Kilometres per hour

The kilometre per hour (American English: kilometer per hour) is a unit of speed, expressing the number of kilometres travelled in one hour.

Internationally, km/h is the most commonly used unit of speed on traffic signs and speedometers.[1][2]

Kilometres per hour
Metric speedometer from a 1992 Euro-spec Passat B3
A car speedometer that indicates measured speed in kilometres per hour.
General information
Unit systemderived
Unit ofspeed
Symbolkm/h 
Conversions
1 km/h in ...... is equal to ...
   mph   0.621371
   m/s   0.277778
   knot   0.539957
   ft/s   0.911344

History

Although the metre was formally defined in 1799, the term "kilometres per hour" did not come into immediate use – the myriametre (10,000 metres) and myriametre per hour were preferred to kilometres and kilometres per hour. In 1802 the term "myriamètres par heure" appeared in French literature[3] and many French maps printed in the first half of the nineteenth century had scales in leagues and myriametres, but not in kilometres.[4] The Dutch on the other hand adopted the kilometre in 1817 but gave it the local name of the mijl.[5]

Notation history

Several representations of "kilometres per hour" have been used since the term was introduced and many are still in use today; for example, dictionaries list "km/h", "kmph" and "km/hr" as English abbreviations. The SI representations, classified as symbols, are "km/h", "km h−1" and "km·h−1".

Abbreviations

Abbreviations for "kilometres per hour" did not appear in the English language until the late nineteenth century.

The kilometre, a unit of length, first appeared in English in 1810,[6] and the compound unit of speed "kilometers per hour" was in use in the US by 1866.[7] "Kilometres per hour" did not begin to be abbreviated in print until many years later, with several different abbreviations existing near-contemporaneously.

  • 1889: "k. p. h."[8]
  • 1895: "km:h"[9]
  • 1898: "km/h"[10]
  • 1899: "km./hr." [11]
  • 1900: "kms./hr."[12]
  • 1902: "k.m.p.h."[13]

With no central authority to dictate the rules for abbreviations, various publishing houses have their own rules that dictate whether to use upper-case letters, lower-case letters, periods and so on, reflecting both changes in fashion and the image of the publishing house concerned.[25] For example, news organisations such as Reuters[26] and The Economist[27] require "kph".

In Australian unofficial usage, km/h is sometimes pronounced and written as klicks or clicks.[28]

Unit symbols

In 1879, four years after the signing of the Treaty of the Metre, the CIPM proposed a range of symbols for the various metric units then under the auspices of the CGPM. Among these were the use of the symbol "km" for "kilometre".[29]

In 1948, as part of its preparatory work for the SI, the CGPM adopted symbols for many units of measure that did not have universally agreed symbols, one of which was the symbol "h" for "hours". At the same time the CGPM formalised the rules for combining units – quotients could be written in one of three formats resulting in "km/h", "km h−1" and "km·h−1" being valid representations of "kilometres per hour".[30] The SI standards, which were MKS-based rather than CGS-based were published in 1960 and have since then have been adopted by many authorities around the globe including academic publishers and legal authorities.

The SI explicitly states that unit symbols are not abbreviations and are to be written using a very specific set of rules.[30] M. Danloux-Dumesnils[31] provides the following justification for this distinction:

It has already been stated that, according to Maxwell, when we write down the result of a measurement, the numerical value multiplies the unit. Hence the name of the unit can be replaced by a kind of algebraic symbol, which is shorter and easier to use in formulae. This symbol is not merely an abbreviation but a symbol which, like chemical symbols, must be used in a precise and prescribed manner.

SI, and hence the use of "km/h" (or "km h−1" or "km·h−1") has now been adopted around the world in many areas related to health and safety[32] and in metrology.[33] It is also the preferred system of measure in academia and in education.[34]

Alternative abbreviations in official use

  • km/j or km/jam (Indonesia and Malaysia)
  • km/t or km/tim (Norway and Sweden; also use km/h)
  • kmph (Sri Lanka)
  • กม./ชม. (Thailand; also uses km/hr)
  • كم/س or كم/ساعة (Arabic-speaking countries, also use km/h)

