King of Bahrain

The King of Bahrain (Arabic: ملك البحرين‎) is the monarch and head of state of Bahrain. Between 1783 and 1971, the Bahraini monarch held the title of Hakim, and, from 1971 until 2002, the title of Emir. On 14 February 2002, the then-Emir of Bahrain, Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, declared Bahrain a kingdom and proclaimed himself the first king.

The King enjoys wide range of powers, which include appointing the Prime Minister and the Cabinet, holding the supreme command over the Defence Force, chairing the Higher Judicial Council, appointing the parliament's upper half and dissolving its elected lower half.[1] (p. 15)

King of Bahrain
ملك البحرين
Malik al-Baḥrayn
Royal Standard of Bahrain
Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa April 2016
Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
since 6 March 1999 as Emir
since 14 February 2002 as King
StyleHis Majesty
Heir apparentSalman bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
First monarchAhmed ibn Muhammad ibn Khalifa (Hakim)
Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifah (King)
Formation1783 (Hakimmiyah)
16 August 1971 (Emirate)
14 February 2002 (Kingdom)
ResidenceRiffa Palace
WebsiteOfficial website

List of monarchs

Hakims of Bahrain (1783–1971)

The Arabic title of the Hakim, as transliterated, was Hakim al-Bahrayn (English: Caretaker of Bahrain). The Hakim also held the honorific title of sheikh.

Name Reign start Reign end Notes
Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn Khalifa
1783 1796 Leader of the Bani Utub invasion of Bahrain
Abdullah ibn Ahmad Al Khalifa
1796 1843 As co-regent
Sulman ibn Ahmad Al Khalifa
1796 1825 As co-regent with Abdullah ibn Ahmad Al Khalifa
Khalifah ibn Sulman Al Khalifa
1825 1837 As co-regent with Abdullah ibn Ahmad Al Khalifa
Muhammad ibn Khalifah Al Khalifa
1834 1842 First reign as co-regent with Abdullah ibn Ahmad Al Khalifa
Muhammad ibn Khalifah Al Khalifa
1843 1887 Second reign
Ali ibn Khalifah Al Khalifa
1868 1869
Muhammad ibn Khalifah Al Khalifa
1869 1869 Third reign
Muhammad ibn Abdullah Al Khalifa
September 1869 1 December 1877
HH Sheikh
Isa ibn Ali Al Khalifa
1 December 1869 26 May 1923 Abdicated; died on 9 December 1932
HH Sheikh
Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifa
27 May 1923 20 February 1942
HH Sheikh
Salman bin Hamad Al Khalifa
20 February 1942 2 November 1961
HH Sheikh
Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa
2 November 1961 16 August 1971

Emirs of Bahrain (1971–2002)

The Arabic title of the Emir, as transliterated, was Amir dawlat al-Bahrayn (English: Chief of the State of Bahrain). The Emir also held the honorific title of sheikh.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
HH Sheikh
Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa
  • عيسى بن سلمان آل خليفة
3 June 1931 – 6 March 1999 (aged 67)16 August 19716 March 1999[2]Son of Salman bin Hamad Al Khalifa and Mouza bint Hamad Al KhalifaKhalifaIsa bin Salman Al Khalifa 1998
HH Sheikh
Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
  • حمد بن عيسى آل خليفة
28 January 1951 (age 68)6 March 199914 February 2002Son of Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa and Hessa bint Salman Al KhalifaKhalifaHamad bin Isa Al Khalifa April 2016

King of Bahrain (2002–present)

The Arabic title of the King, as transliterated, is Malik al-Bahrayn (English: King of Bahrain). The King also holds the honorific title of sheikh.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
HM King
Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
  • حمد بن عيسى آل خليفة
28 January 1951 (age 68)14 February 2002IncumbentSon of Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa and Hessa bint Salman Al KhalifaKhalifaHamad bin Isa Al Khalifa April 2016

See also


  1. ^ "(Report). Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry. 23 November 2011" (PDF). BICI. 23 November 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
  2. ^ Jehl, Douglas (7 March 1999). "Sheik Isa, 65, Emir of Bahrain Who Built Non-Oil Economy". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
2017–18 Bahraini King's Cup

The 2017–18 Bahraini King's Cup is the 16th season of the national football competition of Bahrain since it was renamed as the King's Cup in 2003 (named Emir Cup or Federation Cup before). The winners of the competition will earn a spot in the 2019 AFC Cup.

