Kindergarten (/ˈkɪndərˌɡɑːrtən/, US: /-dən/ (listen); from German [ˈkɪndɐˌɡaːɐ̯tn̩] (listen), literally meaning 'garden for the children') is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school. Such institutions were originally created in the late 18th century in Bavaria and Strasbourg to serve children whose parents both worked outside home. The term was coined by the German Friedrich Fröbel, whose approach globally influenced early-years education. Today, the term is used in many countries to describe a variety of educational institutions and learning spaces for children ranging from two to seven years of age, based on a variety of teaching methods.
In 1779, Johann Friedrich Oberlin and Louise Scheppler founded in Strasbourg an early establishment for caring for and educating pre-school children whose parents were absent during the day. At about the same time, in 1780, similar infant establishments were established in Bavaria. In 1802, Princess Pauline zur Lippe established a preschool center in Detmold, the capital of the then principality of Lippe, Germany (now in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia).
In 1816, Robert Owen, a philosopher and pedagogue, opened the first British and probably globally the first infants school in New Lanark, Scotland. In conjunction with his venture for cooperative mills Owen wanted the children to be given a good moral education so that they would be fit for work. His system was successful in producing obedient children with basic literacy and numeracy.
Samuel Wilderspin opened his first infant school in London in 1819, and went on to establish hundreds more. He published many works on the subject, and his work became the model for infant schools throughout England and further afield. Play was an important part of Wilderspin's system of education. He is credited with inventing the playground. In 1823, Wilderspin published On the Importance of Educating the Infant Poor, based on the school. He began working for the Infant School Society the next year, informing others about his views. He also wrote The Infant System, for developing the physical, intellectual, and moral powers of all children from 1 to seven years of age.
Countess Theresa Brunszvik (1775–1861), who had known and been influenced by Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, was influenced by this example to open an Angyalkert ("angel garden" in Hungarian) on May 27, 1828, in her residence in Buda, the first of eleven care centers that she founded for young children. In 1836 she established an institute for the foundation of preschool centers. The idea became popular among the nobility and the middle class and was copied throughout the Kingdom of Hungary.
Friedrich Fröbel (1782–1852) opened a "play and activity" institute in 1837 in the village of Bad Blankenburg in the principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Thuringia, as an experimental social experience for children entering school. He renamed his institute Kindergarten on June 28, 1840, reflecting his belief that children should be nurtured and nourished "like plants in a garden".
Women trained by Fröbel opened kindergartens throughout Europe and around the world. The first kindergarten in the US was founded in Watertown, Wisconsin in 1856 and was conducted in German by Margaretha Meyer-Schurz.
Elizabeth Peabody founded the first English-language kindergarten in the US in 1860. The first free kindergarten in the US was founded in 1870 by Conrad Poppenhusen, a German industrialist and philanthropist, who also established the Poppenhusen Institute. The first publicly financed kindergarten in the US was established in St. Louis in 1873 by Susan Blow.
Canada's first private kindergarten was opened by the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, in 1870. By the end of the decade, they were common in large Canadian towns and cities. in 1882, The country's first public-school kindergartens were established in Berlin, Ontario (modern Kitchener) at the Central School. In 1885, the Toronto Normal School (teacher training) opened a department for kindergarten teaching.
Elizabeth Harrison wrote extensively on the theory of early childhood education and worked to enhance educational standards for kindergarten teachers by establishing what became the National College of Education in 1886.
In Afghanistan, children between the ages of 3 and 6 attend kindergartens (Dari: کودکستان; Pashto: وړکتون). Although kindergartens in Afghanistan are not part of the school system, they are often run by the government.
Early Childhood Development programs were first introduced during the Soviet occupation with the establishment in 1980 of 27 urban preschools, or kodakistan. The number of preschools grew steadily during the 1980s, peaking in 1990 with more than 270 in Afghanistan. At this peak, there were 2,300 teachers caring for more than 21,000 children in the country. These facilities were an urban phenomenon, mostly in Kabul, and were attached to schools, government offices, or factories. Based on the Soviet model, these Early Childhood Development programs provided nursery care, preschool, and kindergarten for children from 3 months to 6 years of age under the direction of the Department of Labor and Social Welfare.
The vast majority of Afghan families were never exposed to this system, and many of these families were in opposition to these programs due to the belief that it diminishes the central role of the family and inculcates children with Soviet values. With the onset of civil war after the Soviet withdrawal, the number of kindergartens dropped rapidly. By 1995, only 88 functioning facilities serving 2,110 children survived, and the Taliban restrictions on female employment eliminated all of the remaining centers in areas under their control. In 2007, there were about 260 kindergarten/pre-school centers serving over 25,000 children. Though every government center is required to have an early childhood center, at present, no governmental policies deal with early childhood and no institutions have either the responsibility or the capacity to provide such services.
In each state of Australia, kindergarten (frequently referred to as "kinder" or "kindy") means something slightly different. In Tasmania, New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory, it is the first year of primary school. In Victoria, kindergarten is a form of preschool and may be referred to interchangeably as preschool or kindergarten. In Victoria and Tasmania, the phrase for the first year of primary school is called Prep (short for "preparatory"), which is followed by grade 1.
In Queensland, kindergarten is usually an institution for children around the age of 4 and thus it is the precursor to preschool and primary education.