Regulatory use

During the early years of the motor car, each country developed its own system of road signs. In 1968 the Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals was drawn up under the auspices of the United Nations Economic and Social Council to harmonise road signs across the world. Many countries have since signed the convention and adopted its proposals. Speed limits signs that are either directly authorised by the convention or have been influenced by the convention are shown below:

Hungary road sign C-033-100

100 km/h sign following the most common implementation of the Vienna Convention style (Hungary)

Sweden road sign C31-3

Swedish 30 km/h speed limit – the yellow background provides a contrast in case snow covers the background against which one perceives the road sign.[35]

Ireland road sign RUS 043

Since the text "km/h" on this Irish speed limit sign is a symbol, not an abbreviation, it represents both "kilometres per hour" (English) and "ciliméadar san uair"(Irish)[36]

UAE Speed Limit - 60 kmh

60 km/h speed limit in Arabic and Latin scripts (UAE)

Vesiliikennemerkki 11

Waterways speed limit of 9 km/h (Finland)

Samoa - Speed Limit

Samoa uses both miles per hour and kilometres per hour

Mexico road sign SR-09

50 km/h sign in Mexico

In 1972 the EU published a directive[37] (overhauled in 1979[38] to take British and Irish interests into account) that required member states to abandon CGS-based units in favour of SI. The use of SI implicitly required that member states use "km/h" as the shorthand for "kilometres per hour" on official[Note 1] documents.

Another EU directive, published in 1975, regulates the layout of speedometers within the European Union, and requires the text "km/h" in all languages,[39] even where that is not the natural abbreviation for the local version of "kilometres per hour". Examples include:

  • Dutch: "kilometer per uur" ("hour" is spelt "uur" – does not start with "h"),
  • Portuguese: "quilómetro por hora" ("kilometre" is spelt "quilómetro" – does not start with "k")
  • Greek: "χιλιόμετρα ανά ώρα" (a different script).

In 1988 the United States National Highway Traffic Safety Administration promulgated a rule stating that "MPH and/or km/h" were to be used in speedometer displays. On May 15, 2000 this was clarified to read "MPH, or MPH and km/h".[40] However, the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard number 101 ("Controls and Displays") allows "any combination of upper- and lowercase letters" to represent the units.[41]

Conversions

  • 3.6 km/h1 m/s, the SI unit of speed, metre per second
  • 1 km/h0.27778 m/s
  • 1 km/h0.62137 mph0.91134 ft/s
  • kn1.852 km/h (exactly)
  • 1 mph1.609344 km/h
Conversions between common units of speed
m/s km/h mph knot ft/s
1 m/s = 1 3.6 2.236936 1.943844 3.280840
1 km/h = 0.277778 1 0.621371 0.539957 0.911344
1 mph = 0.44704 1.609344 1 0.868976 1.466667
1 knot = 0.514444 1.852 1.150779 1 1.687810
1 ft/s = 0.3048 1.09728 0.681818 0.592484 1

(Values in bold face are exact.)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Until 2010, the directive covered "economic, public health, public safety or administrative purposes"; since then it covers all aspects of the EU internal market

