King of Jerusalem

The King of Jerusalem[1] was the supreme ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Crusader state founded by Christian princes in 1099 when the First Crusade took the city.

Godfrey of Bouillon, the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, himself refused the title of king, and instead chose the title "Defender of the Holy Sepulchre". Thus, the title of king was only introduced for his successor, King Baldwin I in 1100. The city of Jerusalem was lost in 1187, but the Kingdom of Jerusalem survived, moving its capital to Acre in 1191. The city of Jerusalem was re-captured in the Sixth Crusade, during 1229–39 and 1241–44. The Kingdom of Jerusalem was finally dissolved with the fall of Acre and the end of the Crusades in the Holy Land in 1291.

After the Crusader States ceased to exist, the title of King of Jerusalem was claimed by a number of European noble houses descended from the kings of Cyprus or the kings of Naples. The (purely ceremonial) title of King of Jerusalem is currently used by Felipe VI of Spain. It was claimed by Otto von Habsburg as Habsburg pretender, and by the kings of Italy until 1946.

King of Jerusalem
Arms of the Kingdom of Jerusalem (Ströhl)
Details
First monarchGodfrey of Bouillon
Last monarchHenry II
Formation1099
Abolition1291
ResidenceDavid's Tower
AppointerHereditary
Election
Pretender(s)See Claimant

Kings of Jerusalem (1099–1291)

The Kingdom of Jerusalem had its origins in the First Crusade, when Godfrey of Bouillon, after refusing a crown and the title of King "upon the plea that he would never wear a crown of gold where his Saviour had worn a crown of thorns",[2] took the title Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri (Protector of the Holy Sepulcher) in 1099 and was inaugurated as ruler of Jerusalem in the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem.

The following year, his brother Baldwin I was the first to use the title king and the first to be crowned king in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem itself.

The kingship of Jerusalem was partially elected and partially hereditary. During the height of the kingdom in the mid-12th century there was a royal family and a relatively clear line of succession. Nevertheless, the king was elected, or at least recognized, by the Haute Cour. Here the king was considered a primus inter pares (first among equals), and in his absence his duties were performed by his seneschal.

The purpose-built royal palace used from the 1160s onwards was located south of Jerusalem's citadel.[3] The Kingdom of Jerusalem introduced French feudal structures to the Levant. The king personally held several fiefs incorporated into the royal domain, that varied from king to king. He was also responsible for leading the kingdom into battle, although this duty could be passed to a constable.

While several contemporary European states were moving towards centralized monarchies, the king of Jerusalem was continually losing power to the strongest of his barons. This was partially due to the young age of many of the kings, and the frequency of regents from the ranks of the nobles.

After the fall of Jerusalem in 1187, the capital of the kingdom was moved to Acre, where it remained until 1291, although coronations took place in Tyre.

In this period the kingship was often simply a nominal position, held by a European ruler who never actually lived in Acre. When young Conrad III was king and living in Southern Germany, his father's second cousin, Hugh of Brienne, claimed the regency of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and, indirectly, his place in the succession. The claim was made in 1264 as senior descendant and rightful heir of Alice of Champagne, second daughter of Queen Isabella I, Hugh being the son of their eldest daughter. But was passed over by the Haute Cour in favour of his cousin, Hugh of Antioch, the future Hugh III of Cyprus and Hugh I of Jerusalem.

After Conrad III's execution by Charles I of Sicily in 1268, the kingship was held by the Lusignan family, who were simultaneously kings of Cyprus. However, Charles I of Sicily purchased the rights of one of the heirs of the kingdom in 1277.

In that year, he sent Roger of Sanseverino to the East as his bailiff. Roger captured Acre and obtained a forced homage from the barons. Roger was recalled in 1282 due to the Sicilian Vespers and left Odo Poilechien in his place to rule. His resources and authority was minimal, and he was ejected by Henry II of Cyprus when he arrived from Cyprus for his coronation as King of Jerusalem.

Acre was captured by the Mamluks in 1291, eliminating the crusader presence on the mainland.

House of Boulogne (1099-1118)

Monarch Image Birth Marriages Death
Godfrey
(Protector of the Holy Sepulchre, but not King)[2]
1099–1100
Godfroy c. 1060
Boulogne-sur-Mer, France or Baisy, Brabant
son of Eustace II, Count of Boulogne and Ida of Lorraine
never married 18 July 1100
aged about 40
Baldwin I
1100–1118
Baldwin 1 of Jerusalem c. 1058
Lorraine, France
son of Eustace II, Count of Boulogne and Ida of Lorraine
Godehilde de Toeni
no children

Arda of Armenia
1097
no children

Adelaide del Vasto
1112
no children
2 April 1118
Al-Arish, Egypt
aged about 60

House of Rethel (1118-1153)

Monarch Image Birth Marriages Death
Baldwin II
1118–1131
Balduin2 ??
France
son of Hugh I, Count of Rethel and Melisende of Montlhéry
Morphia of Melitene
1101
four daughters
21 August 1131
Jerusalem
Melisende
1131–1153
with Fulk until 1143
with Baldwin III from 1143
Melisende and Fulk of Jerusalem 1105
Jerusalem
daughter of King Baldwin II and Morphia of Melitene
Fulk V, Count of Anjou
2 June 1129
2 sons
11 September 1161
Jerusalem
aged 56

House of Anjou (1153-1205)

In 1127 Fulk V, Count of Anjou received an embassy from King Baldwin II of Jerusalem. Baldwin II had no male heirs but had already designated his daughter Melisende to succeed him. Baldwin II wanted to safeguard his daughter's inheritance by marrying her to a powerful lord. Fulk was a wealthy crusader and experienced military commander, and a widower. His experience in the field would prove invaluable in a frontier state always in the grip of war.

However, Fulk held out for better terms than mere consort of the Queen; he wanted to be king alongside Melisende. Baldwin II, reflecting on Fulk's fortune and military exploits, acquiesced. Fulk then resigned his titles to Geoffrey and sailed to become King of Jerusalem, where he married Melisende on 2 June 1129. Later Baldwin II bolstered Melisende's position in the kingdom by making her sole guardian of her son by Fulk, Baldwin III, born in 1130.

Fulk and Melisende became joint rulers of Jerusalem in 1131 with Baldwin II's death. From the start Fulk assumed sole control of the government, excluding Melisende altogether. He favored fellow countrymen from Anjou to the native nobility. The other crusader states to the north feared that Fulk would attempt to impose the suzerainty of Jerusalem over them, as Baldwin II had done; but as Fulk was far less powerful than his deceased father-in-law, the northern states rejected his authority.

FoulquesofAnjou-death
The death of Fulk, as depicted in MS of William of Tyre'sHistoria andOld French Continuation, painted in Acre, 13C. Bib. Nat. Française.