The competition started on 12 October 2017.

Al Meethaq

Al Meethaq (جمعية ميثاق العمل الوطني), or the 'National Action Charter Society', is a liberal political party in Bahrain. It was founded by Sunni and Shia businessmen from well-known families in 2002.It won no seats in the 2002 or 2006 general elections. Sixteen of its members were appointed by the King of Bahrain in 2002 to the wholly appointed Consultative Council of Bahrain which co-legislates with the elected Council of Representatives of Bahrain.With other liberal groups al Meethaq has established the Al Muntada activist group which campaigns for personal freedoms.The party's leader is Ahmad Juma, who is culture editor of the newspaper, Al Ayam.

Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry

The Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry (BICI), also known locally in Bahrain as the Bassiouni Commission, was established by the King of Bahrain on 29 June 2011 tasked with looking into the incidents that occurred during the period of unrest in Bahrain in February and March 2011 and the consequences of these events.

The commission released a 500-page report 23 November 2011, which took 9,000 testimonies, offered an extensive chronology of events, documented 46 deaths, 559 allegations of torture, and more than 4,000 cases of employees dismissed for participating in protests. The report criticized the security forces for many instances when "force and firearms were used in an excessive manner that was, on many occasions, unnecessary, disproportionate, and indiscriminate;" and found that certain abuses, such as destruction of property, "could not have happened without the knowledge of higher echelons of the command structure." The report also stated that the violence in Bahrain "was the result of an escalating process in which both the Government and the opposition have their share of responsibility in allowing events to unfold as they did".The report confirmed the Bahraini government's use of systematic torture and other forms of physical and psychological abuse on detainees, as well as other human rights violations. It also rejected the government's claims that the protests were instigated by Iran. It has been criticised for not disclosing the names of individual perpetrators of abuses and extending accountability only to those who actively carried out human rights violations.

Bahrain Polytechnic

Bahrain Polytechnic is a government-owned tertiary education institute located in the Kingdom of Bahrain. It has been established by King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa; King of Bahrain by Royal Decree in July 2008. It is considered a key initiative for the Education and Training Development Committee; a project of the Bahrain Vision 2030 master plan. Bahrain Polytechnic delivers applied learning, technical education, skills-based and occupational training. Degrees offered range from certificate courses, diplomas, to bachelor's degree levels.

Consultative Council (Bahrain)

The Consultative Council (Majlis al-shura) is the name given to the upper house of the National Assembly, the main legislative body of Bahrain.

The Council comprises forty members appointed directly by the King of Bahrain. The forty seats of the Consultative Council combined with the forty elected seats of the Council of Representatives form the National Assembly of Bahrain. All laws (except for "Royal decrees") have to be passed by both chambers of the Assembly. This allows technical expertise and minority communities a role within the legislative process: in Bahrain, a Bahraini Christian woman, Alees Samaan and a Bahraini Jewish man have been appointed. After there was widespread disappointment that no women were elected to the lower house in 2002's general election, four women were appointed to the Consultative Council.

Alees Samann made history in the Arab world on 18 April 2004 when she became the first woman to chair a session of parliament in the region. The BBC reported: "Incidents of this kind in the Arab world are increasingly being seen as signs of a gradual change towards more open and democratic societies in the entire region."

Supporters of the system refer to democracies such as the United Kingdom and Canada which operate the same bicameral model with an appointed upper chamber and an elected lower chamber. However, the government which nominates citizens to the upper chamber is accountable to the members of the lower house, and therefore the British and Canadian electorates respectively. Further, while these upper chambers each hold a constitutional veto over legislation, it is heavily restricted by constitutional and political convention.

Critics state that the ruling family has sought to use the appointed Consultative Council to guarantee veto power over all legislation. The council includes Faisal Fulad, an activist accused in the Bandargate scandal of illegally receiving a monthly stipend of BD500 (US$1,326) for fomenting sectarian hatred.