In Bangladesh, the term "kindergarten", or "KG School" (Kindergarten School), is used to refer to the schooling children attend from 3 to 6 years of age. The names of the levels are nursery, shishu (children), etc. But the view of kindergarten education has changed much from previous years. Almost every rural area now has at least one Kindergarten School, with most being run in the Bengali language. They also follow the textbooks published by the National Curriculum and Textbook Board (NCTB) with a light modification, adding some extra books in syllabus. The grades generally start from Nursery (sometimes "Play"), "KG" afterwards, and ends with the 5th grade. Separate from the National Education System, kindergarten is contributing greatly toward achieving the Millennium Development Goal of universal primary education in Bangladesh.
In Bulgaria, the term detska gradina (деτска градина) refers to the schooling children attend from 3 to 7 (in some cases 6) years of age. Since 2012, two years of pre-school education are compulsory. These two years of mandatory pre-school education may be attended either at kindergarten or in preparatory groups at primary schools.
Schools outside of Ontario and the Northwest Territories generally provide one year of kindergarten, except some private schools offer junior kindergarten for 4-year-olds (school before kindergarten is most commonly referred to as pre-school). Kindergarten is mandatory in British Columbia, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island, and is optional elsewhere. The province of Nova Scotia refers to Kindergarten as Grade Primary. After kindergarten, the child begins grade one.
The province of Ontario and the Northwest Territories provide two years of kindergarten. Within the province of Quebec, junior kindergarten is called prématernelle (which is not mandatory), is attended by 4-year-olds, and senior kindergarten is called maternelle, which is also not mandatory by the age of 5, this class is integrated into primary schools. Within the French school system in the province of Ontario, junior kindergarten is called maternelle and senior kindergarten is called jardin d'enfants, which is a calque of the German word Kindergarten.
In Chile, the term equivalent to Kindergarten is "Educación parvularia", sometimes also called "Educación Preescolar". It is the first level of the Chilean educational system. It meets the needs of boys and girls integrally from their birth until their entry to the Educación Básica (Primary education), without being considered as compulsory. Generally, schools imparting this level, the JUNJI (National Council of Kindergarten Schools) and other private institutions have the following organization of groups or subcategories of levels:
In China, pre-school education, before the child enters formal schooling at 6 years of age, is generally divided into a "nursery" or "preschool" stage and a "kindergarten" (幼儿园 (yòu'éryuán) stage. These can be two separate institutions, or a single combined one in different areas. Where there are two separate institutions, it is common for the kindergarten to consist of the two upper years, and the preschool to consist of one lower year. Common names for these three years are:
In some places, children at 5-6 years may in addition or instead attend "reception" or "preparatory" classes (学前班/xué qián bān) focusing on preparing children for formal schooling.
State (public) kindergartens only accept children older than 3 years, while private ones do not have such limitations.
Kindergarten is a day-care service offered to children from age three until the child starts attending school. Kindergarten classes (grade 0) are voluntary and are offered by primary schools before a child enters 1st grade.
Two-thirds of established day-care institutions in Denmark are municipal day-care centres while the other third are privately owned and are run by associations of parents or businesses in agreement with local authorities. In terms of both finances and subject-matter, municipal and private institutions function according to the same principles.
Denmark is credited with pioneering (although not inventing) forest kindergartens, in which children spend most of every day outside in a natural environment.
In Egypt, children may go to kindergartens for two years (KG1 and KG2) between the ages of four and six.
In France, pre-school is known as école maternelle (French for "nursery school", literally "maternal school"). Free maternelle schools are available throughout the country, welcoming children aged from 3 to 6 (although in many places, children under three may not be granted a place). The ages are divided into grande section (GS: 5-year-olds), moyenne section (MS: 4-year-olds), petite section (PS: 3-year-olds) and toute petite section (TPS: 2-year-olds). It is not compulsory, yet almost all children aged 3 to 5 attend. It is regulated by the Ministry of National Education.
In Germany, a Kindergarten (masculine: der Kindergarten, plural Kindergärten) is a facility for the care of pre-school children who are typically at least three years old. By contrast, Kinderkrippe or Krippe refers to a crèche for the care of children before they enter Kindergarten (9 weeks to about three years), Kindertagesstätte—literally "children's day site", usually shortened to Kita—is an umbrella term for any day care facility for pre-schoolers.
Attendance is voluntary, and usually not free of charge. Pre-school children over the age of one are entitled to receive local and affordable daycare. Within the federal system, Kindergärten fall under the responsibility of the states, which usually delegate a large share of the responsibility to the municipalities. Due to the subsidiarity principle stipulated by §4 SGB VIII, there are a multitude of operators, from municipalities, churches and welfare societies to parents' initiatives and profit-based corporations. Many Kindergärten follow a certain educational approach, such as Montessori, Reggio Emilia, "Berliner Bildungsprogramm" or Waldorf; forest kindergartens are well established. Most Kindergärten are subsidised by the community councils, with the fees depending on the income of the parents.
Even in smaller townships, there are often both Roman Catholic and Lutheran kindergartens available. Places in crèches and kindergarten are often difficult to secure and must be 'reserved' in advance, although the situation has improved with a new law in effect August 2013. The availability of childcare, however, varies greatly by region. It is usually better in eastern regions, and in big cities in the north, such as Berlin or Hamburg, and poorest in parts of Southern Germany.
All caretakers in Kita or Kindergarten must have a three-year qualified education, or are under special supervision during training.