In Jerusalem as well, Fulk was resented by the second generation of Jerusalem Christians who had grown up there since the First Crusade. These "natives" focused on Melisende's cousin, the popular Hugh II of Le Puiset, count of Jaffa, who was devotedly loyal to the Queen. Fulk saw Hugh as a rival, and in 1134, in order to expose Hugh, accused him of infidelity with Melisende. Hugh rebelled in protest and secured himself to Jaffa, allying himself with the Muslims of Ascalon. He was able to defeat the army set against him by Fulk, but this situation could not hold. The Patriarch interceded in the conflict, perhaps at the behest of Melisende. Fulk agreed to peace and Hugh was exiled from the kingdom for three years, a lenient sentence.

However, an assassination attempt was made against Hugh. Fulk, or his supporters, were commonly believed responsible, though direct proof never surfaced. The scandal was all that was needed for the queen's party to take over the government in what amounted to a palace coup. Author and historian Bernard Hamilton wrote that the Fulk's supporters "went in terror of their lives" in the palace. Contemporary author and historian William of Tyre wrote of Fulk "he never attempted to take the initiative, even in trivial matters, without (Melisende's) consent". The result was that Melisende held direct and unquestioned control over the government from 1136 onwards. Sometime before 1136 Fulk reconciled with his wife, and a second son, Amalric was born.

In 1143, while the king and queen were on holiday in Acre, Fulk was killed in a hunting accident. His horse stumbled, fell, and Fulk's skull was crushed by the saddle, "and his brains gushed forth from both ears and nostrils", as William of Tyre describes. He was carried back to Acre, where he lay unconscious for three days before he died. He was buried in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. Though their marriage started in conflict, Melisende mourned for him privately as well as publicly. Fulk was survived by his son Geoffrey of Anjou by his first wife, and Baldwin III and Amalric I by Melisende.

Baldwin III ascended the throne with his mother as co-ruler, in 1143. His early reign was laced with squabbles with his mother over the possession of Jerusalem, till 1153, when he took personal hold of the government. He died in 1163, without heirs, and the kingdom passed to his brother, Amalric I, although there was some opposition among the nobility to Amalric's wife Agnes; they were willing to accept the marriage in 1157 when Baldwin III was still capable of siring an heir, but now the Haute Cour refused to endorse Amalric as king unless his marriage to Agnes was annulled. The hostility to Agnes, it must be admitted, may be exaggerated by the chronicler William of Tyre, whom she prevented from becoming Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem decades later, as well as from William's continuators like Ernoul, who hints at a slight on her moral character: "car telle n'est que roine doie iestre di si haute cite comme de Jherusalem" ("there should not be such a queen for so holy a city as Jerusalem").

Nevertheless, consanguinity was enough for the opposition. Amalric agreed and ascended the throne without a wife, although Agnes continued to hold the title Countess of Jaffa and Ascalon and received a pension from that fief's income. The church ruled that Amalric and Agnes' children were legitimate and preserved their place in the order of succession. Through her children Agnes would exert much influence in Jerusalem for almost 20 years. Almaric was succeeded by his son by Agnes, Baldwin IV.

Maria Comnena and Amalric I of Jerusalem
The marriage of Amalric I of Jerusalem and Maria Comnena at Tyre

Almaric's wives, Agnes of Courtenay, now married to Reginald of Sidon, and Maria Comnena, the dowager Queen, who had married Balian of Ibelin in 1177. His daughter by Agnes, Sibylla, was already of age, the mother of a son, and was clearly in a strong position to succeed her brother, but Maria's daughter Isabella had the support of her stepfather's family, the Ibelins.

In 1179, Baldwin began planning to marry Sibylla to Hugh III of Burgundy, but by spring 1180 this was still unresolved. Raymond III of Tripoli attempted a coup, and began to march on Jerusalem with Bohemund III, to force the king to marry his sister to a local candidate of his own choosing, probably Baldwin of Ibelin, Balian's older brother. To counter this, the king hastily arranged her marriage to Guy of Lusignan, younger brother of Amalric, the constable of the kingdom. A foreign match was essential to bring the possibility of external military aid to the kingdom. With the new French king Philip II a minor, Guy's status as a vassal of the King and Sibylla's first cousin Henry II of England – who owed the Pope a penitential pilgrimage – was useful.

BaldwinIV
William of Tyre discovers Baldwin's first symptoms of leprosy (MS ofL'Estoire d'Eracles (French translation of William of Tyre's Historia), painted in France, 1250s.British Library, London.)

By 1182, Baldwin IV, increasingly incapacitated by his leprosy, named Guy as bailli. Raymond contested this, but when Guy fell out of favour with Baldwin the following year, he was re-appointed bailli and was given possession of Beirut. Baldwin came to an agreement with Raymond and the Haute Cour to make Baldwin of Montferrat, Sibylla's son by her first marriage, his heir, before Sibylla and Guy. The child was crowned co-king as Baldwin V in 1183 in a ceremony presided by Raymond. It was agreed that, should the boy die during his minority, the regency would pass to "the most rightful heirs" until his kinsmen – the Kings of England and France and Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor – and the Pope were able to adjudicate between the claims of Sibylla and Isabella. These "most rightful heirs" were not named.

Baldwin IV died in spring 1185, and was succeeded by his nephew. Raymond was bailli, but he had passed Baldwin V's personal guardianship to Joscelin III of Edessa, his maternal great-uncle, claiming that he did not wish to attract suspicion if the child, who does not seem to have been robust, were to die. Baldwin V died during the summer of 1186, at Acre. Neither side paid any heed to Baldwin IV's will.

After the funeral, Joscelin had Sibylla named as her brother's successor, although she had to agree to divorce Guy, just as her father had divorced her mother, with the guarantee that she would be allowed to choose a new consort. Once crowned, she immediately crowned Guy. Meanwhile, Raymond had gone to Nablus, home of Balian and Maria, and summoned all those nobles loyal to Princess Isabella and the Ibelins. Raymond wanted instead to have her and her husband Humphrey IV of Toron crowned. However, Humphrey, whose stepfather Raynald of Châtillon was an ally of Guy, deserted him and swore allegiance to Guy and Sibylla.

