Su‘ūd; 13 February 1913 – 13 June 1982) was King of Saudi Arabia from 1975 to 1982. His reign saw both huge developments in the country due to increase in oil revenues and significant events in the Middle East.

King Abdullah

King Abdullah may refer to:

Abdullah II of Jordan (born 1962), king of Jordan since 1999

Abdullah I of Jordan (1882–1951), king of Transjordan

Abdullah Khan II (1533/4–1598), ruler of the Khanate of Bukhara

Abdullah of Saudi Arabia (1924–2015), king of Saudi Arabia

King Abdullah Sports City

King Abdullah Sports City (Arabic: مدينة الملك عبدالله الرياضية), also nicknamed The Shining Jewel, in Arabic (al-Jawharaa Al-Moshe'ah) (Arabic: الجوهرة المشعة) or simply The Jewel, in Arabic (al-Jawhara) (Arabic: الجوهرة), is a multi-use stadium and sports city located 60 kilometers north of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The City was named after Abdullah, King of Saudi Arabia when the stadium opened. It was not open to women until January 2018, and they are still restricted to an area reserved for women and families.The main stadium (King Abdullah International Stadium) is used for football, reaching a full capacity of 62,241 spectators. It is the biggest stadium in Jeddah, and the second biggest in Saudi Arabia, coming after Riyadh's King Fahd Stadium. Additionally, it is the 10th biggest stadium in the Arab world. Accompanying the innovative stadium are smaller sports venues surrounding the main stadium. It also hosts athletics and indoor sporting events in indoor arenas.

The bid for the construction was won by Saudi Aramco and the contractor for this project was a joint venture between Al Muhaidib Contracting Company & BESIX.The contract for providing the stadium safety, security, traffic management and contingency plans was awarded to a UK Company, Crowd Management UK Limited who are also the lead security and traffic management consultants for The R&A who host The Open Championship annually. In addition to the written plans Crowd Management UK delivered a training course for key stadium operators at the Saudi Aramco training facility in Jeddah KSA.

The company also provided an independent evaluation of the performance of local staff and the event safety officer (provided by Sword Security) during the inaugural event at the KASC stadium. This led to a significant number of safety and security recommendations and the appointment of a dedicated Stadium Manager.

Salman

Salman may refer to:

Salman (name), people with the name

Salman of Saudi Arabia, King of Saudi Arabia since 2015

Salman the Persian, one of Muhammad's companions

Salman (myth), god worshipped in pre-Islamic southern Arabia

Salman, Khuzestan, a village in Khuzestan Province, Iran

Salman, alternate name of Deh-e Salman, Lorestan, a village in Lorestan Province, Iran

Salman, Razavi Khorasan, a village in Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran

Salman, alternate name of Salami, Iran, a city in Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran

Salman, Semnan, a village in Semnan Province, Iran

Salman, Tehran, a village in Tehran Province, Iran

Salman, Zanjan, a village in Zanjan Province, Iran

Salman of Saudi Arabia

Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (Arabic: سلمان بن عبد العزیز آل سعود‎ Salmān ibn ‘Abd al-‘Azīz Āl Su‘ūd, Najdi Arabic pronunciation: [sælˈmæːn ben ˈʢæbd ælʢæˈziːz ʔæːl sæˈʢuːd]; born 31 December 1935) has been King of Saudi Arabia, Prime Minister of Saudi Arabia, and Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques since 23 January 2015.

He was the Deputy Governor of Riyadh and later the Governor of Riyadh for 48 years from 1963 to 2011. He was then appointed Minister of Defense. He was also named the Crown Prince in 2012 following the death of his brother Nayef bin Abdulaziz. Salman became the new King of Saudi Arabia on 23 January 2015 following the death of his half-brother, King Abdullah.

His major initiatives as King include the Saudi intervention in the Yemeni Civil War, Saudi Vision 2030, and a 2017 decree allowing Saudi women to drive. His son, Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman, is a powerful figure within Saudi Arabia and has led many reforms within the country.

Saud (disambiguation)

The House of Saud is the royal house of Saudi Arabia.

Saud may also refer to:

Saud of Saudi Arabia, the second King of Saudi Arabia

Saud ibn Muhammad ibn Muqrin, the eponymous ancestor of the House of Saud

Saud (actor), a Pakistani actor

One of the villages comprising the Hungarian commune of Buntești

Narayan Prakash Saud, Nepalese politician and former minister

Nar Bahadur Saud, Nepalese politician

Saudi Royal Guard Regiment

The Saudi Arabian Royal Guard (Arabic: الحرس الملكي السعودي‎ Al-Ḥars al-Malakī as-Suʿūdī)is a unit in the Saudi military forces. Originally an independent military force, the Royal Guards were incorporated into the Armed Forces since its inception until 1953. It is not be confused with the SANG. However, the Royal Guards still retained their unique mission of protecting the House of Saud. Units of the Royal Guard protect the King of Saudi Arabia and other relatives at all times.The Royal Guards report directly to the king and for security reasons maintain a separate communications network from the regular Army.

Members of the Royal Guard Regiment often wore the flowing white thaub (robe) and white kaffiyah and qhutrah (traditional Arab headgear of skullcap and scarf). Royal Guardsmen wear bright green berets when in conventional uniforms.

The Royal Guard Regiment consists of three light infantry battalions, based near Riyadh. The commander of the Royal Guard is General Suheil al- Mutiri.

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