Kindergärten can be open from 7am to 5pm or longer and may also house a crèche (Kinderkrippe) for children between the ages of eight weeks and three years, and possibly an afternoon Hort (often associated with a primary school) for school-age children aged 6 to 10 who spend the time after their lessons there. Alongside nurseries, there are day-care nurses (Tagesmütter or Tagespflegepersonen) working independently of any pre-school institution in individual homes and looking after only three to five children, typically up to the age of three. These nurses are supported and supervised by local authorities.
The term Vorschule ("pre-school") is used both for educational efforts in Kindergärten and for a mandatory class that is usually connected to a primary school. Both systems are handled differently in each German state. The Schulkindergarten is a type of Vorschule.
Pre-primary Services in Hong Kong refers to provision of education and care to young children by kindergartens and child care centres. Kindergartens, registered with the Education Bureau, provide services for children from three to six years old. Child care centres, on the other hand, are registered with the Social Welfare Department and include nurseries, catering for children aged two to three, and creches, looking after infants from birth to two.
At present, most of the kindergartens operate on half-day basis offering upper, lower kindergarten classes and nursery classes. Some kindergartens operate full-day kindergarten classes too. Child care centres also provide full-day and half-day services with most centres providing full-day services.
The aim of pre-primary education in Hong Kong is to provide children with a relaxing and pleasurable learning environment to promote a balanced development of different aspects necessary to a child's development such as the physical, intellectual, language, social, emotional and aesthetic aspects.
To help establish the culture of self-evaluation in kindergartens and to provide reference for the public in assessing the quality and standard of pre-primary education, the Education Bureau has developed Performance Indicators for pre-primary institutions in Hong Kong. Commencing in the 2000/01 school year, Quality Assurance Inspection was launched to further promote the development of quality Early Childhood Education.
In Hungary a kindergarten is called an óvoda ("place for caring"). Children attend kindergarten between ages 3–6/7 (they go to school in the year in which they have their 7th birthday). Attendance in kindergarten is compulsory from the age of 3 years, though exceptions are made for developmental reasons. Though kindergartens may include programs in subjects such as foreign languages and music, children spend most of their time playing. In their last year, children begin to be prepared to attend elementary school.
Most kindergartens are state-funded. Kindergarten teachers are required to have a diploma.
In India, there are only informal directives pertaining to pre-primary education, for which pre-primary schools and sections need no affiliation. Directives state that children who are three years old on 30 May in the given academic year are eligible to attend Nursery and Kindergarten classes. Typically, children spend 3 to 4 years of their time in pre-primary school after which they are eligible to attend 1st Standard in Primary School which falls under HRD ministry norms. Primary education is now compulsory in India, and accompanied with mid-day meals, in most parts of the country run by the government. Pre-primary is not mandatory, however preferred. All government schools and affiliated private schools allow children who are 5 years of age as of 30 May to enroll to standard 1 of a primary school.
In Italy, preschool education refers to two different grades:
Italian asili-nido were officially instituted in a 1971 State Law (L. 1044/1971), and may be ruled by either private or public institutions. They were originally established to allow mothers a chance to work out of their homes, and were therefore seen as a social service. Today, they mostly serve the purpose of general education and social interaction. In Italy, much effort has been spent on developing a pedagogical approach to children's care: well known is the so-called Reggio Emilia approach, named after the city of Reggio Emilia, in Emilia-Romagna.
Asili-nido normally occupy small one-story buildings, surrounded by gardens; usually suitable for no more than 60 or 70 children. The heart of the asili-nido are the classrooms, split into playroom and restroom; the playroom always has windows and doors leading to the outside playground and garden.
Maternal schools (scuola materna) were established in 1968 after State Law n. 444 and are a full part of the official Italian education system, though attendance is not compulsory. Like asili-nido (nursery schools), maternal schools may be held either by public or private institutions.
Early childhood education begins at home, and there are numerous books and television shows aimed at helping mothers & fathers of preschool children to educate their children and to parent more effectively. Much of the home training is devoted to teaching manners, proper social behavior, and structured play, although verbal and number skills are also popular themes. Parents are strongly committed to early education and frequently enroll their children in preschools. Kindergartens (幼稚園 yōchien), predominantly staffed by young female junior college graduates, are supervised by the Ministry of Education but are not part of the official education system. The 58% of kindergartens that are private accounted for 77% of all children enrolled. In addition to kindergartens, there exists a well-developed system of government-supervised day-care centers (保育園 hoikuen), supervised by the Ministry of Labor. Whereas kindergartens follow educational aims, preschools are predominantly concerned with providing care for infants and toddlers. Just as there are public and private kindergartens, there are both public and privately run preschools. Together, these two kinds of institutions enroll well over 90 percent of all preschool-age children prior to their entrance into the formal system at first grade. The Ministry of Education's 1990 Course of Study for Preschools, which applies to both kinds of institutions, covers such areas as human relationships, health, environment, language, and expression. Starting from March 2008 the new revision of curriculum guidelines for kindergartens as well as for preschools came into effect.
In South Korea, children normally attend kindergarten (Korean: 유치원 yuchi won) between the ages of three or four and six or seven in the Western age system. (Korean ages are calculated differently from Western ages: when they are born they are considered one-year-olds, rather than one day old. Additionally, every January 1, everyone's age increases by one year regardless of when their birthday is. Hence in Korea, kindergarten children are called five-, six- and seven-year-olds). The school year begins in March. It is followed by primary school. Normally the kindergartens are graded on a three-tier basis.