Monarch Image Birth Marriages Death
Fulk
1131–1143
with Melisende
Melisende and Fulk of Jerusalem 1089/1092
Angers, France
son of Fulk IV, Count of Anjou and Bertrade de Montfort
Ermengarde of Maine
1109
4 children

Melisende of Jerusalem
2 June 1129
2 sons
13 November 1143
Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem
aged about 52
Baldwin III
1143–1163
with Melisende until 1153
Balduin3 big 1130
son of King Fulk and Queen Melisende
Theodora Komnene
1158
no children
10 February 1163
Beirut, Kingdom of Jerusalem
aged 33
Amalric I
1163–1174
Maria Comnena and Amalric I of Jerusalem 1136
son of King Fulk and Queen Melisende
Agnes of Courtenay
1157
3 children

Maria Komnene
29 August 1167
2 children
11 July 1174
Jerusalem
aged 38
Baldwin IV the Leprous
1174–1185
with Baldwin V from 1183
Balduin4 1161
Jerusalem
son of King Amalric and Agnes of Courtenay
never married 16 March 1185
Jerusalem
aged 24
Baldwin V
1183–1186
with Baldwin IV until 1185
BaldwinIVdeath-BaldwinVcrowned 1177
son of William of Montferrat and Sibylla of Jerusalem
never married August 1186
Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem
aged 9
Sibylla
1186–1190
with Guy
Lettrine-Sibylle guy c. 1157
daughter of King Amalric and Agnes of Courtenay
William of Montferrat, Count of Jaffa and Ascalon
1176
one son

Guy of Lusignan
April 1180
2 daughters
25 July (probable), 1190
Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem
aged about 40
Guy of Lusignan
1186–1190/1192
with Sibylla until 1190
Jan Lievens- King Guy of Lusignan and King Saladin c. 1150 or 1159/1160
son of Hugh VIII of Lusignan and Bourgogne de Rançon
Sibylla of Jerusalem
April 1180
2 daughters
18 July 1194
Nicosia, Cyprus
aged about 45
Isabella I
1190/1192-1205
with Conrad until 1192
with Henry I 1192–1197
with Amalric II from 1198
IsabelaKOnrad 1172
Nablus, Kingdom of Jerusalem
daughter of King Amalric I and Maria Komnene
Humphrey IV of Toron
November 1183
no children

Conrad of Montferrat
24 November 1190
one daughter

Henry II, Count of Champagne
6 May 1192
2 daughters

Amalric of Lusignan
January 1198
3 children
5 April 1205
Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem
aged 33
Conrad I of Montferrat
1190/1192–1192
with Isabella I
mid-1140s
Montferrat, Holy Roman Empire
son of William V, Marquess of Montferrat and Judith of Babenberg
unidentified woman
before 1179
no children

Theodora Angelina
1186/1187
no children

Isabella I of Jerusalem
24 November 1190
one daughter
28 April 1192 (murdered)
Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem
aged mid-40s
Henry I of Champagne
1192–1197
with Isabella I
Henry II of Champagne 29 July 1166
Champagne
son of Henry I, Count of Champagne and Marie of France
Isabella I of Jerusalem
6 May 1192
2 daughters
10 September 1197
Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem
aged 31
Amalric II of Lusignan
1198–1205
with Isabella I
Amaury II 1145
son of Hugh VIII of Lusignan and Bourgogne de Rançon
Éschive d'Ibelin
before 29 October 1174
6 children

Isabella I of Jerusalem
January 1198
3 children
1 April 1205
Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem
aged 60

Houses of Aleramici and Brienne (1205-1228)

Monarch Image Birth Marriages Death
Maria
1205–1212
with John I from 1210
JanBrienne 1192
daughter of Conrad of Montferrat and Queen Isabella
John of Brienne
14 September 1210
one daughter
1212
aged 20
John I
1210–1212
with Maria
c. 1170
son of Erard II of Brienne and Agnes de Montfaucon
Maria of Jerusalem
14 September 1210
one daughter

Stephanie of Armenia
one son

Berengaria of León
1224
4 children
27 March 1237
aged about 67
Isabella II
also called Yolande
1212–1228
with Frederick from 1225
DeathofYolande-Isabella 1212
daughter of John of Brienne and Queen Maria
Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor
9 November 1225
2 children
25 April 1228
Andria, Holy Roman Empire
aged 16
Frederick
1225–1228
with Isabella II
Frederick II and eagle 1194
son of Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor and Constance of Sicily
Constance of Aragon
15 August 1209
one son

Isabella II of Jerusalem
9 November 1225
2 children

Isabella of England
15 July 1235
4 children
13 December 1250
Apulia, Holy Roman Empire
aged 55

House of Hohenstaufen (1228-1268)

Monarch Image Birth Marriages Death
Conrad II
1228–1254
Conrad IV of Germany 25 April 1228
Andria, Holy Roman Empire
son of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor and Queen Isabella II
Elisabeth of Bavaria
1 September 1246
one son
21 May 1254
Lavello, Holy Roman Empire
aged 26
Conrad III
1254–1268
Konradin 25 March 1252
Wolfstein Castle, Landshut, Bavaria
son of King Conrad II and Elisabeth of Bavaria
never married 29 October 1268
Castel dell'Ovo, Naples
aged 16

House of Lusignan (1268-1291)

Monarch Image Birth Marriages Death
Hugh
1268–1284
1235
son of Henry of Antioch and Isabella of Cyprus, a granddaughter of Queen Isabella I
Isabella of Ibelin
after 25 January 1255
11 children
24 March 1284
Nicosia, Cyprus
aged 49
John II
1284–1285
1259/1267
son of King Hugh and Isabella of Ibelin
never married 20 May 1285
Nicosia, Cyprus
aged 17 or 26
Henry II
1285–1324
in title only after 1291
1271
son of King Hugh and Isabella of Ibelin
Constance of Sicily
16 October 1317
no children
31 August 1324
Strovolos, Cyprus
aged 53

Regents

The frequent absence or minority of monarchs required regents to be appointed many times throughout the Kingdom's existence.

Regent Regent for Relation to the monarch Became regent Regency ended
Eustace Grenier, Constable of the Kingdom Baldwin II 1123
King held captive by the Ortoqids
1123
death
William I of Bures, Prince of Galilee 1123
King held captive by the Ortoqids
1124
return of the King from captivity
Queen Melisende Baldwin III mother 1154
as the King's advisor
1161
death
Raymond III, Count of Tripoli Baldwin IV cousin 1174
minority of the King
1176
majority of the King
Guy of Lusignan brother-in-law 1182
appointed by the King in his illness
1184
deposed by the King
Raymond III, Count of Tripoli Baldwin V first cousin once removed 1185
minority of the King
1186
death of the King
John of Ibelin, the Old Lord of Beirut Maria half-uncle 1205
minority of the Queen
1210
majority of the Queen
King John I Isabella II father 1212
minority of the Queen
1225
the Queen's marriage
Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II father 1228
minority of the King
1243
majority of the king
Alice of Champagne, Queen of Cyprus half-aunt 1243
absence of the king
1246
death
Henry I of Cyprus half-cousin; son of Alice and Hugh I 1246
absence of the King
1253
death
Plaisance of Antioch, dowager Queen of Cyprus half-cousin-in-law 1253
absence/minority of the King
1261
death
Conrad III half-cousin-in-law once removed
Isabelle de Lusignan half-cousin once removed; daughter of Alice 1261
minority of the King
1264
death
Hugh of Antioch half-second cousin; son of Isabelle 1264
minority of the King
1268
death of the King, ascension to the throne