References

  1. ^ "Correct SI-metric usage". us-metric.org. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  2. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-10-13. Retrieved 2016-10-06.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ Develey, Emmanuel (1802). Physique d'Emile: ou, Principes de la science de la nature. 1. Paris.
  4. ^ "France Pittoresque: Haute Pyrénées". Languillermie et Rambox. 1835. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
  5. ^ de Gelder, Jacob (1824). Allereerste Gronden der Cijferkunst [Introduction to Numeracy] (in Dutch). 's-Gravenhage and Amsterdam: de Gebroeders van Cleef. pp. 155–156. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
  6. ^ "The Oxford English Dictionary". Retrieved 13 July 2012.
  7. ^ Frazer, John F. (November 1866). Journal of the Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania for the Promotion of the Mechanic Arts. LII. Philadelphia: Franklin Institute. p. 314.
  8. ^ Harrington, Mark W.; Rotch, A. Lawrence; Herdman, W. J. (May 1889). American meteorological journal: A monthly review of meteorology, medical climatology and geography. 6. Meteorological Journal Company. p. 226.
  9. ^ "Power consumed on electric railways". The Street Railway Journal. 11 (2): 116–117. February 1895.
  10. ^ Bulletin – United States Geological Survey, Volumes 151–152. USGS. 1898. pp. ix.
  11. ^ Whipple, F. J. W. (1899). "The Stability of the Motion of a Bicycle". The Quarterly Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics. 30: 342.
  12. ^ Launhardt, Wilhelm (1900). The Theory of the Trace: Being a Discussion of the Principles of Location. Madras: Lawrence Asylum Press.
  13. ^ Swinburne, J (July 1902). Saunders, Lawrence; Blundstone, S. R. (eds.). "The Electric Problem of Railways". The Railway Engineer. 23: 207.
  14. ^ Figee, S. (1903). Observations Made at the Royal Magnetical and Meteorological Observatory at Batavia. 24. Government of Netherlands East India. p. 196.
  15. ^ Hobart, H. M. (1910). Electric Trains. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company. p. xix.
  16. ^ Ball, Jack (August 1911). "Foreign Notes on Aviation". Town & Country: 26.
  17. ^ Dodd, S. T. (January 1914). "A Review of Some European Electric Locomotive Designs". General Electric Review. 17 (1): 1141.
  18. ^ a b "Data on Mixed Motor Fuels of Interest for American Export Trade". The Automobile. 33 (15): 709. October 1915.
  19. ^ "Tractive resistance tests with an electric motor truck". Engineering and Contracting. 46 (25): 560. December 1916.
  20. ^ al-Jawwīyah, Maṣlaḥat al-Arṣād (1921). Meteorological Report for the Year [1916?]. Ministry of Public Works, Egypt. p. xvii.
  21. ^ Candee, A. H.; Lynde, L. E. (1922). "French Railway Begins Electrification Program". Railway Electrical Engineer. Simmons Boardman. 13: 392.
  22. ^ Blakemore, Thos. L. (1927). Pressure Airships. Ronald Press. p. 230.
  23. ^ Aircraft Year Book. 15. Aerospace Industries Association of America, Manufacturers Aircraft Association, Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce of America. 1933. pp. 391–393.
  24. ^ Bulletin. Central Electric Railfans' Association. 1939. p. cxii.
  25. ^ Truss, Lynne (2003). Eats Shoots and Leaves. Profile Books. pp. 188–189. ISBN 1 86197 6127.
  26. ^ Reuters Handbook of Journalism (PDF). Reuters. April 2008. p. 278. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-05-18. Retrieved 2012-08-06.
  27. ^ "Style Guide". The Economist. 27 September 2011. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  28. ^ "klick". Oxford English Dictionary. June 2012. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
  29. ^ Quinn, Terry (2012). From Artefacts to Atoms: The BIPM and the Search for Ultimate Measurement Standards. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-19-530786-3.
  30. ^ a b International Bureau of Weights and Measures (2006), The International System of Units (SI) (PDF) (8th ed.), p. 124, ISBN 92-822-2213-6, archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-08-14
  31. ^ Danloux-Dumesnils (1969). The Metric System: A Critical Study of its Principles and Practice. The Athlone Press of the University of London. p. 32.
  32. ^ "RLO: SI Units". School of Nursing and Academic Division of Midwifery; University of Nottingham. 1 December 2006. Archived from the original on 23 December 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  33. ^ "Information and Harmonization". International Bureau of Weights and Measures and International Organization of Legal Metrology. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  34. ^ "OLA Editorial Style Guide" (PDF). Burnaby, British Columbia: Open Learning Agency (OLA), Government of British Columbia. 2000. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  35. ^ "Conspicuity and Signs: Road signing". International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-11-02. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
  36. ^ "Department of Transport / An Roinn Iompair" (PDF). November 2010: 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 April 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  37. ^ "Directive 71/354/EEC". 18 October 1971. on the approximation of laws of Member States relating to units of measurement
  38. ^ The Council of the European Communities. "Council Directive 80/181/EEC of 20 December 1979 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to Unit of measurement and on the repeal of Directive 71/354/EEC". Retrieved 7 February 2009.
  39. ^ "Directive 75/443/EEC". 26 June 1975. on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the reverse and speedometer equipment of motor vehicles
  40. ^ National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (May 2000). "Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; FMVSS 101--Technical Correction--Speedometer Display". Federal Register. 64 (94): 30915–30918.
  41. ^ National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (101: Controls and Displays). p. 237.
2-8-4

Under the Whyte notation, a 2-8-4 is a steam locomotive that has one unpowered leading axle, usually in a leading truck, followed by four powered and coupled driving axles, and two unpowered trailing axles, usually mounted in a bogie. This locomotive type is most often referred to as a Berkshire, though the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway used the name Kanawha for their 2-8-4s. In Europe, this wheel arrangement was mostly seen in mainline passenger express locomotives and, in certain countries, in tank locomotives.