Following a political reconciliation between the government and the four party Shia Islamist Al Wefaq-led opposition, there have been persistent rumours that the government is preparing to nominate their activists to the Shura Council. While government officials have denied the plan, reports in the press in April 2006 claimed that opposition leaders have received assurances from a government middleman that some of their iconic figures could be appointed to the Shura. The report added that the opposition leaders "neither accepted nor rejected the offer, but promised to study it carefully".Two members of the Consultative Council, both of them women, have been appointed to the cabinet: Dr Nada Haffadh became Bahrain's first woman cabinet minister in 2004 when she became Minister of Health; the second woman to be appointed to the cabinet, Social Affairs Minister Dr Fatima Baloushi, also previous served on the Council.

The chairman of the Consultative Council serves as the chairman of the joint National Assembly of Bahrain when it meets. The term of the council is four years.

Elections in Bahrain

The National Assembly is bicameral with the lower house, the Chamber of Deputies, having 40 members elected in single-seat constituencies for a four-year term. The upper house, the Shura Council, has 40 members appointed by the King of Bahrain, with the stated aim of giving a voice to minority communities and technocratic experts within the legislative process. Supporters of the system refer to long established democracies the United Kingdom and Canada operating with this bicameralism with an appointed upper chamber and an elected lower chamber. Opponents of this system point out that unlike the bicameral systems in the UK and Canada, the Bahraini system gives the unelected upper house equal or more legislative power than the elected lower house, allowing the King to control all legislation. Opponents also point out that the current system was imposed unilaterally by the King, violating the 1973 Constitution and a 2001 signed agreement with the Bahraini opposition.

Bahrain’s electoral framework is unfair, with electoral districts deliberately designed to underrepresent Shiites, who form a majority of the citizen population. The government has also allegedly drawn district borders to put certain political societies, including leftist and Sunni Islamist groups, at a disadvantage. The government directorate responsible for administering elections is headed by the justice minister, a member of the royal family, and is not an independent body.

Hamad Town

Madinat Hamad or Hamad Town (Arabic: مدينة حمد‎; transliterated: Madīnat Ḥamad) is a primarily commuter city within northern Bahrain. It was a municipality of Bahrain in the central part of the country. It was split from the municipality of Ar Rifa' wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah in 1991. Its territory is now in the Northern Governorate. Its name refers to the current king of Bahrain, Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifah. The city is culturally diverse, housing a proportionally mixed Shia-Sunni population of varying socio-economic backgrounds. Today, Hamad Town is an epitome of Bahraini multiculturalism, with no single ethnic or religious group making up the majority of inhabitants.

Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa

Hamad bin Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa (Arabic: حمد بن عيسى بن سلمان آل خليفة‎ Ḥamad bin ʿĪsā bin Salmān ʾĀl Ḫalīfah; born 28 January 1951) has been the monarch of Bahrain since 6 March 1999, initially as emir, and from 14 February 2002, as the first King of Bahrain. He is the son of Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa, the previous and first emir. The country has been ruled by the Al Khalifa dynasty since 1783.

House of Khalifa

The House of Khalifa (Arabic: آل خليفة‎ Āl Khalīfah) is the ruling family of Bahrain. The Al Khalifas profess Sunni Islam and belong to the Utub tribe that migrated from Najd to Kuwait in the early 18th century. The Utub tribe is part of the larger Anizah tribal confederation. The current head of the family is Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, who became the Emir of Bahrain in 1999 and proclaimed himself King of Bahrain in 2002, in fact becoming a constitutional monarch.

As of 2010, roughly half of the serving cabinet ministers of Bahrain have been selected from the Al Khalifa royal family, while the country's only Prime Minister, Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa, (serving since independence in 1971) is also from the Al Khalifa family and is the uncle of the current King.


King, or king regnant is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, while the title of queen on its own usually refers to the consort of a king.

In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contemporary indigenous peoples, the title may refer to tribal kingship. Germanic kingship is cognate with Indo-European traditions of tribal rulership (c.f. Indic rājan, Gothic reiks, and Old Irish rí, etc.).

In the context of classical antiquity, king may translate in Latin as rex and in Greek as archon or basileus.

In classical European feudalism, the title of king as the ruler of a kingdom is understood to be the highest rank in the feudal order, potentially subject, at least nominally, only to an emperor (harking back to the client kings of the Roman Empire).