Claimant kings of Jerusalem (1291 until today)

Origins of the claims

Over the years, many European rulers claimed to be the rightful heirs to one of these claims. None of these claimants, however, has actually ruled over any part of the kingdom:

  • Count Hugh of Brienne claimed the regency of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, and indirectly, his place in the succession in 1264 as senior heir of Alice of Jerusalem, second daughter of Queen Isabella I, and Hugh I of Cyprus. Hugh, although the son of their eldest daughter, was passed over by the Haute Cour in favour of his cousin Hugh of Antioch, the future Hugh III of Cyprus and Hugh I of Jerusalem. The Brienne claim to the Kingdom of Jerusalem continued, but the family had afterwards next to no part in affairs in Outremer.
  • After the end of the kingdom, Henry II of Cyprus continued to use the title of King of Jerusalem. After his death the title was claimed by his successors, the kings of Cyprus.
  • The title was also continuously used by the Angevin kings of Naples, whose founder, Charles of Anjou, had in 1277 bought a claim to the throne from Mary of Antioch. Thereafter, this claim to the Kingdom of Jerusalem was treated as a tributary of the crown of Naples, which often changed hands by testament or conquest rather than direct inheritance. As Naples was a papal fief, the Popes often endorsed the title of King of Jerusalem as well as of Naples, and the history of these claims is that of the Neapolitan Kingdom.
  • The House of Lorraine inherited the claim from the Angevin kings through Rene II, son of Louis II of Naples and pretender to the Neapolitan throne. After the merger of the House of Lorraine with the Hapsburgs with the marriage of Francis I Stephen to Maria Theresa of Austria, the claim was inherited by the Hapsburgs and featured among the titles of the Emperors of Austria until 1918.

Potential claimants today

There are several potential claimants of the title today.

Lines of succession in several claims

Italics indicate individuals who did not themselves use the title of king of Jerusalem.

Cypriot claimants

House of Lusignan

House of Savoy: Savoyard claimants, heirs of Charlotte

House of Lusignan: Lusignan claimants and kings of Cyprus descended in the male line:

  • James II 1460–1473 (illegitimate son of John III, usurped Cyprus from his half-sister Charlotte)
  • James III 1473–1474
  • Catherine 1474–1489 (wife and widow of James II)
  • Catherine surrendered her rights to the Republic of Venice in 1489.

On the death of Charles II of Savoy, the Duchy of Savoy passed to his grand uncle and heir-male Philip (brother of Amadeus IX of Savoy). Although Charles II's sister Yolande Louise of Savoy did not succeed in Savoy because of her gender, she was the heir general of his brother and as such might be regarded to have succeeded him in claims to Cyprus and Jerusalem.

The Dukes of Savoy continued to claim Jerusalem. However, to avoid conflicts with claims of the major European houses as the Habsburg and Bourbons, the Savoyard claim appears hidden in the list of titles with the elliptical "&c."[4]

Issue of Philip II of Savoy

House of Savoy:

Issue of Amadeus IX of Savoy

  • Yolande Louise of Savoy 1496–1499. Married her 1st cousin once removed Philibert II of Savoy (nephew of Amadeus IX of Savoy). Without issue. Although her husband continued to use the royal titles of Cyprus and Jerusalem, her heir however was her first cousin Charlotte, who was the only surviving child of the marriage of her aunt Anna of Savoy (1455–1480) with the then Federigo di Aragona, Prince of Naples
  • Charlotte of Naples (died 1506)
  • Anne de Laval (died 1554)
  • Louis III de La Trémoille (died 1577). His issue succeeded to the Cypriot claims to the title of King of Jerusalem when his father died. As descendants of Frederick IV of Naples, they also claimed Naples (and Jerusalem)[5][6] and they also succeeded to the Brienne claims to Kingdom of Jerusalem of his distant cousin John Casimir of Poland at the latter's death 1672, uniting the successions of Brienne and of Cyprus to the de jure crown of Jerusalem.

Neapolitan claimants

Mary of Antioch claimed the throne of Jerusalem from 1269 to 1277. She was the daughter of Prince Bohemond IV of Antioch and his second wife Melisende of Cyprus. Melisende was the youngest daughter of Isabella, Queen of Jerusalem and her fourth husband, Amalric II of Jerusalem, king of Cyprus.

Since Mary was, at the time of the death of Conrad III (Conradin), the only living grandchild of queen Isabella, she claimed the throne on basis of proximity in blood to the kings of Jerusalem. Denied by the Haute Cour, she went to Rome and sold her rights, with papal blessing and confirmation, to Charles of Anjou in 1277.

Thereafter, this claim to the kingdom of Jerusalem was treated also as tributary to the crown of Naples, which often changed hands by testament or conquest rather than direct inheritance.

House of Anjou-Sicily

House of Anjou-Sicily: Senior Angevin claimants :

House of Valois-Anjou: Junior Angevin claimants :

House of Anjou-Hungary: Senior Angevin claimant :

House of Valois-Anjou

  • René I 1434–1480. René I united the claims of junior and senior lines. However, in 1441, control of the Kingdom of Naples was lost to Alfonso V of Aragon, who also claimed the kingdom of Jerusalem thereby.
While René was succeeded in Bar by his grandson René of Vaudemont, René's nephew and heir male Charles IV of Anjou claimed the kingdoms of Sicily and Jerusalem, and he then testamented them to his cousin Louis XI of France.

Aragonese claimants:

Angevin-Lorraine claimants : House of Valois-Anjou

House of Lorraine

House of Habsburg-Lorraine

French claimants: House of Valois-Anjou

  • Charles IV 1480–1481, heir male of René, Titular King of Jerusalem and Sicily

House of Valois

  • Louis 1481–1483, first cousin, by testament
  • Charles V 1483–1498 — In 1494 Charles VIII of France claimed the Kingdom of Naples and Jerusalem as the great-grandson of Louis II of Anjou and launched his conquest. In 1495, he had conquered Naples and was crowned as king.

House of Valois-Orléans

  • Louis V 1498–1515. He took up the claim, although he lacked close descent from the main Neapolitan lines (he was a descendant of the eldest daughter of Charles II of Naples). He succeeded in conquering part of Naples 1500–1504. No other French king has adopted the title. [2].

