Kilkenny

Kilkenny (Irish: Cill Chainnigh, meaning "church of Cainnech")[2] is the county town of County Kilkenny in the province of Leinster in south-east Ireland.[3] It is built on both banks of the River Nore. The city is administered by a borough council (and a mayor), which is a level below that of city council in the local government of the state, although the Local Government Act 2001 allows for "the continued use of the description city". The 2016 census gave the total population of Kilkenny as 26,512.[1]

In 2009 the City of Kilkenny celebrated its 400th year since the granting of city status in 1609. Though referred to as a city, Kilkenny is actually a large town, the seventh largest town in Ireland.

Kilkenny is a tourist destination, and its environs include historic buildings such as Kilkenny Castle, St. Canice's Cathedral and round tower, Rothe House, Shee Alms House,[4] Black Abbey, St. Mary's Cathedral, Kilkenny Town Hall, St. Francis Abbey, Grace's Castle, and St. John's Priory. Kilkenny is also known for its craft and design workshops, the Watergate Theatre, public gardens and museums. Annual events include Kilkenny Arts Festival,[5] the Cat Laughs comedy festival and music at the Kilkenny Roots Festival.[6]

Kilkenny began with an early sixth century ecclesiastical foundation within the kingdom of Ossory. Following Norman invasion of Ireland, Kilkenny Castle and a series of walls were built to protect the burghers of what became a Norman merchant town. William Marshall, Lord of Leinster, gave Kilkenny a charter as a town in 1207. By the late thirteenth century Kilkenny was under Norman-Irish control. The Statutes of Kilkenny passed at Kilkenny in 1367, aimed to curb the decline of the Hiberno-Norman Lordship of Ireland. In 1609 King James I of England granted Kilkenny a Royal Charter giving it the status of a city. Following the Rebellion of 1641, the Irish Catholic Confederation, also known as the "Confederation of Kilkenny", was based in Kilkenny and lasted until the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in 1649.

Kilkenny was a brewing centre from the late seventeenth century, and still houses a number of breweries. The Heritage Council offices are at Church Lane. The seat of the Roman Catholic Bishop of Ossory is at St Mary's Cathedral and the Church of Ireland Bishop of Cashel and Ossory is at St Canice's Cathedral.

Kilkenny

Cill Chainnigh
Skyline of Kilkenny
Coat of arms of Kilkenny

Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
The Marble City
Kilkenny is located in Ireland
Kilkenny
Kilkenny
Location in Ireland
Kilkenny is located in Europe
Kilkenny
Kilkenny
Kilkenny (Europe)
Coordinates: 52°38′52″N 7°15′22″W / 52.6477°N 7.2561°WCoordinates: 52°38′52″N 7°15′22″W / 52.6477°N 7.2561°W
CountryIreland
ProvinceLeinster
CountyKilkenny
CouncilKilkenny County Council
Dáil ÉireannCarlow–Kilkenny
European ParliamentSouth
Elevation
60 m (200 ft)
Population
(2016)[1]
26,512
 • Rank11th
Time zoneUTC±0 (WET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+1 (IST)
Eircode routing key
R95
Telephone area code+353(0)56
Irish Grid ReferenceS506563
Websitewww.kilkennycity.ie
Map of Kilkenny
Map of Kilkenny
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Kilkenny Castle
KilkennyCastlePS
Kilkenny Castle, the signature symbol of the Medieval city

Toponymy

Annals of the Four Masters Signature
Signatures of the Four Masters.

Kilkenny is the anglicised version of the Irish Cill Chainnigh, meaning Cell/Church of Cainneach or Canice.[2] This relates to a church built in honour of St. Canice on the hill now containing St. Canice's Cathedral and the round tower. This seems to be the first major settlement. The early Christian origin of the round tower suggests an early ecclesiastical foundation at Kilkenny.[7]

Ceall-Cainnigh was for the most part burned.
— Four Masters, Annals of the Four Masters, 1085.[8]

The Annals of the Four Masters recorded Kilkenny in 1085.[9] Prior to this time the early 6th century territory was known as Osraighe, referring to the whole district or the capital. The Four Masters entry was the first instance where the capital was called Ceall-Cainnigh (modernized Kilkenny).[10] Cill Chainnigh was a major monastic centre from at least the eighth century. There is no mention of Cill Chainnigh in the lives of Cainnech of Aghaboe, Ciarán of Saighir or any of the early annals of Ireland suggesting that Cill Chainnigh was not of ancient civil importance.[9]

Kilkenny is described as a city in the Local Government Act 2001:

the continued use of the description city in relation to Kilkenny, to the extent that that description was used before the establishment day.
— Local Government Act 2001

History

Small Kilkenny city map circa 1780 (2006-06-17)
Old city map, c. 1780

Kilkenny's foundation began with an early sixth century ecclesiastical settlement, with a church built in honour of St. Canice. Now St. Canice's Cathedral, this was a major monastic centre from at least the eighth century. The Annals of the Four Masters recorded the first reference Cill Chainnigh in 1085. Prehistoric activity has been recorded, suggesting intermittent settlement activity in the area in the Mesolithic and Bronze Age. Information on the history of Kilkenny can be found from newspapers, photographs, letters, drawings, manuscripts and archaeology. Kilkenny is documented in manuscripts from the 13th century onwards and one of the most important of these is Liber Primus Kilkenniensis.

The Kings of Ossory had residence around Cill Chainnigh. The seat of diocese of Kingdom of Osraige was moved from Aghaboe to Cill Chainnigh. Following the Norman invasion of Ireland, Richard Strongbow, as Lord of Leinster, established a castle near modern-day Kilkenny Castle. William Marshall began the development of the town of Kilkenny and a series of walls to protect the burghers. By the late thirteenth century Kilkenny was under Norman-Irish control. The original ecclesiastical centre at St. Canice's Cathedral became known as Irishtown and the Anglo-Norman borough inside the wall came to be known as Hightown.