Korean kindergartens are private schools, and monthly costs vary. Korean parents often send their children to English kindergartens to give them a head start in English. Such specialized kindergartens can be mostly taught in Korean with some English lessons, mostly taught in English with some Korean lessons, or completely taught in English. Almost all middle-class parents send their children to kindergarten.
Kindergarten programs in South Korea attempt to incorporate much academic instruction alongside more playful activities. Korean kindergartners learn to read, write (often in English as well as Korean) and do simple arithmetic. Classes are conducted in a traditional classroom setting, with the children focused on the teacher and one lesson or activity at a time. The goal of the teacher is to overcome weak points in each child's knowledge or skills.
Because the education system in Korea is very competitive, kindergartens are becoming more intensely academic. Children are pushed to read and write at a very young age. They also become accustomed to regular and considerable amounts of homework. These very young children may also attend other specialized afternoon schools, taking lessons in art, piano or violin, taekwondo, ballet, soccer or mathematics.
In Kosovo, kindergarten is known as Çerdhe or Kopshti i fëmijëve, and they serve as Day Care Centers. There are public and private kindergartens, and they are for children under the age of 3. Children between 3–6 years old go to Institucione parashkollore, which are different from the Day Care Centers, because here children start the basic learning process, and they serve as preparatory institutions for the Primary School. After the age of 6, children continue in Primary School. However, neither the Day Care Centers nor the Preparatory Institutions are mandatory.
In Kuwait, Kuwaiti children may go to free government kindergartens for two years (KG1 and KG2) between the ages of four and six.
In Luxembourg, a Kindergarten is called Spillschoul (literally "Playschool", plural Spillschoulen). It is a public education facility which is attended by children between the age of 4 (or 5) and 6 when they advance to the Grondschoul (elementary school).
The Macedonian equivalent of kindergarten is detska gradinka (детска градинка), sometimes called zabavishte (забавиште) when the kids are younger than 4 years. Detska gradinka is not part of the state's mandatory education, because the educational process in the country begins at the age of 5 or 6, i.e. first grade.
In Malaysia, kindergarten is known as tadika. Most kindergartens are available to children of ages five and six (and some are available to children as young as four). For children up to the age of three (or four), there are pre-school playgroups. There are no fixed rules for when a child needs to go to a kindergarten, but the majority will when the child turns 5 years old. The child will usually attend kindergarten for two years, before proceeding to primary school at age 7.
In Mexico, kindergarten is called kínder, with the last year sometimes referred to as preprimaria (primaria is the name given to grades 1 through 6, so the name literally means "prior to elementary school"). The kindergarten system in Mexico was developed by professor Rosaura Zapata, who received the country's highest honor for her contribution. It consists of three years of pre-school education, which are mandatory before elementary school. Previous nursery is optional and may be offered in either private schools or public schools.
At private schools, kinders usually consist of three grades, and a fourth one may be added for nursery. The fourth one is called maternal. It goes before the other three years and is not obligatory. While the first grade is a playgroup, the other two are of classroom education.
In 2002, the Congress of the Union approved the Law of Obligatory Pre-schooling, which made pre-school education for three to six-year-olds obligatory, and placed it under the auspices of the federal and state ministries of education.
In Mongolia, kindergarten is known as "цэцэрлэг" or tsetserleg. As of September 2013, there are approximately 152 kindergartens registered in the country. From those 152 kindergartens, 142 are state owned. Children begin kindergarten at the age of 2 and finish it by 5. The education system before kindergarten in Mongolia is called "ясль", which accepts children between 0 and 2 years of age.
In Morocco, pre-school is known as école maternelle, kuttab, or ar-rawd. State-run, free maternelle schools are available throughout the kingdom, welcoming children aged from 2 to 5 (although in many places, children under 3 may not be granted a place). It is not compulsory, yet almost 80% of children aged 3 to 5 attend. It is regulated by the Moroccan department of education.
In Nepal, kindergartens are run as private institutions, with their lessons conducted in English. The kindergarten education in Nepal is most similar to that of Hong Kong and India. Children start attending kindergarten from the age of 2 until they are at least 5 years old.
The kindergartens in Nepal have the following grades:
In the Netherlands, the equivalent term to kindergarten was kleuterschool. From the mid-19th century to the mid-20th century the term Fröbelschool was also common, after Friedrich Fröbel. However, this term gradually faded in use as the verb Fröbelen gained a slightly derogatory meaning in everyday language. Until 1985, it used to be a separate non-compulsory form of education (for children aged 4–6 years), after which children (aged 6–12 years) attended the primary school (lagere school). After 1985, both forms were integrated into one, called basisonderwijs (Dutch for primary education). For children under 4, the country offers private, subsidized daycares (kinderdagverblijf), which are noncompulsory but nevertheless very popular.
In New Zealand, kindergarten can refer to education in the 2 years preceding primary school, from age 3 to 4. Primary Education starts at age 5.
In Norway, barnehage (children garden) is the term equivalent to kindergarten, used for children in the ages between 10 months and 6 years. The first barnehager were founded in Norway in the late 19th century. Although they have existed for 120 years, they are not considered part of the education system. They are both publicly and privately owned and operated. The staff, at minimum the manager, should be educated as barnehagelærer (kindergarten teacher), previously known as førskolelærer (pre-school teachers). The children spend most of the time outdoors. There is also an institution called barnepark (children's park), which does not need to have certified staff.