Spanish Bourbon claimant :

Habsburg claimant :

  • Charles VI 1702–1740, who claimed the Spanish possessions in opposition to Philip V; he renounced lost the Kingdom of Naples in 1734 to a Bourbon prince, the future Charles III of Spain, and renounced his claims, retaining his titles to Naples and Jerusalem during his lifetime.

Two Sicilies claimants:

Senior line:

Junior line:

Brienne claims

  • Hugh of Brienne and his heirs represent the senior heirs-general to the Kingdom, although they never pressed the claim after Hugh's rejection by the Haute Cour. In 1672, the succession of Brienne and of Cyprus to the crown of Jerusalem united.

Other historic claims

See also

References

  1. ^ Guy. 2012. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 27 August 2012, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/249989/Guy
  2. ^ a b Whitworth Porter (2013). A History of the Knights of Malta. Cambridge Library Collection - European History. Cambridge University Press. p. 18. ISBN 9781108066228. Retrieved 20 May 2014. Refusing the title of King and the diadem which were offered him, upon the plea that he would never wear a crown of gold where his Saviour had worn a crown of thorns, he modestly contented him with the title of Defender and Advocate of the Holy Sepulchre.
  3. ^ Adrian J. Boas. Jerusalem in the Time of the Crusades: Society, Landscape and Art in the Holy City under Frankish Rule. Pages 79-82. Routledge 2009. ISBN 9780415488754. [1]
  4. ^ Scott, John Beldon (2003) Architecture for the shroud: relic and ritual in Turin, University of Chicago Press
  5. ^ Catalogue of additions to the manuscripts - British Museum. Dept. of Manuscripts - Google Libros. Books.google.es. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
  6. ^ The ... history of the feats, gests, and prowesses of the chevalier Bayard ... - Jacques de Mailles - Google Libros. Books.google.es. Retrieved 27 November 2012.

For further reading

Aleramici

The Aleramici were a medieval Italian noble family of Frankish origin which ruled various northwestern counties and marches, in Piedmont and Liguria from the tenth to the 14th century.

Baldwin III of Jerusalem

Baldwin III (1130 – 10 February 1163) was King of Jerusalem from 1143 to 1163. He was the eldest son of Melisende and Fulk of Jerusalem. He became king while still a child, and was at first overshadowed by his mother Melisende, whom he eventually defeated in a civil war. During his reign Jerusalem became more closely allied with the Byzantine Empire, and the Second Crusade tried and failed to conquer Damascus. Baldwin captured the important Egyptian fortress of Ascalon, but also had to deal with the increasing power of Nur ad-Din in Syria. He died childless and was succeeded by his brother Amalric.

Baldwin II of Jerusalem

Baldwin II, also known as Baldwin of Bourcq or Bourg (French: Baudouin; died 21 August 1131), was Count of Edessa from 1100 to 1118, and King of Jerusalem from 1118 until his death. He accompanied his cousins, Godfrey of Bouillon, and Baldwin of Boulogne, to the Holy Land during the First Crusade. He succeeded Baldwin of Boulogne as the second count of Edessa when his cousin left the county for Jerusalem. He was captured at the Battle of Harran in 1104. He was held first by Sökmen of Mardin, then by Jikirmish of Mosul, and finally by Jawali Saqawa. During his captivity, Tancred, the Crusader ruler of the Principality of Antioch, and Tancred's cousin, Richard of Salerno, governed Edessa as Baldwin's regents.

Baldwin was ransomed by his cousin, Joscelin of Courtenay, Lord of Turbessel, in the summer of 1108. Tancred attempted to retain Edessa, but Bernard of Valence, the Latin Patriarch of Antioch, persuaded him to restore the county to Baldwin. Baldwin allied with Jawali, but Tancred and his ally, Radwan of Aleppo, defeated them at Turbessel. Baldwin and Tancred were reconciled at an assembly of the crusader leaders near Tripoli in April 1109. Mawdud, the Atabeg of Mosul, and his successor, Aqsunqur al-Bursuqi, launched a series of campaigns against Edessa in the early 1110s, devastating the eastern regions of the country. Baldwin accused Joscelin of treason for seizing the prosperous town of Turbessel from him in 1113 and captured the neighboring Armenian lordships in 1116 and 1117.

Baldwin of Boulogne, the first king of Jerusalem, died on 2 April 1118. He bequeathed Jerusalem to his brother, Eustace III of Boulogne, stipulating that the throne was to be offered to Baldwin if Eustace failed to come to the Holy Land. Arnulf of Chocques, the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, and Joscelin of Courtenay, who held the largest fief in the Kingdom of Jerusalem, convinced their peers to elect Baldwin king. Baldwin took possession of most towns in the kingdom and gave Edessa to Joscelin. After the army of the Principality of Antioch was almost annihilated on 28 June 1119, Baldwin was elected regent for the absent Bohemond II of Antioch. The frequent Seljuq invasions of Antioch forced him to spend most of his time in the principality, which caused discontent in Jerusalem. After Nur al-Daulak Balak captured him in April 1123, a group of noblemen offered the throne to Charles I, Count of Flanders, but Charles refused. During his absence, the Jerusalemite troops captured Tyre with the assistance of a Venetian fleet. After he was released in August 1124, he tried to capture Aleppo, but al-Bursuqi forced him to abandon the siege in early 1125.

Bohemond II came to Syria in October 1126. Baldwin gave his second daughter, Alice, in marriage to him and also renounced the regency. Baldwin planned to conquer Damascus, but he needed external support to achieve his goal. He married off his eldest daughter, Melisende, to the wealthy Fulk V, Count of Anjou in 1129. The new troops who accompanied Fulk to Jerusalem enabled Baldwin to invade Damascene territory, but he could seize only Banias with the support of the Nizari (or Assassins) in late 1129. After Bohemond II was killed in a battle in early 1130, Baldwin forced Alice to leave Antioch and assumed the regency for her daughter, Constance. He fell seriously ill in Antioch and took monastic vows before he died in the Holy Sepulchre. Baldwin had been respected for his military talent, but he was notorious for his "love for money".

Baldwin IV of Jerusalem

Baldwin IV (French: Baudouin; Latin: Balduinus; 1161 – 16 March 1185), called the Leper,

or The Leper King, reigned as King of Jerusalem from 1174 until his death. He was the son of Amalric I of Jerusalem and his first wife, Agnes of Courtenay.

Baldwin I of Jerusalem

Baldwin I, also known as Baldwin of Boulogne (1060s – 2 April 1118), was the first count of Edessa from 1098 to 1100, and the second crusader ruler and first king of Jerusalem from 1100 to his death. Being a younger son, he was destined for a church career, but he abandoned it and married a Norman noblewoman, Godehilde of Tosny. He received the County of Verdun in 1096, but he soon joined the crusader army of his brother, Godfrey of Bouillon and became one of the most successful commanders of the First Crusade.