A remarkable early trial for witchcraft was that of Kilkenny resident Alice Kyteler (involving also her maidservant, Petronilla de Meath) instigated by the then Bishop of Ossory, Richard de Ledrede, in 1324.[11]

Kilkenny St. Mary's Church Kilkenny Room Charter of James I 1609 2017 09 11
Charter of James I from 1609 which raised Kilkenny to a city with a mayor who is "to have a sword carried before him or them within the said city, and the county of the said city, at their will and pleasure, in such manner and form as is used in any other city or cities before any Mayor or Mayors within the said Kingdom of Ireland."[12][13]

The Hiberno-Norman presence in Kilkenny was deeply shaken by the Black Death, which arrived in 1348. The Statutes of Kilkenny passed at Kilkenny in 1367, aimed to curb the decline of the Hiberno-Norman Lordship of Ireland. In 1609 King James I of England granted Kilkenny a Royal Charter giving it the status of a city. Following the Rebellion of 1641, the Irish Catholic Confederation, also known as the "Confederation of Kilkenny", was based in Kilkenny and lasted until the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in 1649. James II of England spent most of the winter months from November 1689 until January 1690 at Kilkenny, residing in the castle.[14]

The Kilkenny Design Workshops were opened in 1965 and in 1967 the Marquess of Ormonde presented Kilkenny Castle to the people of Kilkenny. Today, it has a lively cultural scene, with annual events including the Kilkenny Arts Week Festival in the last two weeks of August, and the Cat Laughs Comedy Festival at the beginning of June. Kilkenny is also where the Irish ale, Smithwick's, was first brewed.[15] There is now a brewery tour on the foundations of the original brewery. Kilkenny is referred to as the Marble City, and people from Kilkenny are often referred to as 'Cats'. The seat of the Roman Catholic Bishop of Ossory is at St. Mary's Cathedral and the Church of Ireland Bishop of Cashel and Ossory is at St. Canice's Cathedral.

Kilkenny is also the site of Ireland's earliest recorded witch trial. Occurring in 1324, the trial involved Dame Alice de Kyteler and her servant Petronella de Meath. Petronella would be the first person recorded in Ireland to be burned alive at the stake for witchcraft, after Dame Alice presumably fled the country.[16] This trial was also one of the earliest recorded witch burnings in Europe, and inspires much folk lore about the possibility of the ghosts of Alice and Petronella haunting downtown Kilkenny. Alice's house, Kyteler's Inn, still stands, and is now a pub.

Geography

Kilkenny is situated in the Nore Valley on both banks of the River Nore, at the centre of County Kilkenny in the province of Leinster in the south-east of Ireland. The first edition of the Ordnance Survey map for Kilkenny was in 1837 and is held by the County Library.

The elevation is 60 metres (200 ft) above mean sea level. The area of Kilkenny borough is 3.74 square kilometres (1.44 sq mi).

It is 117 kilometres (73 mi) away the capital Dublin and 48 kilometres (30 mi) north from the nearest city Waterford. Wexford is 80 kilometres (50 mi) to the south-east and Limerick is 122 kilometres (76 mi) to the west.

Kilkenny borough has a population of 8,591, however the majority of the population of Kilkenny live outside the borough boundary. Kilkenny City borough and its environs had a population of 22,179 in 2006.[22]

Changes as of the 2006 census, by the Central Statistics Office, Kilkenny Town Borough had a population of 8,661 which was an increase of 70 persons over the 2002 figure of 8,591 or 0.8%. The Town Environs had a population of 13,518 which was an increase of 1347 persons over the 2002 figure of 12,144 or 11.3%.[23] Overall both the Borough & Environs had a population of 22,179 in 2006 which was an increase of 1444 persons over the 2002 figure of 20,735 or 7.0%. People from Kilkenny are often referred to as 'Cats'.

Disposable household income per person as of 2005 was 18,032 euro and the index of disposable household was 89.4.[24]

It is multilingual but predominantly English-speaking, with Irish being the second most commonly spoken language.[25] In recent decades, with the increase of immigration on an all-Ireland basis, many more languages have been introduced into Kilkenny.

The main religion is Catholic, however there are Church of Ireland, Presbyterian, Methodist, Jewish and other religious traditions living in Kilkenny.[26]

Climate

Kilkenny
Climate chart (explanation)
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Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [27]
Canal Square Kilkenny
The New Canal Square

The climate of Kilkenny, like the climate of Ireland, is a changeable oceanic climate with few extremes. It is defined as a temperate oceanic climate, or Cfb on the Köppen climate classification system. Kilkenny lies in plant Hardiness zone 9.

Weatherwise, Kilkenny is generally representative of wide river valleys in the region with low temperatures on cloudless nights,[28] and is significant in that it records some of the highest summer and lowest winter temperatures in Ireland. The highest air temperature ever recorded in Ireland was 33.3 °C (91.9 °F), at Kilkenny Castle on 26 June 1887.[29]

The Met Éireann Kilkenny Weather Observing Station, 2 km north-west of the centre of Kilkenny, on the Duningstown Road, opened in May 1957,[28] and observations ceased in April 2008.[30] A climatological station is currently in operation within 1 km of the old site, and as of March 2010, was providing live weather data to the general public and climate data to Met Éireann.[30]

Extremes recorded at the station include the highest air temperature of 31.5 °C (88.7 °F) on 29 June 1976, the lowest air temperature of −14.1 °C (6.6 °F) on 2 January 1979 and the lowest ground temperature of −18.1 °C (−0.6 °F) on 12 January 1982.[28] The maximum daily sunshine was 16.3 hours on 18 June 1978.[28]

The warmest and sunniest month on record in Kilkenny was August 1995 with a total of 274.9 hours sunshine and very high temperatures throughout.[28] The maximum daily sunshine was 16.3 hours on 18 June 1978.[28] The overall trend in temperatures has been on the rise with a marked increase from 1988 onwards.[31] Annual temperatures are running over 0.5 degrees or 0.9°F above 20th century levels.[31]

The maximum daily rainfall recorded at Kilkenny station was 66.4 millimetres (2.61 in) on 17 July 1983.[28] The late 1950s and early 1960s were wet but rainfall had been steady throughout the century.[31] 2002 was a very wet year and since 2005 annual rainfall has been increased steadily, with 2009 being the wettest year since records commenced in 1958.[31]

At the centre of the county, Kilkenny is in a sheltered location, 66 kilometres (41 mi) inland and is surrounded by hills over 200 metres (660 ft), which ensures that it is not a windy location.[30] The highest wind gust of 77 knots, from a south-west direction, was recorded on 12 January 1974.[28]

Governance

Kilkenny Courthouse 2018
Kilkenny Courthouse in 2018

Kilkenny's first council was elected in 1231, and since then Kilkenny has had a continuous record of municipal government. From the 13th century to the end of the 16th, the chief magistrate was known as the sovereign, and since then as the mayor.