Autodromo Nazionale Monza

The Autodromo Nazionale Monza is a historic race track located near the city of Monza, north of Milan, in Italy. Built in 1922, it is the world's third purpose-built motor racing circuit after those of Brooklands and Indianapolis.

The circuit's biggest event is the Formula One Italian Grand Prix. With the exception of 1980, the race has been hosted there since the series's inception.Built in the Royal Villa of Monza park in a woodland setting, the site has three tracks – the 5.793-kilometre (3.600 mi) Grand Prix track, the 2.405-kilometre (1.494 mi) Junior track, and a 4.250-kilometre (2.641 mi) high speed oval track with steep bankings which has been unused for many decades and is now decaying. The major features of the main Grand Prix track include the Curva Grande, the Curva di Lesmo, the Variante Ascari and the Curva Parabolica. The high speed curve, Curva Grande, is located after the Variante del Rettifilo which is located at the end of the front straight or Rettifilo Tribune, and is usually taken flat out by Formula One cars.

Drivers are on full throttle for most of the lap due to its long straights and fast corners, and is usually the scenario in which the open-wheeled Formula One cars show the raw speed of which they are capable: 372 kilometres per hour (231 mph) during the mid-2000s V10 engine formula, although in 2012 with the 2.4L V8 engines, top speeds in Formula One rarely reached over 340 kilometres per hour (211 mph); the 1.6L turbocharged hybrid V6 engine, reduced-downforce formula of 2014 displayed top speeds of up to 360 kilometres per hour (224 mph). The circuit is generally flat, but has a gradual gradient from the second Lesmos to the Variante Ascari. Due to the low aerodynamic profile needed, with its resulting low downforce, the grip is very low; understeer is a more serious issue than at other circuits; however, the opposite effect, oversteer, is also present in the second sector, requiring the use of a very distinctive opposite lock technique. Since both maximum power and minimal drag are keys for speed on the straights, only competitors with enough power or aerodynamic efficiency at their disposal are able to challenge for the top places.In addition to Formula One, the circuit previously hosted the 1000 km Monza, and endurance sports car race held as part of the World Sportscar Championship and the Le Mans Series. Monza also featured the unique Race of Two Worlds events, which attempted to run Formula One and USAC National Championship cars against each other. The racetrack also previously held rounds of the Grand Prix motorcycle racing (Italian motorcycle Grand Prix), World Touring Car Championship, TCR International Series, Superbike World Championship, Formula Renault 3.5 Series and Auto GP. Monza currently hosts rounds of the Blancpain GT Series Endurance Cup, International GT Open and Euroformula Open Championship, as well as various local championships such as the TCR Italian Series, Italian GT Championship, Porsche Carrera Cup Italia and Italian F4 Championship.

The Monza circuit has been the site of many fatal accidents, especially in the early years of the Formula One world championship, and has claimed the lives of 52 drivers and 35 spectators. Track modifications have continuously occurred, to improve spectator safety and reduce curve speeds, but it is still criticised by the current drivers for its lack of run-off areas, most notoriously at the chicane that cuts the Variante della Roggia.

China Railway CRH5

The CRH5 Hexie (simplified Chinese: 和谐号; traditional Chinese: 和諧號; pinyin: Héxié Hào; literally: "Harmony") is an electric multiple unit high-speed train in use with China Railway High-speed in the People's Republic of China. The CRH5 is based on the ETR-600 New Pendolino used in Italy.

The CRH5 are non-tilting trains, developed for the Chinese Railways and which technology has been transferred to local manufacturers. The CRH5 have a design speed of up to 200 kilometres per hour (124 mph) and now operate steadily at 250 kilometres per hour (155 mph).