Baldwin and the Norman Tancred launched a separate expedition against Cilicia in the autumn of 1097. Tancred tried to capture Tarsus, but Baldwin forced him to leave it, which gave rise to an enduring conflict between them. Baldwin seized important fortresses in the lands to the west of the Euphrates with the assistance of local Armenians. Thoros of Edessa invited him to come to Edessa to fight against the Seljuqs. Taking advantage of a riot against Thoros, Baldwin seized the town and established the first crusader state on 10 March 1098. To strengthen his rule, the widowed Baldwin married an Armenian ruler's daughter (who is now known as Arda). He supplied the main crusader army with food during the siege of Antioch. He defended Edessa against Kerbogha, the governor of Mosul, for three weeks, preventing him from reaching Antioch before the crusaders captured it.

Godfrey of Bouillon, whom the crusaders had elected their first ruler in Jerusalem, died in 1100. Daimbert, the Latin patriarch, and Tancred offered Jerusalem to Tancred's uncle, Bohemond I of Antioch. Godfrey's retainers took possession of the town and urged Baldwin to claim Godfrey's inheritance. Since a Muslim ruler captured Bohemond, Baldwin marched to Jerusalem meeting little resistance. The Patriarch crowned him king in Bethlehem on 25 December. He captured Arsuf and Caesarea in 1101, Acre in 1104, Beirut in 1110, and Sidon in 1111, with the assistance of Genoese and Venetian fleets and of several smaller crusader groups, but all his attempts to capture Ascalon and Tyre failed. After his victory at the third battle of Ramla in 1105, the Egyptians launched no further major campaigns against the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

Baldwin helped Bertrand, Count of Toulouse, to capture Tripoli in 1109. Being the only crowned monarch in the Latin East, Baldwin claimed suzerainty over other crusader rulers. Baldwin II of Edessa and Bertrand swore fealty to him. Tancred, who ruled the Principality of Antioch, also obeyed his summons. He supported Baldwin II and Tancred against Kerbogha's successor, Mawdud, who launched a series of campaigns against Edessa and Antioch in the early 1110s. He erected fortresses in Oultrejordain—the territory to the east of the river Jordan—to control the caravan routes between Syria and Egypt. He died during a campaign against Egypt.

Baldwin V of Jerusalem

Baldwin V (Baldwin of Montferrat, also known as Baudouinet; August 1177 – August 1186) was crowned co-King of Jerusalem with his uncle, Baldwin IV in 1183, and once his uncle died, reigned alone from 1185 to 1186 under the regency of Count Raymond III of Tripoli. He was succeeded by his mother Sibylla and stepfather Guy.

Bertrand, Count of Toulouse

Bertrand of Toulouse (or Bertrand of Tripoli) (died 1112) was count of Toulouse, and was the first count of Tripoli to rule in Tripoli itself.

Bertrand was the eldest son of Raymond IV of Toulouse, and had ruled Toulouse since Raymond left on the First Crusade in 1095. He was, between 1098 and 1100, dispossessed by his cousin Philippa and her husband Duke William IX of Aquitaine, who marched into Toulouse and captured it. Later they mortgaged it back to Bertrand in 1100 to fund Duke William's expedition to the Holy Land. Bertrand officially became count of Toulouse when Raymond died in 1105, and in 1108 he headed to Tripoli to take control there as well. He deposed Raymond's nephew William-Jordan as nominal count of Tripoli in 1109, and with Baldwin I, king of Jerusalem, and a fleet of Genoese ships he captured Tripoli on 12 July.Bertrand married in June 1095, Helie of Burgundy, daughter of Eudes I.Bertrand ruled in Tripoli until his death in 1112. He was succeeded by his son Pons in Tripoli, and by his brother Alphonse-Jordan in Toulouse - although Toulouse was at that point again lost to Philippa and William.

Conrad IV of Germany

Conrad (25 April 1228 – 21 May 1254), a member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was the only son of Emperor Frederick II from his second marriage with Queen Isabella II of Jerusalem. He inherited the title of a King of Jerusalem (as Conrad II) upon the death of his mother in childbed. Appointed Duke of Swabia in 1235, his father had him elected King of Germany (King of the Romans) and crowned King of Italy (as Conrad IV) in 1237. After the emperor was deposed and died in 1250, he ruled as King of Sicily (Conrad I) until his death.

Coronations in Asia

Note: this article is one of a set, describing coronations around the world.

For general information related to all coronations, please see the umbrella article Coronation.

Coronations in Asia in the strict sense are and historically were rare, as only few monarchies, primarily in Western Asia, ever adopted the concept that the placement of a crown symbolised the monarch's investiture. Instead, most monarchies in Asia used a form of acclamation or enthronement ceremony, in which the monarch formally ascends to the throne, and may be presented with certain regalia, and may receive homage from his or her subjects. This article covers both coronations and enthronement.

County of Edessa

The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century. Its seat was the city of Edessa (present-day Şanlıurfa, Turkey).

In the late Byzantine period, Edessa became the centre of intellectual life within the Syriac Orthodox Church. As such it also became the centre for the translation of Ancient Greek philosophy into Syriac, which provided a stepping stone for the subsequent translations into Arabic. When the Crusades arrived, it was still important enough to tempt a side-expedition after the Siege of Antioch.Baldwin of Boulogne, the first Count of Edessa, became King of Jerusalem, and subsequent counts were his cousins. Unlike the other Crusader states, the County was landlocked. It was remote from the other states and was not on particularly good terms with its closest neighbor, the Principality of Antioch. Half of the county, including its capital, was located east of the Euphrates, far to the east, rendering it particularly vulnerable. The west part of the Euphrates was controlled from the stronghold of Turbessel. The eastern border of Edessa was the Tigris, but the County may not have extended quite that far.The fall of Edessa in 1144 was the first major setback for Outremer and provoked the Second Crusade. All the later Crusades, however, were troubled by strategic uncertainties and disagreements. The Second Crusade did not even try to recover Edessa, calculating it to be strategically better to take Damascus. But the campaign failed and Edessa was lost for the Christians.

Today, the city is called Şanlıurfa and is part of modern-day Turkey; it retains nothing of its former importance. The Oriental Orthodox community largely disappeared after the Armenian Genocide during World War I.

Fulk, King of Jerusalem

Fulk (Latin: Fulco, French: Foulque or Foulques; c. 1089/92 – 13 November 1143), also known as Fulk the Younger, was the Count of Anjou (as Fulk V) from 1109 to 1129 and the King of Jerusalem from 1131 to his death. During his reign, the Kingdom of Jerusalem reached its largest territorial extent.