In Peru, the term nido refers to the schooling children attend from 3 to 6 years of age. It is followed by primary school classes, which last for six years. Some families choose to send their children to primary school at the age of 6. In 1902 the teacher Elvira Garcia and Garcia co-founder of the Society cited above, organized the first kindergarten for children 2 to 8 years old, Fanning annex to the Lyceum for ladies. Her studies and concern for children led her to spread through conferences and numerous documents, the importance of protecting children early and to respond to the formation of a personality based on justice and understanding, as well as the use of methods Fröbel and from Montessori and participation of parents in this educational task.
In the Philippines, education officially starts at the Elementary level and placing children into early childhood education through kindergarten is optional to parents. Early childhood education in the Philippines is classified into:
Early childhood education was strengthened through the creation of the Early Childhood Care and Development Act of 2000 (Republic Act No. 8980). In 2011, the Department of Education disseminated copies of the Kindergarten Education Act through Republic Act No. 10157 making it compulsory and mandatory in the entire nation. As a provision in this law, children under five years old are required to enroll in a kindergarten in any public elementary school in the country. This goes with the implementation of the K-12 system in the Basic Education Curriculum.
In Romania, grădiniţă, which means "little garden", is the favored form of education for preschool children usually aged 3–6. The children are divided in three groups: "little group" (grupa mică, age 3–4), "medium group" (grupa mijlocie, age 4-5) and "big group" (grupa mare, age 5-6). In the last few years, private kindergartens have become popular, supplementing the state preschool education system. Kindergarten is optional. The "preparatory school year" (clasa pregătitoare) is for children aged 6–7, and since it became compulsory in 2012, it usually takes place at school.
In the Russian Federation, Детский сад (dyetskiy sad, literal translation of "children's garden") is a preschool educational institution for children, usually 3 to 6 years of age.
Kindergartens (commonly known as creche) in South Africa provide from 0-6 years of age spent of preschool programs for children of all ages up to six. The one to three-year program, known as nursery, kindergarten 1 (K1), and kindergarten 2 (K2), prepares children for their first year in primary school education. Some kindergartens further divide nursery into N1 and N2.
In Spain, kindergarten is called infantil, ciclo infantil or parvulario and covers ages 3 to 6, the three courses being callled, respectively, P-3, P-4 and P-5. Though non mandatory, most children in Spain attend this courses.
Before that, children aged 0 to 3 may attend the guardería and do courses P-0, P-1 and P-2. In most parts of Spain guarderías are specialized schools completely separate from regular schools.
Kindergarten in Sudan is divided into private and public kindergarten. Preschool is compulsory in Sudan. The proper kindergarten age spans from 3–6 years. The curriculum covers Arabic, English, religion, mathematics and more.
In Sweden, kindergarten activities were established in the 19th century, and have been widely expanded since the 1970s. The first Swedish kindergarten teachers were trained by Henriette Schrader-Breymann at the Pestalozzi-Fröbel Haus, which she founded in 1882.
While many public kindergartens and preschools exist in Taiwan, private kindergartens and preschools are also quite popular. Many private preschools offer accelerated courses in various subjects to compete with public preschools and capitalize on public demand for academic achievement. Curriculum at such preschools often encompasses subject material such as science, art, physical education and even mathematics classes. The majority of these schools are part of large school chains, which operate under franchise arrangements. In return for annual fees, the chain enterprises may supply advertising, curriculum, books, materials, training, and even staff for each individual school.
There has been a huge growth in the number of privately owned and operated English immersion preschools in Taiwan since 1999. These English immersion preschools generally employ native English speaking teachers to teach the whole preschool curriculum in an "English only" environment. The legality of these types of schools has been called into question on many occasions, yet they continue to prosper. Some members of Taiwanese society have raised concerns as to whether local children should be placed in English immersion environments at such a young age, and have raised fears that the students abilities in their mother language may suffer as a result. The debate continues, but at the present time, the market for English Immersion Preschools continues to grow.
In 2010, a total of 56% of children aged one to six years old had the opportunity to attend preschool education, the Education and Science Ministry of Ukraine reported in August 2010. Many preschools and kindergartens were closed previously in light of economic and demographic considerations.
The term kindergarten is rarely used in the UK to describe modern pre-school education or the first year(s) of compulsory primary school education. Pre-schools are usually known as creche, nursery schools or playgroups, while the first year of compulsory schooling is known as Reception in England, Dosbarth Derbyn in Welsh ("reception class") and Primary One in Scotland and Northern Ireland. Nursery forms part of the Foundation Stage of education. In the 1980s, England and Wales officially adopted the Northern Irish system whereby children start school either in the term or year in which they will become five depending on the policy of the local education authority. In Scotland, schooling becomes compulsory between the ages of 4½ and 5½ years, depending on their birthday (school starts in August for children who were 4 by the end of the preceding February).
However, the word "kindergarten" is used for more specialist organisations such as forest kindergartens and is sometimes used in the naming of private nurseries that provide full-day child care for working parents. Historically the word was used during the nineteenth century when activists like Adelaide Manning were introducing educators to the work of Friedrich Fröbel.