Cyclone Zeus

Cyclone Zeus was an extratropical cyclone and European windstorm which affected France on 6–7 March 2017. The storm developed rapidly and moved quickly across France on a north-west/south-east trajectory from Finistère in Brittany to the Alpes-Maritimes then Corsica. The storm's rapid strengthening resulted in much stronger winds than initially expected, with a maximum gust of 193 kilometres per hour (120 mph) recorded in Camaret-sur-Mer, Finistère.

Météo-France reported 7% of French territory experienced winds in excess of 120 kilometres per hour (75 mph), Météo-France described it as the tenth most severe storm to impact France between 1980-2017. The storm was the costliest storm of the 2016/17 winter across Europe.

Fiat 12 HP

The Fiat 12 HP is a car produced by the Italian manufacturer Fiat in 1901 and 1902. The car was designed by the engineer Giovanni Enrico, successor to the Faccioli who had engineered the first three Fiat models, it was the first Fiat and one of the first cars of this era equipped with a 4-cylinder engine with dual blocks. It was manufactured in 106 copies in the plant Corso Dante. A racing version was also made the 12 HP 1901 Corsa which incorporated the same engine. The maximum speed was 78 kilometres per hour (48 mph). This car put an end to the domination of Panhard on European courses.

At the end of 1901, a version equipped with a new engine is also proposed, it received a 4-cylinder 115x180 mm 7475 cc engine, that produced 28 hp at 750 rpm and allowed it to reach a top speed of 90 kilometres per hour (56 mph).

Fiat 24-32 HP

The Fiat 24-32 HP was introduced by the Italian automobile manufacturer Fiat in 1903. The car was designed to allow coachbuilders to make various bodies to fit. It was offered with three different wheelbases, short, medium and long.

It was equipped with a 4-cylinder engine:

1st series with a 6371 cc engine - 32 hp

2nd series in 1904 with a 6902 cc engine - 32 hp

3rd series in 1905 with a 7363 cc engine - 32 hpMore than 400 were made in the Corso Dante plant in Turin.

The Fiat 24-32 HP featured some important technological innovations: it was the first sedan car to use a "Landaulet" body type and was the first car to have an accelerator pedal and a gearbox with four forward gears. The road model could achieve a top speed of 75 kilometres per hour (47 mph).In 1902, Fiat introduced a racing version of the 24 HP Corsa. This was the first car ever to be specially designed for racing rather than derived from a series production automobile. The Corsa had a full steel chassis rather than the wood chassis that dominated at the time, and a twin-engine block 7238 cc developing 40 hp. Weighing in at just 450 kilograms (992 lb), it ran at speeds in excess of 100 kilometres per hour (62 mph), a very high speed in those days. This car dominated its competitors from its first release into competition. The car won the Côte-Superga Sassi race, near Turin, on June 29 and July 27, 1902, with Vincenzo Lancia driving, and the Susa - Col du Mont-Cenis race at an average speed of 44.16 kilometres per hour (27.44 mph).

Fiat 505

The Fiat 505 is a passenger car produced by Fiat between 1919 and 1925. The 505 was based on the same basic design as the four cylinder Fiat 501, but with a larger engine and bigger exterior dimensions. With a 2296 cc (30 hp) engine, the car could reach a top speed of 80 kilometres per hour (50 mph).

30,000 examples of the Fiat 505 were produced.

Fiat 8 HP

The Fiat 8 hp is a car produced by the Italian manufacturer Fiat in 1901. The car has a straight-2 engine rated at 8 hp and a top speed of 45 kilometres per hour (28 mph).

Gale

A gale is a strong wind, typically used as a descriptor in nautical contexts. The U.S. National Weather Service defines a gale as 34–47 knots (63–87 km/h, 17.5–24.2 m/s or 39–54 miles/hour) of sustained surface winds. Forecasters typically issue gale warnings when winds of this strength are expected. In the United States, a gale warning is specifically a maritime warning; the land-based equivalent in National Weather Service warning products is a wind advisory.