Godfrey of Bouillon

Godfrey of Bouillon (French: Godefroy de Bouillon, Dutch: Godfried van Bouillon, German: Gottfried von Bouillon, Latin: Godefridus Bullionensis; 18 September 1060 – 18 July 1100) was a Frankish knight and one of the leaders of the First Crusade from 1096 until its conclusion in 1099. He was the Lord of Bouillon, from which he took his byname, from 1076 and the Duke of Lower Lorraine from 1087. After the successful siege of Jerusalem in 1099, Godfrey became the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. He refused the title of King, however, as he believed that the true King of Jerusalem was Jesus Christ, preferring the title of Advocate (i.e., protector or defender) of the Holy Sepulchre (Latin: Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri). He is also known as the "Baron of the Holy Sepulchre" and the "Crusader King".

Henry II of Jerusalem

Henry II (June 1270 – 31 August 1324) was the last crowned King of Jerusalem (after the fall of Acre on 28 May 1291, this title became empty) and also ruled as King of Cyprus. He was a Lusignan dynast.

He was the second surviving son of Hugh III and succeeded his brother John I on 20 May 1285; there was some suspicion that Henry had been involved in poisoning John. He was crowned at Santa Sophia, Nicosia, 24 June 1285. Charles of Anjou, who contested John's claim to the throne, had died in 1285, allowing Henry to recover Acre from the Angevins. With a fleet Henry attacked Acre, defended by Charles' lieutenant Hugh Pelerin, and the city was captured on 29 July. Henry had himself crowned King of Jerusalem there on 15 August 1286, but returned to Cyprus and appointed his uncle Philip of Ibelin as Bailiff in his absence. By this time Acre was one of the few coastal cities remaining in the remnant of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. During his reign the Mameluks captured Tyre, Beirut, and the rest of the cities, and destroyed the similarly weakened County of Tripoli in 1289. The final siege of Acre began on 5 April 1291 with Henry present in the city. He escaped to Cyprus with most of his nobles, and the city fell to Khalil on 28 May.

Henry continued to rule as King of Cyprus, and continued to claim the kingdom of Jerusalem as well, often planning to recover the former territory on the mainland. He attempted a coordinated military operation in 1299/1300 with Ghazan, the Mongol ilkhan of Persia, when Ghazan invaded Mameluk territory in 1299 (see Franco-Mongol alliance); he tried to stop Genoese ships

from trading with the Mameluks, hoping to weaken them economically; and he twice wrote to Pope Clement V asking for a new crusade. His reign in Cyprus was prosperous and wealthy, and he was very much involved with the justice and administration of the kingdom — he had the Haute Cour keep written records for the first time (in Italian or French, rather than Latin), and extended the court's role from a feudal advisory body to a true court responsible for trying and punishing criminals. However, Cyprus was in no position to fulfill his true ambition, the recovery of the Holy Land. He suffered from epilepsy, which at times incapacitated him, and his nobles were unsatisfied with him. He had his brother Guy, the Constable of Cyprus, put to death in 1303 for conspiring against him. In 1306 his brother Amalric, Prince of Tyre, Constable of Jerusalem, conspired with the Templars to remove him from power. However, Amalric assumed the title of Governor and Regent of Cyprus, rather than of King. Henry was deposed on 26 April and exiled to Armenia, where King Oshin of Armenia was Amalric's brother-in-law. However, upon the murder of Amalric in 1310, Oshin released Henry, who returned to Cyprus and resumed his throne with the aid of the Hospitallers on 26 August 1310, imprisoning many of Amalric's co-conspirators, including their brother Constable Aimery, brother-in-law Balian II of Ibelin, Prince of Galilee, and other relatives of Balian. In 1313, he oversaw the dissolution of the Templars in Cyprus and the transfer of their property to the Hospitallers.

He married Constance of Sicily (1303/1307 – in Cyprus after 19 June 1344), daughter of Frederick III of Sicily and Eleanor of Anjou, at Santa Sophia, Nicosia, on 16 October 1317 but they didn't have any children. She later married Leon V of Armenia and Jean de Lusignan, Titular Prince of Antioch.

Henry died on 31 August 1324 at his Villa in Strovolos, near Nicosia, was buried at the Franciscan Church of Nicosia and was succeeded by his nephew Hugh IV.

Hugh III of Cyprus

Hugh III of Cyprus (1235 – 24 March 1284), born Hugues de Poitiers, later Hugues de Lusignan (he adopted his mother's surname de Lusignan in 1267), called the Great, was the King of Cyprus from 1267 and King of Jerusalem from 1268 (as Hugh I of Jerusalem). He was the son of Henry of Antioch and Isabelle de Lusignan, the daughter of king Hugh I of Cyprus. He was a grandson of Bohemund IV of Antioch and thus a descendant of Robert Guiscard.

From 1261 he served as Regent for Hugh II of Cyprus in Cyprus, as the Haute Cour of Cyprus considered him, as a male, a better regent than his mother Isabella. She was, however, accepted as the Regent of Jerusalem in 1263. She died in 1264, and Hugh became the acting regent of the Kingdom of Jerusalem as well as Cyprus. The regency was contested by his first cousin, Hugh of Brienne, who was the son of Mary of Cyprus, the eldest daughter of Hugh I and hence the senior heir to Cyprus, and heir to Jerusalem after Hugh II. However, the Haute Cour of Jerusalem declared Hugh of Antioch the next regent, as successor to Isabella in proximity of blood.

Hugh II died in 1267 without heirs. As Hugh of Brienne did not advance his claim on the throne, Hugh of Antioch succeeded as uncontested King of Cyprus on 5 December and was crowned at Santa Sophia, in Nicosia, on 24 December. He claimed the Kingdom of Jerusalem as well in 1267 or 1268 upon the execution of Conradin. However, the throne of Jerusalem was also claimed by Mary of Antioch by proximity of blood to Conradin. The Haute Cour of Jerusalem rejected her claim and Hugh was crowned King of Jerusalem at Tyre on 24 September 1269.

Hugh and his descendants, the Kings of Cyprus, assumed his mother's surname of Lusignan in 1267, having inherited Cyprus through that family, thus establishing the Second House of Lusignan.

Hugh disliked dealing with the various factions in the Kingdom of Jerusalem, and left for Cyprus in 1276 in disgust at their defiance of his authority. The next year, his bailiff, Balian of Ibelin, Lord of Arsuf, was ejected by Roger of Sanseverino, the bailiff of Charles of Anjou, who had purchased the claim of Mary of Antioch. The kingdom remained under Angevin control for the rest of Hugh's reign.

It is supposed that Thomas Aquinas' work On Kingship was written for Hugh III.