Kilkenny is a local electoral area of County Kilkenny and includes the electoral divisions of Dunmore, Kilkenny Rural and St. Canice.[34] Local government bodies in Kilkenny have responsibility for such matters as planning, roads, sanitation and libraries. It is governed by the Local Government Acts, the most significant of which was in 2001, which established a two-tier structure of local government. The top tier of the structure consists of the Kilkenny County Council, which has 26 elected councillors, of which Kilkenny elects seven. The second tier of local government is the Kilkenny Borough Council, which is a "Town Council" but uses the title of "Borough Council" instead, but has no additional responsibilities. As of the 2009 local elections the composition of the town council is: Fine Gael 4, Fianna Fáil 4, Labour Party 2, Sinn Féin 1, Green Party 1.

Kilkenny's city status is derived from a royal charter in 1609 by King James I of England. This was recently given a legislative basis by Section 10(7) of the Local Government Act 2001, which allows for "the continued use of the description city", although it does not have a "city" council like the other Irish cities, but rather a borough council instead. Kilkenny Borough Council, formerly Kilkenny Corporation, used to have a "sovereign" and "council of twelve", but these have since been replaced by a mayor and councillors respectively.[35]

County Kilkenny is in the South-East regional authority of Ireland and is part of the Carlow–Kilkenny Dáil Éireann constituency. Kilkenny has been represented through several parliamentary constituencies in the past. From 1918 to 1921, Kilkenny was part of the North Kilkenny United Kingdom Parliamentary constituency. In 1921 the Carlow–Kilkenny Dáil constituency was created and has stayed apart from between 1937 and 1948 when there was just a Kilkenny constituency.

Kilkenny is in the South constituency of the European Parliament and elects 4 MEPs.

Landmarks

The New Parade Kilkenny
The New Parade, Kilkenny City, leading from the Castle to High Street
Butler House
Butler House
Rothe House, 1998
Rothe House on Parliament Street in 1998

The Landmarks of Kilkenny show Kilkenny's heritage through the historical buildings. Kilkenny is a well-preserved medieval town and is dominated by both Kilkenny Castle and St. Canice's Cathedral and round tower.

Kilkenny Castle and some important historical architecture of the medieval city survive, like parts of the Kilkenny City Walls. They define the extent, layout and status of the medieval town. The town grew from a monastic settlement to a thriving Norman merchant town in the Middle Ages. Saint Canice's Cathedral and round tower are an example of the monastic settlement. Rothe House on Parliament Street is an example of an Elizabethan merchant townhouse located on the only completely surviving burgage plot in Ireland. It also features a restored 17th century garden on an area of half an acre behind the house, complete with herbs, vegetables and an orchard.

The black stone with decorative white fossils that forms the backbone of many of Kilkenny's fine buildings was quarried locally, particularly from the quarry located 1.6 km south of the town on the R700.[36] Kilkenny Marble was used for the plinth of the new tomb of Richard III in Leicester Cathedral in England.[37]

Visitor attractions in Kilkenny and its environs include Kilkenny Castle and Gardens including the Butler Gallery, St. Canice's Cathedral and round tower, Rothe House and Garden, Shee Alms House, Grace's Courthouse, St. Mary's Cathedral, Kilkenny City Hall, the Dominican Black Abbey, St. John's Church, Butler House, Kilkenny 'Slips' and St. Francis Abbey Brewery. Castle Park. Gardens include the Castle Rose Garden, Rothe House Garden, the Famine Memorial Garden and the garden of Butler House.

In the county other attractions include Kells Priory, Jerpoint Abbey, Dunmore Caves, Woodstock Estate and Jenkinstown Park.

Kilkenny Marble or Black Marble was exported to all corners of the British Empire. The city has been referred to as the "Marble City" for centuries.

Kilkenny Castle and city walls

Kilkenny Castle in Kilkenny city was the seat of the Butler family. (Formerly the family name was FitzWalter.) The castle was sold to the local Castle Restoration Committee in the middle of the 20th century for £50. Shortly afterwards it was handed over to the State, and has since been refurbished and is open to visitors. Part of the collection of the National Art Gallery is on display in the castle. There are ornamental gardens on the north west side of the castle, and extensive land and gardens to the front. It has become one of the most visited tourist sites in Ireland.

The first stone castle was begun in 1204 by William Marshall the site was completed in 1213; it was a symbol of Norman occupation and in its original thirteenth-century condition it would have formed an important element of the defences of the town. There were four large circular corner towers and a massive ditch, part of which can still be seen today on the Parade. This was a square-shaped castle with towers at each corner; three of these original four towers survive to this day.

Kilkenny Walls protected the medieval town of Kilkenny.[38] The town was surrounded by walls with regular towers and gates. Remnants of the Town Walls survive such as Talbot Tower (1207), which is also known as Talbot's Bastion or Castle. It is the larger of the two surviving towers of the defences of the medieval High town of Kilkenny. There are walls on Abbey Street, and the adjoining Black Freren Gate is the only surviving gate/access remaining on the High town Circuit into the old city.[39] A wall also runs through the brewery's grounds beside St. Francis Abbey.