Other sources use minima as low as 28 knots (52 km/h; 14 m/s; 32 mph), and maxima as high as 90 knots (170 km/h; 46 m/s; 100 mph). Through 1986, the National Hurricane Center used the term gale to refer to winds of tropical force for coastal areas, between 33 knots (61 km/h; 17 m/s; 38 mph) and 63 knots (117 km/h; 72 mph; 32 m/s). The 90 knots (170 km/h; 46 m/s; 100 mph) definition is very non-standard. A common alternative definition of the maximum is 55 knots (102 km/h; 63 mph; 28 m/s).The most common way of measuring wind force is with the Beaufort scale which defines a gale as wind from 50 kilometres per hour (14 m/s) to 102 kilometres per hour (28 m/s). It is an empirical measure for describing wind speed based mainly on observed sea conditions. On the original 1810 Beaufort wind force scale, there were four different "gale" designations whereas generally today there are two gale forces, 8 and 9, and a near gale 7:

The word gale is derived from the older gail, but its origin is uncertain.

Governor (device)

A governor, or speed limiter or controller, is a device used to measure and regulate the speed of a machine, such as an engine.

A classic example is the centrifugal governor, also known as the Watt or fly-ball governor on a reciprocating steam engine, which uses the effect of centrifugal force on rotating weights driven by the machine output shaft to regulate its speed by altering the input flow of steam.

List of Albanian Air Force aircraft

Albanian military aircraft include all airplanes and helicopters which have been operated by the Albanian Air Force since its formal inception in 1947. Since Albania has no domestic aircraft manufacturing capacity, all aircraft have been procured from other countries. Additionally, the country's limited resources have meant that such procurement has been primarily through foreign military aid provided to Albania for strategic reasons. Initially, the Warsaw Pact provided equipment through the 1950s, but after a political rift, China supplanted them as the country's main benefactor. After the end of the Cold War and a significant shift in Albanian international relations, as well as a re-posturing of the Albanian Armed Forces, the air force has sought more modern support helicopters from Western Europe to support its new role in partnership with NATO.

List of motorways in Luxembourg

There are six motorways in Luxembourg, forming the backbone of road infrastructure in Luxembourg. Five of them extend radially from Luxembourg City, in southern Luxembourg, the centre of the transport network of the country.

The six motorways have a total length of 152 kilometres (94 mi)

. For cars, the speed limit is 130 kilometres per hour (81 mph), reduced to 110 kilometres per hour (68 mph) in rain. During summer, due to heat the speed can be reduced to 90 kilometres per hour (56 mph)

Nova Scotia Highway 104

Highway 104 in Nova Scotia, Canada, runs from Fort Lawrence at the New Brunswick border near Amherst to River Tillard near St. Peter's. Except for the portion on Cape Breton Island between Port Hawkesbury and St. Peter's, it is part of the Trans-Canada Highway.

Highway 104 mostly supplants the former route of Trunk 4. In 1970, all sections of Trunk 4 west of New Glasgow were renumbered, although the number was added back in the Mount Thom and Wentworth Valley areas in the 1990s when new alignments of Highway 104 opened to traffic.

The provincial government named the highway the Miners Memorial Highway on 8 September 2008 one month before the 50th anniversary of the Springhill Mining Disaster of 23 October 1958.

Panzer VIII Maus

Panzerkampfwagen VIII Maus ("Mouse") was a German World War II super-heavy tank completed in late 1944. It is the heaviest fully enclosed armoured fighting vehicle ever built. Five were ordered, but only two hulls and one turret were completed before the testing grounds were captured by advancing Soviet military forces.

These two prototypes underwent trials in late 1944. The complete vehicle was 10.2 metres (33 ft 6 in) long, 3.71 metres (12 ft 2 in) wide and 3.63 metres (11.9 ft) high. Weighing 188 metric tons, the Maus's main armament was the Krupp-designed 128 mm KwK 44 L/55 gun, based on the 12.8 cm Pak 44 anti-tank field artillery piece also used in the casemate-type Jagdtiger tank destroyer, with a coaxial 75 mm KwK 44 L/36.5 gun. The 128 mm gun was powerful enough to destroy all Allied armoured fighting vehicles then in service, some at ranges exceeding 3,500 metres (2.2 mi).The principal problem in the design of the Maus was developing an engine and drivetrain which was powerful enough to adequately propel the tank, yet small enough to fit inside it — as it was meant to use the same sort of "hybrid drive", using an internal-combustion engine to operate an electric generator to power its tracks with electric motor units, much as its Ferdinand Porsche-designed predecessors, the VK 3001 (P), VK 4501 (P), and Elefant had. The drive train was electrical, designed to provide a maximum speed of 20 kilometres per hour (12 mph) and a minimum speed of 1.5 kilometres per hour (0.93 mph). However, during actual field testing, the maximum speed achieved on hard surfaces was 13 kilometres per hour (8.1 mph) with full motor field, and by weakening the motor field to a minimum, a top speed of 22 kilometres per hour (14 mph) was achieved. The vehicle's weight made it unable to utilize most bridges, instead it was intended to ford to a depth of 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) or submerge up to a depth of 8 metres (26 ft 3 in) and use a snorkel to cross rivers.