In a modern context, the title may refer to the ruler of one of a number of modern monarchies (either absolute or constitutional). The title of king is used alongside other titles for monarchs: in the West, prince, emperor, archduke, duke or grand duke, and in the Middle East, sultan or emir, etc.The term king may also refer to a king consort, a title that is sometimes given to the husband of a ruling queen, but the title of prince consort is sometimes granted instead. A king dowager is the male equivalent of the queen dowager. A king father is a king dowager who is also the father of the reigning sovereign.

Line of succession to the Bahraini throne

Succession to the Bahraini throne is determined by primogeniture amongst the male descendants of Sheikh Isa bin Ali Al Khalifa (1848 – 1932). However, the ruling King of Bahrain has the right to appoint any of his other sons as his successor if he wishes to. The current ruler of Bahrain is King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifah.

Nabeel bin Yaqub Al-Hamar

Nabeel Yacoob Al-Hamar is advisor for information affairs to the King of Bahrain Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifah. He worked at the Bahraini Ministry of Information. Al Hamer is the first editor in chief of Al Ayam daily when it was founded it in 1989.

Politics of Bahrain

Politics of Bahrain takes place since 2002 in a framework of a constitutional monarchy where the government is appointed by the King of Bahrain, King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa. The head of the government since 1971 is Prime Minister Prince Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa and the Crown Prince is Prince Salman bin Hamad Al Khalifa, who serves as Commander of the Bahrain Defence Force. The parliament is a bi-cameral legislature, with the Chamber of Deputies elected by universal suffrage, and the Shura Council appointed directly by the king. MP Khalifa Al Dhahrani is the Speaker of Parliament.

Sabika bint Ibrahim Al Khalifa

Sabika bint Ibrahim Al Khalifa (born in Muharraq in 1949) is the Princess consort of Bahrain as the first wife of the present King of Bahrain, Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, and the mother of the Crown Prince, Salman bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa.

Sakhir Air Base

Sakhir Air Base (ICAO: OBKH) is a public use airport located 3 nm south-southwest of Awali, Bahrain.

The airbase itself was built for the Bahrain International Airshow, held every two years in January. Jets come from multiple countries such as Russia, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, India, and many others to show off to the local community. The airport is also used by VIP visitors, foreign top government officials, visiting heads of states and the king of Bahrain himself.

Salman, Crown Prince of Bahrain

Prince Salman bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, Deputy King, Crown Prince of Bahrain (Arabic: سلمان بن حمد آل خليفة‎, born 21 October 1969) is the heir apparent and First Deputy Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Bahrain. He is also the deputy Supreme Commander of the Bahrain Defence Force.

Salman Ebrahim Mohamed Ali Al Khalifa

Salman Ebrahim Mohamed Ali Al Khalifa is a citizen of Bahrain who was held in extrajudicial detention in the United States Guantanamo Bay detention camps, in Cuba.

The Department of Defense reports that Al Khalifa was born on July 24, 1979, in Rifah, Bahrain. He is a member of the Al Khalifa royal family of Bahrain, related to the king of Bahrain.

Al Khalifa is a second cousin of the King of Bahrain.Al Khalifa, like the other Bahrainis held in Guantanamo, has Joshua Colangelo-Bryan as his lawyer.

Telecommunications Regulatory Authority of Bahrain

The Telecommunications Regulatory Authority of Bahrain (TRA) is a Bahrain governmental institution.

It was established by Legislative Decree No. 48 of 2002 promulgating the Telecommunications Law. The TRA is an independent body and its duties and powers include:

protecting the interests of subscribers and users, and promoting effective and fair competition among established and new licensed operators;

developing the Kingdom of Bahrain as the region’s most modern communications hub and facilitating the development of the market; and

protecting the interests of subscribers and users of telecommunications services and maintaining effective and fair competition between established and new entrants to the telecommunications market of the Kingdom of Bahrain.The TRA is required to carry out its duties and exercise its powers in a non-discriminatory and transparent manner. A board, appointed by the King of Bahrain on the recommendation of the Council of Ministers of Bahrain, oversees the TRA, the administrative work being run by the General Director.

Workers Trade Union Law

The Workers Trade Union Law was passed by Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, King of Bahrain, on September 24, 2002.

It recognizes the right of workers to organize collectively, although Bahrain has not ratified the International Labour Organization Conventions Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention, 1948, and Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949.

The law contains provisions for striking, but restricts activities in a number of essential services.

The legislation was part of a number of key labour reforms introduced under the Minister of Labour, Majeed Al Alawi.


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