The Kilkenny City Walls Conservation Plan is a plan by the inhabitants of Kilkenny, Kilkenny Borough Council, the Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government, An Taisce, The Kilkenny Archaeological Society and The Heritage Council to ensure the long-term survival of the city's walls.[40]

St. Canice's Cathedral and tower

Kilkenny St Canice Cathedral SW 2007 08 28
St. Canice's Cathedral

St Canice's Cathedral, also known as Kilkenny Cathedral, present building dates from the 13th century and is the second longest cathedral in Ireland. The Cathedral is named after Saint Canice, who also gave his name to the town.[41]

Cruciform, the cathedral was built in the Early English, or English Gothic, style of architecture, of limestone, with a low central tower supported on black marble columns. The exterior walls, apart from the gables, are embattled, and there are two small spires at the west end. The cathedral is seventy-five yards long, and its width along the transepts is forty-one yards.

Beside the cathedral stands a 100 ft 9th century round tower. St. Canice's tower an excellent example of a well-preserved early Christian (9th century) Round Tower. Accessible only by a steep set of internal ladders, it may once have been both a watchtower and a refuge, and the summit gives a good view of Kilkenny and the countryside around. The hill on which the cathedral stands is believed to be the centre of the first major settlement at Kilkenny, and the round tower suggests an early ecclesiastical foundation.[7]

Dominican Black Abbey was founded in 1225, and lying just off Parliament Street.

Bridges

Kilkenny has four main bridges - Green's Bridge, John's Bridge, the Ossory Bridge and the St Francis Bridge. - and two pedestrian/cycle bridges - the Lady Desart Bridge and the Ossory Pedestrian Bridge . Each of the bridges spans the river Nore.

Green's Bridge

Green's Bridge, also known as the 'Great Bridge of Kilkenny', is one of the four main bridges in Kilkenny and is an important element of the architectural, civil engineering and transport heritage of Kilkenny City.[42] It was first built before 1200 and been called Green's Bridge since the Middle Ages. The bridge has been rebuilt many times since the twelfth century due to constant floods including the great floods of 1487 and 1763. The current bridge was built in 1766 after the 'Great Flood of 1763'. Green's Bridge crosses the River Nore in St. Canices Parish in the townland of Gardens.

The present-day Green's Bridge was built by William Colles (c. 1710–70) in 1766 to designs prepared by George Smith (1763–67), a pupil of George Semple (c. 1700–82). The Classical-style detailing indicating the lasting influence of the Roman Bridge at Rimini as described by Andrea Palladio's (1508–80) in The Four Books of Architecture (1570) (I Quattro Libri dell'Architettura). Carved limestone of high quality stone masonry enhance the architectural design value of the bridge while the series of five elliptical arches identifies the civil engineering heritage significance of the bridge. The bridge was renovated in 1835 where parapets were added but alteration works carried out in 1969 removed one parapet and a steel railing was added.

John's Bridge

John's Bridge is one of four main bridges in Kilkenny spanning the River Nore it connects John Street to Rose Inn Street in Kilkenny city. It was first built after 1200 and has been rebuilt many times since the twelfth century due to constant floods including the great floods of 1487 and 1763. It has been called John's Bridge since the Middle Ages.

The present-day John's Bridge was completed in 1910 and spans 140 ft (43 m) across the River Nore. It was reputedly, at the time it was completed, the longest single-span reinforced bridge in Ireland or Britain. The Design was by Mouchel & Partners using the Hennebique system of reinforcement. The arch consists of three ribs, tapering from 2 ft 6 in (0.76 m) to 2 ft (0.61 m) deep. The traverse deck beams are each 2 ft (0.61 m) deep.

During the flood of 1763, people gathered on John's Bridge after Green's Bridge collapsed, John's Bridge whole structure collapsed and sixteen people died.

The St Francis Bridge was opened on May 23rd 2017. It forms part of the Kilkenny Central Access Scheme. The scheme and the proposed building of the new bridge was the subject of major debate and protests in Kilkenny during 2014/2015.

The Ossory Bridge, linking the ring-road, was completed in 1984. The Ossory Bridge features an inlaid sculpture.

Lady Desart Bridge

Lady Desart Bridge is a pedestrian/cycle bridge opened on Thursday, 30 January 2014. It links John's Quay and Bateman Quay and is located between John's Bridge and Green's Bridge. Lady Desart Bridge cost an estimated €600,000 to construct.

The Ossory Pedestrian bridge, located underneath the main Ossory bridge, links the Canal Walk on one side of the River Nore to the Lacken Walk on the other side.

Old Woollen Mills

The Old Woollen Mills was built in the 1800s and is located on the north side of the city, on the Bleach Road. It was one of the largest employers in the area; the site covers 100,000 square feet (9,300 m2) and has more than a mile of river frontage onto the Nore. Among its many features is the original 75 ft (23 m) chimney consisting of over 40,000 bricks. An architectural salvage and antique yard, Kilkenny Architectural Salvage, is currently located on the site.

Culture

Kilkenny Design
Kilkenny Design Centre

Kilkenny is a popular tourist destination in Ireland. Its art galleries, historic buildings, craft and design workshops, theatre, comedy, public gardens and museums are some of main reasons Kilkenny has become one of Ireland's most visited towns and a base from which to explore the surrounding countryside.

Points of cultural interest in the area include Kilkenny Castle, St. Canice's Cathedral and round tower, Rothe House, St. Mary's Cathedral, Kells Priory, Kilkenny Town Hall, Black Abbey and Jerpoint Abbey.

Arts and festivals

Kilkenny is a festival location throughout the year.

Kilkenny Tradfest takes place over the St. Patrick's Day weekend in March and includes the St. Patrick's Day festivities, the parade and the Tradfest music festival, which highlights the best of Irish traditional and folk music.[43]

The Kilkenny Roots Festival is held on the first weekend of May and features Americana/Bluegrass/Folk/Rockabilly/AltCountry artists in various indoor venues throughout the city. Since 1998 the festival has attracted musicians from the Americana/Roots genre, including Calexico, Giant Sand, Ryan Adams, Alejandro Escovedo, Guy Clark, Chuck Prophet, Ray LaMontagne, Richmond Fontaine, Rodney Crowell, Phosphorescent, Sturgill Simpson and Alabama Shakes.[6]

Kilkenny hosts the annual Cat Laughs comedy festival every June bank holiday week.