The Maus was intended to punch holes through enemy defences in the manner of an immense "breakthrough tank", whilst taking almost no damage to any components.

Railway platform

A railway platform is an area alongside a railway track providing convenient access to trains. Almost all stations have some form of platform, with larger stations having multiple platforms.

The world's longest station platform is at Gorakhpur Junction in India at 1,355.40 metres. The Appalachian Trail station in the United States, at the other extreme, has a platform which is only long enough for a single bench.Among some United States train conductors the word "platform" has entered usage as a verb meaning "to berth at a station", as in the announcement: "The last two cars of this train will not platform at East Rockaway".

SNCF Class CC 7100

SNCF's CC 7100 class are part of a series of electric locomotives built by Alsthom. The prototype 'CC 7000' (7001 & 7002) were built in 1949 and the production series locomotives CC 7101-CC 7158 followed during 1952–1955. Two of the class are notable for setting world rail speed records: CC 7121 reaching 243 kilometres per hour (151 mph) on 21 February 1954, and CC 7107 reaching 331 kilometres per hour (206 mph) on 28/29 March 1955.

Sentul International Circuit

Sentul International Circuit is a 50,000-capacity permanent motor racing circuit located at Sentul City, Babakan Madang, Bogor, near the Toll Gate of Jakarta towards Bogor Regency, Indonesia.Its pit facilities have easy access to the Jagorawi Toll Road. The current circuit is a truncated version of the original design. Approximately 40% shorter than the original, the circuit runs clockwise and is predominantly used for motorcycle racing and the Asian F3 series. Sentul is a relatively simple, smooth, broad track with large runoff areas, enabling non-bumpy and smooth driving at racing speeds. Sentul has a 900-metre (3,000 ft) main straight that allows speeds of up to 300 kilometres per hour (190 mph) before slowing for the right-hand Turn 1. The only truly high-speed corner at Sentul is Turn 2. The fastest driver on four-wheel machines can do 220 kilometres per hour (140 mph), and the fastest rider can do 190 kilometres per hour (120 mph) on two-wheel machines. They can take Turn 2 as a complex "S" bend when they get out from the tighter Turn 1 at around 140 kilometres per hour (87 mph). The wide corners allow good passing with various racing lines.

Sentul is located in Bogor Regency. It is a hilly area and a bit cooler than the tropical city of Jakarta. However, the track can still get extremely hot under direct sunlight. It is also humid and wet as well. Such characteristics cause distress to European tuners, riders and drivers who are accustomed to cooler climates.

Speed limits in Bulgaria

Speed limit for cars:

50 kilometres per hour (31 mph) within towns

90 kilometres per hour (56 mph) outside towns

120 kilometres per hour (75 mph) on expressways

140 kilometres per hour (87 mph) on motorwaysSpeed limit for motorcycles, buses and trucks without trailers:

50 kilometres per hour (31 mph) within towns

80 kilometres per hour (50 mph)outside towns

100 kilometres per hour (62 mph) on motorwaysSpeed limit for cars, buses and trucks with trailers:

50 kilometres per hour (31 mph) within towns

70 kilometres per hour (43 mph) outside towns

100 kilometres per hour (62 mph) on motorwaysSpeed limit for tractors, trolleybuses and trams:

50 kilometres per hour (31 mph)Speed limit for mopeds:

45 kilometres per hour (28 mph)Speed limit for other automobiles:

40 kilometres per hour (25 mph)

Speed skiing

Speed skiing is the sport of skiing downhill in a straight line at as high a speed as possible, as timed over a fixed stretch of ski slope. There are two types of contest: breaking an existing speed record or having the fastest run at a given competition. Speed skiers regularly exceed 200 kilometres per hour (125 mph).

Speed limits in North America
Sovereign states
Dependencies and
other territories

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