In the UK, parents have the option of nursery for their children at the ages of three or four years, before compulsory education begins. Before that, less structured childcare is available privately. The details vary between England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
Some nurseries are attached to state infant or primary schools, but many are provided by the private sector. The Scottish government provides funding so that all children from the age of three until they start compulsory school can attend five sessions per week of two and a half hours each, either in state-run or private nurseries. Working parents can also receive from their employers childcare worth £55 per week free of income tax, which is typically enough to pay for one or two days per week.
The Scottish Government defines its requirements for nursery schools in the Early Years Framework and the Curriculum for Excellence. Each school interprets these with more or less independence (depending on their management structure) but must satisfy the Care Commission in order to retain their licence to operate. The curriculum aims to develop:
In the US, kindergarten is usually part of the K-12 educational system. In most state and private schools, children begin kindergarten at age 5 and attend for one year. They do activities such as addition (+), subtraction (-), and playing outside on the playground. Forty-three states require their school districts to offer a kindergarten year.
In a typical US kindergarten classroom, resources like toys, picture books, and crayons are available for children's use. The daily schedule varies from town to town, but there are some similarities. In the morning, the children usually do circle time. This includes saying the pledge of allegiance, looking at the calendar, and discussing the weather and season that day. Next, the children work on different subjects:
In math, kindergartners usually do single digit addition and subtraction, learn to count with "more or less" games, become acquainted with a clock, and learn skip counting to prepare them for one digit multiplication.
In language arts (English), children learn sight words, (cat, fun), rhyming, blends, and silent e. They then learn how to write, form sentences, and are required to write three complete sentences by the end of the year.
In social studies, kindergartners learn about the months, U.S. states, the continents, and sometimes about people performing community functions (e.g. doctor, barber, teacher) and places (e.g."You go to a hospital when you're sick or to have surgery." "You go to a park to play.")
After a few lessons, there is a break for lunch. Children either fetch their own lunchboxes brought from home or get a lunch from the cafeteria and eat it (or take) there or in the classroom. Sometimes after lunch the children have recess, some students' favorite part of the day, when they can go outside to play on swings, slides, play basketball, or socialize. After recess kindergartners go back inside to do more learning. Some schools let children take a nap or do free choice (blocks, tic tac toe, play doh, etc.) When kindergarten is over for the day, parents or guardians come to pick up their child or the children ride a bus home.
The following reading list relates specifically to kindergarten in North America, where it is the first year of formal schooling and not part of the pre-school system as it is in the rest of the world:
Preschool or Pre-kindergarten
Betsy's Kindergarten Adventures is an American cartoon intended for young children. The show premiered on January 19, 2008 on PBS Kids. The show follows a girl named Betsy as she starts out her school years. The series premiere shows Betsy facing the uncertainty of her first day of school and the adjustments she must make as she meets her new teacher and classmates, encounters unfamiliar rules and routines, and finds herself in an entirely new environment. Subsequent episodes show Betsy's excitement and sense of adventure as she adapts to the new experiences of kindergarten.
This show is similar to other PBS Kids shows like Caillou and Clifford the Big Red Dog that cater to an audience of children between the ages of 2-6.Cleveland Metropolitan School District
Cleveland Metropolitan School District, formerly the Cleveland Municipal School District, is a public school district in the U.S. state of Ohio that serves almost all of the city of Cleveland.CMSD is the only district in Ohio that is under direct control of the mayor, who appoints a school board. The Cleveland district is the second largest PreK-12 district in the state, with a 2015–2016 enrollment of about 38,700 students. The mayor was given control of the city schools after a series of elected school boards were deemed ineffective by city voters. The school board appoints a chief executive officer, the equivalent of a district superintendent, who is responsible for district management.
The city's school district has a graduation rate over 50 percent, reporting a graduation rate of 56.1 percent in 2011. That same year, 2011, CMSD had a 5-year graduation rate of 63.3 percent. This five-year graduation rate increased to 66.1 percent in the subsequent 2011–2012 school year. In 2009 Cleveland Schools had the nation's third highest high school dropout rate and graduation rate following Detroit with the number one spot.In response to declining enrollment over more than a decade and the corresponding growth in charter schools in the city, the District took several steps to improve academic performance and increase graduation rates. In the 2007–08 school year, the District changed its name to the Cleveland Metropolitan School District to attract students throughout the region.The system passed a $1.2 billion school building construction/replacement bond issue, but repeatedly failed to pass an operating levy for 16 years until 2012. In 2005 and in years following, the system faced large budget shortfalls and repeated possibility of slipping back into "academic emergency" as rated by the Ohio Department of Education. CMSD's test scores showed modest improvement in writing and math scores and little or no improvement in reading scores. The district continued to improve its graduation rate over several years, increasing it from 39.5% in 2002 to over 50% of students graduating in 2004.and over 60% in 2012.
The former chairman of the Board of Education, Robert M. Heard Sr., was appointed July 1, 2007 by Mayor Frank G. Jackson, and CEO's appointed included Barbara Byrd Bennett and Eugene Sanders. Current Board of Education Chair Denise Link, led the board in its current transformation efforts, including the appointment of Eric S. Gordon as chief executive officer in 2011. Under their leadership, CMSD successfully worked for passage of House Bill 525, otherwise known as "The Cleveland Plan", to remove legislative barriers to school reform in Cleveland and to implement a portfolio strategy to: Grow the number of high-performing CMSD and charter schools in Cleveland and close and replace failing schools; Focus CMSD's central office on key support and governance roles and transfer authority and resources to schools; Invest and phase in high-leverage system reforms across all schools from preschool to college and career; and Create the Cleveland Transformation Alliance to ensure accountability for all public schools in the city.