He was buried at Santa Sophia, in Nicosia.

Hugh IV of Cyprus

Hugh IV (1293×96 – 10 October 1359) was King of Cyprus from 31 March 1324 to his abdication, on 24 November 1358 and, nominally, King of Jerusalem, as Hugh II, until his death. The son of Guy, Constable of Cyprus (son of Hugh III of Cyprus), and Eschiva of Ibelin, Hugh succeeded his father as Constable of Cyprus in 1318, and later succeeded to the throne of Cyprus on the death of his uncle Henry II, since Henry II had no son. He was a member of the House of Poitiers-Lusignan.

Hugh VIII of Lusignan

Hugh VIII the Old of Lusignan or Hugh III of La Marche (French: Hugues le Vieux) was the eldest son of Hugh VII and of Sarrasine or Saracena de Lezay. He became Seigneur de Lusignan, Couhé, and Château-Larcher and Count of La Marche on his father's death in 1151. Born in Poitou, 1106–1110 or some time after 1125, he died in the Holy Land in 1165 or 1171.

He married in 1140/1141 Bourgogne or Burgondie de Rancon, Dame de Fontenay, daughter of Geoffroi or Geoffroy de Rancon, Seigneur de Taillebourg and wife Fossefie (Falsifie), Dame de Moncontour, by whom he also became Seigneur de Fontenay: she died on April 11, 1169. In 1163 or 1164 he went on pilgrimage and on crusade to the Holy Land and participated in the Battle of Harim, where he was taken prisoner.

His children were:

Hugh de Lusignan, Co-Seigneur de Lusignan in 1164 (c. 1141–1169), married before 1162 Orengarde N, who died in 1169, leaving two sons who were infants at the time of his death

Hugh IX of Lusignan

Raoul I de Lusignan, Count of Eu

Robert de Lusignan, died young c. 1150

Geoffrey I de Lusignan (bef. 1150 – May, 1224), Seigneur of Moncontour and Seigneur de Soubise, Seigneur de Vouvent, de Mervent by first marriage, Count of Jaffa and Ascalon on July 28, 1191 (he relinquished these titles upon his return from the Holy Land in 1193), who fought in the Siege of Acre. Married firstly before 1200 Eustache de Chabot, Dame de Vouvent et Dame de Mervent (d. after 1200), and secondly c. 1202 Humberge de Limoges, daughter of Aimar VI, Vicomte de Limoges and wife Sarra de Cornouailles, and had one son by each marriage:

Geoffrey II de Lusignan, Seigneur de Vouvent, de Mevent et de Montcontour, married 1223 Clémence de Chattellerault, Dame de Chattellerault, without issue

William de Lusignan, married c. 1226 Margaret de Mauléon, and had one daughter:

Valence de Lusignan, married aft. 1247 Hugues III de Parthenay (d. 1271)

Peter de Lusignan (bef. 1155 – aft. December, 1174), witnessed a charter in Antioch in 1174, but is otherwise not documented. He died probably as a Priest.

Amalric de Lusignan, born about 1145, died 1205. He succeeded his younger brother Guy as ruler of Cyprus; later he was crowned King of Cyprus, the first of the Lusignan dynasty, and eventually also became King of Jerusalem.

Guy of Lusignan, died 1194. He was regent and afterwards King of Jerusalem. After the loss of Jerusalem he became Lord of Cyprus.

William de Lusignan or de Valence, born after 1163, betrothed to Beatrix de Courtenay, daughter of Joscelin III of Edessa, in 1186. The marriage does not seem to have taken place. He died before 1208.

Isabella II of Jerusalem

Isabella II (1212 – 25 April 1228) also known as Yolande of Brienne, was a princess of French origin who became monarch of Jerusalem.

John II of Jerusalem

John II of Jerusalem (1259 or ca. 1267 – 20 May 1285 in Nicosia) was the eldest son of Hugh III de Poitiers, king of Cyprus and Isabella of Ibelin. He succeeded his father as King of Cyprus (as John I) on March 24 and was crowned at Santa Sophia, Nicosia on May 11, 1284. His succession as King of Jerusalem was opposed by Charles I of Naples, who had also disrupted his father's succession. John died the following year on 20 May, having never married and leaving no children. He was buried in the church of St. Demetrius or according to some Santa Sophia, in Nicosia. According to some authors he was poisoned by his brothers, one of whom, Henry II, succeeded him in Cyprus and Jerusalem. He died unmarried and without issue.

John of Brienne

John of Brienne (c. 1170 – 27 March 1237), also known as John I, was King of Jerusalem from 1210 to 1225 and Latin Emperor of Constantinople from 1229 to 1237. He was the youngest son of Erard II of Brienne, a wealthy nobleman in Champagne. John, originally destined for an ecclesiastical career, became a knight and owned small estates in Champagne around 1200. After the death of his brother, Walter III, he ruled the County of Brienne on behalf of his minor nephew Walter IV (who lived in southern Italy).

The barons of the Kingdom of Jerusalem proposed that John marry their queen, Maria. With the consent of Philip II of France and Pope Innocent III, he left France for the Holy Land and married the queen; the couple were crowned in 1210. After Maria's death in 1212 John administered the kingdom as regent for their infant daughter, Isabella II; an influential lord, John of Ibelin, attempted to depose him. John was a leader of the Fifth Crusade. Although his claim of supreme command of the crusader army was never unanimously acknowledged, his right to rule Damietta (in Egypt) was confirmed shortly after the town fell to the crusaders in 1219. He claimed the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia on behalf of his second wife, Stephanie, in 1220. After Stephanie and their infant son died that year, John returned to Egypt. The Fifth Crusade ended in failure (including the recovery of Damietta by the Egyptians) in 1221.

John was the first king of Jerusalem to visit Europe (Italy, France, England, León, Castile and Germany) to seek assistance for the Holy Land. He gave his daughter in marriage to Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II in 1225, and Frederick ended John's rule of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Although the popes tried to persuade Frederick to restore the kingdom to John, the Jerusalemite barons regarded Frederick as their lawful ruler. John administered papal domains in Tuscany, became the podestà of Perugia and was a commander of Pope Gregory IX's army during Gregory's war against Frederick in 1228 and 1229.

He was elected emperor in 1229 as the senior co-ruler (with Baldwin II) of the Latin Empire, and was crowned in Constantinople in 1231. John III Vatatzes, Emperor of Nicaea, and Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria occupied the last Latin territories in Thrace and Asia Minor, besieging Constantinople in early 1235. John directed the defence of his capital during the months-long siege, with the besiegers withdrawing only after Geoffrey II of Achaea and united fleets from Italian towns defeated their fleet in 1236. The following year, John died as a Franciscan friar.

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