The Kilkenny Arts Festival established in the 1970s takes place in late August. During this time Kilkenny plays host to contemporary art, with theatre, dance, visual art, literature, film, painting, sculptures and live performances. Musical events, including traditional, classical, world music and jazz, take place during the festival.

Savour Kilkenny is a food festival which happens in October every year,[44] drawing tens of thousands of visitors.

Each November, Kilkenny stages Kilkenomics, the world's first economics and comedy festival. Venues such as the Watergate Theatre host a range of home-produced and touring performances in dance, music and theatre.

Music

Music in Kilkenny is a rich and vibrant music scene with traditional Irish Music and artists such as Kerbdog, Engine Alley, R.S.A.G., My Little Funhouse and groups like Kilkenny Music. Many pubs have Irish traditional music sessions. Kerbdog was an Alternative rock band from Kilkenny who began writing in 1991. Engine Alley is a power pop band, who would go on to tour North America and Europe, having been signed to U2's Mother Records. R.S.A.G.'s double album Organic Sampler received a Choice Music Prize nomination for Irish Album of the Year 2008 in 2009. In 2005 Kilkenny Music a non-profit music-based group in Kilkenny was formed to work with a vast array of bands and acts within Kilkenny and the South East of Ireland.

The Kilkenny Roots Festival takes place each May Bank Holiday weekend.[45]

The Kilkenny Arts Festival is held every August. A concert, 'Source', is held in Nowlan Park and has attracted musical performers such as Rod Stewart, Shania Twain, Bob Dylan, Paul Simon and Andrea Bocelli. Dolly Parton headlined at the 2008 event. Bruce Springsteen played 2 consecutive nights in July 2013 to finish the European leg of his World tour.

Classical tastes are catered for in St Canice's Cathedral, where classical musicians and choirs often perform. The Kilkenny Choir and a Gospel Choir frequently perform in churches throughout the town. Groups like Ex Cathedra have played during the Kilkenny Arts Festival. Cleere's pub and theatre on Parliament Street is well known for touring Irish and international bands including indie, jazz and blues. They also have a traditional music session every Monday night, as does Ryan's on Friary Street on Thursdays.

Theatre

Kilkenny had a tradition of dramatic performance going back to 1366 when the Dublin company set up in Kilkenny. Henry Burkhead printed a play in Kilkenny, Cola's Fury, or Lirenda's Misery (1645), dealing with events of the Irish Rebellion of 1641 from an English standpoint. It was a blatantly political work with the Lirenda of the title being an anagram of Ireland. In 1642, as a result of the English Civil War, Dublin Royalists were forced to flee the city. Many of them went to Kilkenny to join a confederacy of Old English and Irish that formed in that city.

In 1802 Sir Richard and Sir John Power of Kilfane established the Kilkenny Private Theatre.[46]

The Watergate Theatre in Kilkenny is a centre for the performing and visual arts.[47] It provides a varied programme of professional and amateur dramatics, classical and contemporary music, opera and dance, together with regular exhibitions of paintings and photographs. The theatre plays an important role in the cultural, artistic and literary life of Kilkenny along with its festivals, professional and amateur theatre companies.

The Set Theatre is also a smaller theatre located on John Street in Kilkenny.

Film

Award-winning animated studio Cartoon Saloon, as well as the Young Irish Film Makers and Mycrofilms, are all based in Kilkenny, which hosts Subtitle European Film Festival each November (since 2012).

Media

Radio

KCLR radio station serves Carlow and Kilkenny.[48] It is based at both the Broadcast Centre on the Carlow Road, Kilkenny and Exchequer House, Potato Market, Carlow. KCLR is available on 96FM and is an independent local radio station. As of 2009, KCLR had 60% weekly reach and 33% weekday share.[49] KCLR 96FM began broadcasting in May 2004 replacing Radio Kilkenny.

Radio Kilkenny, which began as a pirate station Kilkenny Community Radio,[50] received a licensed to broadcast to Kilkenny city and county on 96.0 MHz,96.6 MHz and 106.3 MHz in 1988. Radio Kilkenny had 63% of the radio listeners in County Kilkenny and 16% in County Carlow but failed to secure a franchise in 2003 when the Broadcasting Commission of Ireland changed the station's franchise area to include Carlow. The station ceased broadcasting at 2:10 a.m. on 1 January 2004.[51]

Beat 102-103 is a regional youth radio station broadcasting across the South East of Ireland. It serves a population of about 450,000, and in August 2006 it had a 49% share of the south east market.

Print media

Newspapers have been produced in Kilkenny for centuries. Longstanding examples include Finns Leinster Journal (later the Kilkenny Journal) from 1767 to 1965, the Kilkenny People from 1916 to 1992, and the Kilkenny Moderator from 1814 to 1916.[52] Other papers included the Leinster Independent from 1872; the Kilkenny Chronicle from 1813; the Kilkenny Courier; Tipperary Examiner from 1858; the Kilkenny Express and the Wexford Express from 1875; The Post (a sister paper to Kilkenny People) from 1926; the Kilkenny Standard from 1979, the Kilkenny People in 1895, the Kilkenny Voice (2005-2008) and also the Kilkenny Advertiser.

Finn's Leinster Journal (1767–1801) was founded by Edmund Finn in 1767. It was published in Kilkenny but some content was relevant to Carlow. It was continued as Leinster Journal (1801–1830) and the Kilkenny Journal from 1832.[53]

The Moderator (1814–1822) changed its name to Kilkenny Moderator 1822–1919 and reverted to Moderator from 1920–1925.

The modern Kilkenny People was first published in 1895. It is a weekly paper. According to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, the Kilkenny People had an average weekly circulation of 17,578 for the first six months of 2006.[54] It is printed by the Kilkenny People Group at Purcellsinch and the group also publishes a number of other regional papers.[55]

Photography

Photographic Collections of Kilkenny include the Lawrence Collection c. 1900, the Crawford Collection c. 1940, the Valentine Collection c. 1950, the Bolton Street Students' Survey c. 1970, the Industrial Archaeologica Survey c. 1989, the Carrigan Collection and the St. John's Parish Collection, as well as many historical postcards.[56]

Panorama of Kilkenny city.
Panorama of Kilkenny city.