Working closely with Mayor Frank G. Jackson and a coalition of concerned citizens throughout the city, Link and Gordon additionally led the district to passage of CMSD's first operating levy in 16 years in November, 2012. Major changes in the District's contract with the Cleveland Teachers Union, together with passage of HB 525 and Issue 107, paved the way in 2012–2013 for the district's most aggressive reform strategies in its history. The District moved its central office in 2013 to its current location at 1111 Superior Ave. E, Cleveland, Ohio 44114.
In 2013, Board Chair Denise L. Link won the Green-Garner "Top Urban Educator" Award, the highest honor given by the Council of the Great City Schools for significant contributions to urban schools and students. CEO Eric Gordon was a national finalist for the same award in 2012.Early childhood education
Early childhood education (ECE; also nursery education) is a branch of education theory which relates to the teaching of children (formally and informally) from birth up to the age of eight which is traditionally about third grade. It emerged as a field of study during the Enlightenment, particularly in European countries with high literacy rates. It continued to grow through the nineteenth century as universal primary education became a norm in the Western world. In recent years, early childhood education has become a prevalent public policy issue, as municipal, state, and federal lawmakers consider funding for preschool and pre-K. It is described as an important period in a child's development. It refers to the development of a child's personality. ECE is also a professional designation earned through a post secondary education program. For example, in Ontario, Canada, the designations ECE (Early Childhood Educator) and RECE (Registered Early Childhood Educator) may only be used by registered members of the College of Early Childhood Educators, which is made up of accredited child care professionals who are held accountable to the College's standards of practice.Education in Canada
Education in Canada is for the most part provided publicly, funded and overseen by federal, provincial, and local governments. Education is within provincial jurisdiction and the curriculum is overseen by the province. Education in Canada is generally divided into primary education, followed by secondary education and post-secondary. Within the provinces under the ministry of education, there are district school boards administering the educational programs.Education is compulsory up to the age of 16 in every province in Canada, except for Manitoba, Ontario, and New Brunswick, where the compulsory age is 18, or as soon as a high school diploma has been achieved. In some provinces early leaving exemptions can be granted under certain circumstances at 14. Canada generally has 190 (180 in Quebec) school days in the year, officially starting from September (after Labour Day) to the end of June (usually the last Friday of the month, except in Quebec when it is just before June 24 – Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day/Fête nationale du Québec). In British Columbia secondary schools, there are 172 school days during a school year. (2013-2014). In Alberta, high school students get an additional four weeks off to accommodate for exam break; two weeks in January, and two in June. Classes typically end on the 15th of those two months.Educational stage
Educational stages are subdivisions of formal learning, typically covering early childhood education, primary education, secondary education and tertiary (or higher) education. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) recognizes seven levels of education in its International Standard Classification of Education system (ISCED, from Level 0 (pre-primary education) through Level 6 (second stage of tertiary education)). UNESCO's International Bureau of Education maintains a database of country-specific education systems and their stages.Elementary school
Elementary school is a school for students in their first school years, where they get primary education before they enter secondary education. The exact ages vary by country. In the United States, elementary schools usually have 6 grades with pupils aged between 6 and 13 years old, but the age can be up to 10 or 14 years old as well. In Japan, the age of pupils in elementary school ranges from 6 to 12, after which the pupils enter junior high school.
Elementary school is usually only one part of compulsory education, especially in Western countries.Hanamaru Kindergarten
Hanamaru Kindergarten (はなまる幼稚園, Hanamaru Yōchien) is a Japanese situation comedy manga series written and illustrated by Yuto and published by Square Enix. It is mainly about a kindergarten girl named Anzu, who is in love with her teacher and tries to win his affection but always fails. It has been adapted into an anime television series produced by Gainax and broadcast in Japan on TV Tokyo.Kindergarten (TV series)
Kindergarten is a US documentary miniseries that debuted in 2001 on HBO Family's Jam morning block in 2001. The unscripted show follows 23 students in a kindergarten class in the village of Nyack, New York.Kindergarten Cop
Kindergarten Cop is a 1990 American comedy film directed by Ivan Reitman, distributed by Universal Pictures. Arnold Schwarzenegger stars as John Kimble, a tough police detective working undercover as a kindergarten teacher to apprehend drug dealer Cullen Crisp (Richard Tyson) before he can get to his ex-wife and son.
While undercover, Kimble discovers his passion for teaching and considers changing his profession to become an educator. Pamela Reed plays his partner, Phoebe O'Hara, and Penelope Ann Miller plays Joyce, the teacher who becomes his love interest. The original music score was composed by Randy Edelman. The film was released in the United States on December 21, 1990.K–12
K–12 (spoken as "k twelve", "k through twelve", or "k to twelve"), for kindergarten to 12th grade, is an American expression that indicates the number of years of primary and secondary education found in the USA, that is similar in several other countries, such as Afghanistan, Australia, Canada, Ecuador, Egypt, India, Iran, Philippines, South Korea, Turkey for publicly supported school grades prior to college.List of schools in Hyderabad, India
The school system in Hyderabad, Telangana, India consists of an array of structured systems. Children typically start school (junior or lower kindergarten) at the age of three, progressing to senior or upper kindergarten followed by twelve years of study. Class 10 and class 12 involve taking public examinations conducted by various accreditation boards.Pre-kindergarten
Pre-kindergarten (also called Pre-K or PK) is a classroom-based preschool program for children below the age of five in the United States, Canada and Turkey (when kindergarten starts). It may be delivered through a preschool or within a reception year in elementary school. Pre-kindergartens play an important role in early childhood education. They have existed in the US since 1922, normally run by private organizations. The U.S. Head Start program, the country's first federally funded pre-kindergarten program, was founded in 1967. This attempts to prepare children (especially disadvantaged children) to succeed in school.Preschool
A preschool, also known as nursery school, pre-primary school, playschool or kindergarten, is an educational establishment or learning space offering early childhood education to children before they begin compulsory education at primary school. It may be publicly or privately operated, and may be subsidized from public funds.Primary education
Primary education and elementary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education (The first two grades of primary school, Grades 1 and 2, are also part of early childhood education). Primary education usually takes place in a primary school or elementary school. In some countries, primary education is followed by ecosystem, an educational stage which exists in some countries, and takes place between primary school and high school college. Primary Education in Australia consists of grades foundation to grade 6. In the United States, primary education is Grades 1 - 3 and elementary education usually consists of grades 1-6.Primary education in the United States
Primary education in the United States (also elementary education) refers to the first seven to nine years of formal education in most jurisdictions, often in elementary schools, including middle schools. Preschool programs, which are less formal and usually not mandated by law, are generally not considered part of primary education. The first year of primary education is commonly referred to as kindergarten and begins at or around age 5 or 6. Subsequent years are usually numbered being referred to as first grade, second grade, and so forth. Elementary schools normally continue through sixth grade, which the students normally complete when they are age 11 or 12. Some elementary schools graduate after the 4th or 5th grade and transition students into a middle school.
In 2001, there were 92,858 elementary schools (68,173 public, 24,685 private) in the United States.Primary school
A primary school (or elementary school in American English and often in Canadian English) is a school in which children receive primary or elementary education from the age of about seven to twelve, coming after preschool, infant school and before secondary school. (In some countries there is an intermediate stage of middle school between primary and secondary education.)Prince George's County Public Schools
Prince George's County Public Schools (PGCPS) is a large public school district administered by the government of Prince George's County, Maryland, United States, and is overseen by the Maryland State Department of Education. The school system is headquartered in Upper Marlboro and the district serves Prince George's County. The district is headed by Monica Goldson and a 14-member Board of Education.With 130,814 students enrolled for the 2017–2018 school year, the Prince George's County Public Schools system is the second largest school district in the state of Maryland; the third largest school district in both the Washington Metropolitan Area and Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area, after Fairfax County Public Schools in Virginia and Montgomery County Public Schools in Maryland; and it is one of the top 25 largest school districts in the nation. PGCPS operates 208 schools and special centers which include: 123 elementary schools (PreK-5), 24 middle schools (6-8), 23 high schools (9-12), and 12 academies (PreK-8). The school system also operates 9 special centers, 2 vocational centers, 3 alternative schools, 8 public charter schools, and the Howard B. Owens Science Center, serving students from Pre-Kindergarten through Grade 12.PGCPS operates the two largest high schools in the state of Maryland — (Dr. Henry A. Wise, Jr. High School and Northwestern High School), respectively. The school system transports over 90,536 students, daily, by its fleet of 1,335 GPS-equipped school buses, on 5,616 bus routes. PGCPS employs approximately 23,785 staff members which includes an estimated 9,197 teachers. The approved operating budget for FY2014-15 is approximately US$1.795 billion with a per pupil expenditure of US$11,753. Average teacher salary ranges from US$55,689 for teachers with a bachelor's degree to US$80,009 for teachers with a doctorate's degree.
In terms of racial demographics, African-Americans make up the majority of the system's students at 67.4%, followed by 22.6% Hispanic, 4.6% Caucasian, 2.9% Asian, and the remaining 2.4% comprising various other races.
In June 2009, the PGCPS became one of the first school systems in America to name one of its schools after former President Barack Obama. Barack Obama Elementary School, in the Westphalia census-designated place, near Upper Marlboro, opened in August 2010.Rajshahi Division
Rajshahi Division (Bengali: রাজশাহী বিভাগ) is one of the eight first-level administrative divisions of Bangladesh.
It has an area of 18,174.4 square kilometres (7,017.2 sq mi) and a population at the 2011 Census of 18,484,858. Rajshahi Division consists of 8 districts, 70 Upazilas (the next lower administrative tier) and 1,092 Unions (the lowest administrative tier). This division is most valuable division of Bangladesh . It has an excellent rail and road communication infrastructure. The divisional capital of Rajshahi is only six-seven hours road journey away from Dhaka, the capital city.
Until 2010 this Division comprised 16 districts, but early in that year it was divided into two, when a new Division (Rangpur Division) was formed out of the 8 northerly districts that until then had been part of Rajshahi Division. Rajshahi was dominated by various Rajas, Maharajas and Zamindars.Wolfgang Gartner
Joseph Thomas Youngman (born March 17, 1982), better known by his stage name Wolfgang Gartner, is an American DJ and music producer. Much of his music prior to 2010 was released through his own record label, Kindergarten, but he signed with Ultra Records in 2010 and Ministry of Sound in the UK in 2011.