Community

Awards

Kilkenny was named as the Academy of Urbanism European Great Town for 2008.[57] The Academy Chairman, John Thompson, said "it is great to have an Irish town coming through in this year's awards, especially Kilkenny which is coming to terms with economic growth without losing its wonderful character and humour". Kilkenny won the Irish Tidy Towns Competition in 1985.[58]

Twinned cities

Kilkenny is twinned with Moret-sur-Loing in France, [59] and Formigine in Italy.

Cultural references

There is a limerick (with optional added couplet) about the two cats from Kilkenny:

There once were two cats of Kilkenny
Each thought there was one cat too many
So they fought and they hit
And they scratched and they bit
Till (excepting their nails
And the tips of their tails)
Instead of two cats there weren't any!

Infrastructure

Education

Kilkenny is the home of many noted secondary schools, including the Church of Ireland Kilkenny College, founded in 1538. This is one of the oldest schools in the country, and its past pupils include Jonathan Swift and George Berkeley.

A quote from an article "The Berkeley Pavilion" by Patsy Dempsey – Bishop George Berkeley (1685–1753) was one of the great philosophers of his time. He was born near Kilkenny and lived in Dysart Castle, Thomastown. Berkeley studied at Kilkenny College (now County Hall) from 1696–1700, where Jonathan Swift was a predecessor.

St. Kieran's College was founded in 1782 and was the first Roman Catholic secondary school in Ireland. It was created after Grattan's Parliament which permitted some relaxation of the Penal Laws in the country. There are a number of other second level schools, including Loreto Secondary School, CBS Kilkenny, Coláiste Pobail Osraí, Presentation College and the Kilkenny City Vocational School. Other schools located in the rural areas of the county are Castlecomer Community School, Colaiste Mhuire Johnstown, Scoil Airigeal Ballyhale, St. Brigid's Callan, Grennan College Thomastown and Callan CBS. These also are noted for their focus on the games of hurling and camogie. Gaelscoil Osrai an Irish school in Kilkenny, is the 2nd largest Irish-only school in Ireland with around 450 from Junior Infants to 6th Class.

Maynooth University maintained a campus at the grounds of St. Kieran's College from September 1997 until June 2018.[60] The university offered the first year of full time arts degrees in Kilkenny, with students attending second and third year courses on the main campus in Maynooth.[61]

Railway

Kilkenny railway station opened on 12 May 1848.[62] Kilkenny acquired railway links to Dublin in 1850, Waterford in 1854, Portlaoise in 1876 and Castlecomer in 1919. Córas Iompair Éireann closed the Castlecomer and Kilkenny Junction lines in 1962. Kilkenny railway station was renamed McDonagh Station in 1966 after the Irish nationalist, poet and playwright Thomas MacDonagh. Kilkenny remains an important stop on Iarnród Éireann's Intercity route between Dublin and Waterford.

Unlike other countries, the location of railway stations in Ireland was closely related to military matters rather than trade or public transport. Kilkenny railway station is a fine example of this peculiarity, with Stephens Barracks being closely positioned to the railway station.

From Kilkenny station trains run on the Dublin-Waterford line, providing connections in Waterford to Clonmel and stations to Limerick Junction. At Kildare connecting trains provide links to Ballina, Westport, Galway, Ennis, Ballybrophy, Nenagh, Limerick, Killarney, Tralee and Cork.

Air

Kilkenny Airport is only used for private flying. The nearest airport with scheduled services is Waterford Airport, which is 60 km away. A more substantial range of destinations is available from Dublin Airport and Cork Airport, which are both in the region of 150 km away.

Industry

Kilkenny 2, Ireland
View of Kilkenny in 2001

The city has a history of brewing and was home to St. Francis Abbey Brewery which was founded in the early 18th century by Messrs Cole and Smithwick. The Guinness Ireland Group owned this brewery from the 1960s. At the beginning of the 21st century, Guinness merged with Grand Metropolitan plc to form Diageo, the world's largest alcoholic beverage business, and the brewery became part of Diageo Global Supply. In its final years, Smithwick's Ale formed only a small percentage of production there. Another product was Kilkenny ale, a close relation of Smithwicks ale. Some 80% of beer produced at the brewery was Budweiser, a brand not owned by Diageo, but produced under licence. Diageo announced in May 2008 the closure of St. Francis Abbey Brewery, which took place on 31 December 2013. Production was then moved to St. James's Gate Brewery, Dublin.[63]

Cooperatives

Kilkenny is also home to the head offices of Glanbia, one of the world's top dairy companies. Glanbia was formed by the merger of two dairy businesses: Avonmore and Waterford Foods and has interests in Ireland, the United Kingdom, the United States and more than 30 other countries.

County Kilkenny Village Creameries amalgamated to create the Avonmore Creameries brand in 1966. That coop became Avonmore Food plc in 1988 and joined with Waterford Food plc in 1997. It is today known as the global Food giant, Glanbia, one of the world's top nutrition companies, with revenues of over €3.5 billion and 5,815 employees.[64]

In 1966 over 30 local creameries created by local farmers joined with other small rural co-operative societies throughout County Kilkenny and some neighbouring counties, and together with Unigate Limited support, formed the Avonmore Creameries Federation[65] Realising the benefits of increased scale and greater diversification in the 1960s, they saw the need for an amalgamation of many small, locally focused co-operatives across Ireland. It led to the construction of a new multi-purpose Avonmore dairy plant facility in Ballyragget, County Kilkenny, a plant they claimed was the biggest food processing facility in Europe at that time. Today that giant global entity is known as Glanbia.[66] Glanbia has its origins in the Irish agricultural co-operative movement that evolved over the last century, ever since first Irish Co-operative founded by Horace Plunkett in 1889. Today Glanbia has operations in 34 countries[67] and is exporting to more than 100 countries worldwide. Glanbia is ranked by revenue (2010 figures) in the top 100 Cooperatives,[68] No 98 in the world and No 1 in Ireland by the International Co-operative Alliance,[69] the global apex organisation of co-operatives worldwide.

According to the Glanbia Collections in Kilkenny Archives[70] at St Kieran's College, Kilkenny, the Avonmore Coop brand was created through the merger of the following Village Creameries: Ballingarry Co-Operative Creamery Ltd., Ballyhale Co-Operative Creamery Dairy Society Ltd., Ballypatrick Co-Operative Creamery Ltd., Avonmore Creameries Ltd., Ballyragget Co-Operative Creamery Ltd., Bennettsbridge Co-Operative Creamery Ltd., Callan Co-op Creamery and Dairy Society Ltd., Castlehale Co-Operative Dairy Society Ltd., Castlecomer Co-Operative Creamery Ltd., Donaghmore Co-Operative Creamery Ltd., Dungarvan Co Waterford Co-Operative Creamery Ltd., Freshford Co-Operative Creamery Ltd., Glenmore County Kilkenny Co-Operative Creamery Ltd., Graiguecullen County Carlow Corn & Coal Co. Ltd., IDA Co-Operative Creamery Ltd., Kells, County Kilkenny Co-Operative Agricultural & Dairy Society Ltd., Kilmanagh, County Kilkenny Co-Operative Creamery Ltd., Kilkenny City Co-Operative Creamery Ltd., Leinster Milk Producers Association Ltd., Loughcullen County Kilkenny Co-Operative Creamery Ltd., Miloko Co-Operative Society Ltd., Knockavendagh & Moyglass Killenaule Co-Operative Creamery Society Ltd., Muckalee County Kilkenny Co-Operative Dairy Society Ltd., Mullinavat Co-Operative Creamery Society Ltd., Piltown Co-Operative Society Ltd., Slieverue Co-Operative Creamery Ltd., Shelbourne Co-Operative Agriculture Society Ltd., Windgap Co-Operative Dairy Society Ltd., Letterkenny Timber Co. Ltd., The Bacon Company of Ireland, Inch Creamery, Barrowvale, Goresbridge Creamery.

The Ballyhale C.D.S. (1895–1995) 100th anniversary booklet of its foundation records that a federation of 25 Co-op Creameries originally emerged in January 1965 under the umbrella of Avonmore Creameries Ltd., that shares were taken in the new entity by the society and that in following years a Ballyragget milk processing factory was built. Ireland entered the Common Market in 1970. The first bulk milk collections tool place from 1973, when the amalgamation was formalised. Ballyhale C.D.S. became one of 20 members of Avonmore Farmers Ltd.; the other founding members being Castlehale, Mullinavat, Iverk, Piltown, Carrigeen, Kilmacow, Ballyragget, South Tipperary, Monastarevan, Muckalee, Barrowvale, Kells, Windgap, Brandonvale, Bennetsbridge, Castlecomer, Freshford, Donaghmore and Fennor.

Other

Recent developments in Kilkenny have attracted further investment from local businesses as well as attracting new industry. Leggetsrath Business Park was opened in 2003. There are two retail warehouse parks in Kilkenny: Kilkenny Retail Park and Ormonde Retail Park. Hebron Business Park was constructed in 2002 and is a privately owned extension to the Hebron Industrial Estate, the main centre for industry in Kilkenny.

Hospitals

Hospitals in Kilkenny include three public hospitals and one private hospital.[71] St. Luke's is a general medical and surgical hospital built in 1942.[72] It is based on Freshford Road and provides a range of local and regional services. Local services include medical, general surgery, obstetrics, gynaecology and paediatrics. St. Canice's is a psychiatric hospital, opened in 1852 and located on the Dublin Road.[73] It provides a range of mental health services including acute and long stay care, out-patient services throughout the county, addiction counselling services, respite care community hostel facilities and day care facilities. It also provides paediatric physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. Lourdes is the regional orthopaedic hospital outside the city in Kilcreene. Aut Even is a private hospital based outside Kilkenny City.[74]

Sport

Athletics

The Kilkenny City Harriers Club is an athletics club formed in 1953.[75] In 1989 Kilkenny was designated as a local sports centre and an all-weather running track and facilities designed to meet International Association of Athletics Federations standards was begun.[75] In 1992 the new track was officially opened and renamed Scanlon Park after Patrick 'Rusty' Scanlon, who had been associated with the old complex both as an athlete and as a soccer player.[75]

GAA

The County Board of Kilkenny GAA (Irish: Cumann Lúthchleas Gael Coiste Cill Channaigh) has its head office and main grounds at Nowlan Park in the city. The Kilkenny branch of the GAA was founded in 1887.

Hurling is the dominant sport in the city and county, and Kilkenny has one of the most successful county hurling teams. Secondary schools noted for their contribution to the game include St. Kieran's College and Christian Brothers School (CBS). Former students who have played for St. Kieran's include Eddie Keher, Brian Cody, Eoin Kelly, DJ Carey and Henry Shefflin. There are three GAA clubs based in the city: O'Loughlin Gaels GAA, Dicksboro GAA and James Stephens (GAA Club). St John's Parish is the catchment area for O'Loughlin Gaels. The parishes of St Mary's and St Canice's are associated with Dicksboro. St Patrick's parish is the catchment area for the James Stephens club.

Gaelic football is also played in Kilkenny, although it is not as popular as it is in some other Irish counties. The Kilkenny footballers are the only county not to participate in the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship. They have previously taken gap years away from League football, and for example did not participate in 2013, after poor runs in 2012 and 2011.

Association Football

Kilkenny City AFC played in the League of Ireland until January 2008. It entered the league as EMFA in 1986, but resigned their position in the league after 22 years citing "lack of finance, poor results and paltry attendances". The club had spent all but two seasons in the League of Ireland's second tier. Kilkenny and District Soccer League run leagues at schoolboy, youths and junior level throughout the county. It is affiliated to Leinster Football Association, Football Association of Ireland and the Schoolboy's Football Association of Ireland.

In 2015 Kilkenny United W.F.C. were admitted to the Women's National League, the top tier of women's football in Ireland.[76]

Rugby

Kilkenny RFC founded in 1885,[77] is a very strong and successful Rugby Union club based at Foulkstown on the Waterford Road.[78] The club has provided many players for the Ireland team including Ernie Ridgeway, Bill Tector, Jack Notley, Willie Duggan, Ned Byrne, Ronan Kearney and Gary Halpin.[78] Ian Dowling plays for the Munster Rugby team and is a two-time winner of the European Rugby Cup in 2006 and 2008.[78]

Jack Rafferty led the team to several notable victories in 1966.

Rugby is played at schools level by Kilkenny College and Kilkenny Christian Brothers School (CBS).

Golf

Kilkenny Golf Club is an 18-hole championship parkland course within the city to the North West, close to the city centre. It has hosted several Professional Championship events. In 1984 and 1996, it was the venue for the All Ireland Mixed Foursome Finals, and in 1985 hosted the All Ireland Cups and Shields Finals. It is playable all year round due to sand-based greens. The course is mostly flat terrain with an abundance of trees.

Around Kilkenny City there is also a Driving Range in Newpark and an 18-hole all-weather Par 3 golf course in Pocoke.

Mount Juliet Golf Course is a golf resort situated near Kilkenny in Thomastown. Jack Nicklaus designed the course, and it is considered to be one of Ireland's best courses.

Ice hockey

Kilkenny City Storm is a mixed ice hockey team formed in 2007.[79] that plays in the Irish Ice Hockey Association Recreational Division League.[80] "The Storm" was one of the top two teams in the league in 2007, its inaugural year. The team also enjoys moderate success as an inline hockey team, playing in the Northern Inline Hockey League and the Irish inline hockey (roller hockey) league. The team consists of both local and foreign players who train and play their matches in Dundalk Ice Dome which was the only permanent ice rink in Ireland (The Ice Dome was closed in early May 2010).

Notable residents

In Kilkenny: The Landed Gentry & Aristocracy, Art Kavanagh[81] devotes a chapter each to eighteen of the most prominent Kilkenny families, chosen 'on a random geographical basis to ensure even distribution over the entire county', as follows: Agar of Gowran, Blunden of Castle Blunden, Bryan of Jenkinstown, Butler (Lords Carrick), Butler of Maidenhall, Butler (Lords Mountgarret), Butler (Earls of Ormonde), Cuffe (Lords Desart), De Montmorency, Flood of Farmley, Langrishe of Knocktopher, Loftus of Mount Juliet, McCalmont of Mount Juliet, Ponsonby (Earls of Bessborough), Power of Kilfane, Smithwick of Kilcreene, St George of Freshford and Wandesforde of Catlecomer.

See also

Church in Kilkenny
St. Mary's Cathedral, Kilkenny

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c "Sapmap Area - Settlements - Kilkenny". Census 2016. CSO. 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  2. ^ a b Room 2006.
  3. ^ "Local Government Act 2001" (PDF). Oireachtas.ie. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  4. ^ "Kilkenny". Kilkenny Famous Landmarks. Kilkenny County Council.
  5. ^ "Kilkenny Living History, Loving Culture". Kilkenny Tourism. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03.
  6. ^ a b "Kilkenny Roots Festival". kilkennyroots.com. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  7. ^ a b Graves 1857, p. 25
  8. ^ Masters1085, Annals of the Four Masters vol. ii, p. 923 from Irish:
  9. ^ a b Graves 1857, p. 23
  10. ^ Egan 1884
  11. ^ Wright, Thomas, ed. A Contemporary Narrative of the Proceedings Against Dame Alice Kyteler, Prosecuted for Sorcery in 1324, by Richard de Ledrede, Bishop of Ossory. London: The Camden Society, 1843.
  12. ^ Prim, John G. A. (1870). "The Corporation Insignia and Olden Civic State of Kilkenny". The Journal of the Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland: Fourth Series. 1 (1): 281–282. JSTOR 25506583.
  13. ^ Hayes-McCoy, G. A. (1960). "The Galway Sword and Mace". Journal of the Galway Archaeological and Historical Society. 29 (1/2): 19. JSTOR 25550099.
  14. ^ Simms 1961
  15. ^ Yenne, Bill (1 Apr 2014). Beer: The Ultimate World Tour (illustrated ed.). Race Point Publishing. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-937994-41-9. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
  16. ^ DE LEDREDE, RICHARD (1842). A CONTEMPORARY NARRATIVE OF THE PROCEEDINGS AGAINST DAME ALICE KYTELER, PROSECUTED FOR SORCERY IN 1324. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON: JOHN BOWYER NICHOLS AND SON.
  17. ^ a b "Census for post 1821 figures".
  18. ^ "Histpop – The Online Historical Population Reports Website".
  19. ^ NISRA. "Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency – Census Home Page". Nisranew.nisra.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 2012-02-17. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
  20. ^ Lee, JJ (1981). "Pre-famine". In Goldstrom, J. M.; Clarkson, L. A. Irish Population, Economy, and Society: Essays in Honour of the Late K. H. Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  21. ^ Mokyr, Joel; O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). "New Developments in Irish Population History, 1700-1850". The Economic History Review. 37 (4): 473–88. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  22. ^ Table 5: Population of Towns ordered by County and size, 2002 and 2006
  23. ^ Table 5: Population of Towns ordered by County and size, 2002 and 2006.
  24. ^ "Source:County Incomes and Regional GDP 2005, CSO".
  25. ^ "Table 8: Population aged 15 years and over in the labour force, classified by intermediate occupational group and ability to speak Irish". Census 2006 – Volume 9 – Irish Language. CSO. Archived from the original on 2007-11-20. Retrieved 2008-11-09. (37.6% of workforce (>15 years) classified as "Irish speakers")
  26. ^ "Population (Number) by County, Year and Religious Denomination". CSO.
  27. ^ a b "30 Year Averages in Kilkenny 1978-2008". Met Éireann. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h "Kilkenny (Weather Observing Stations)". Met Éireann. Archived from the original on 2008-08-28. Retrieved 2008-09-09.
  29. ^ "Temperature in Ireland". Met Éireann.
  30. ^ a b c "About us". kilkennyweather.com. Archived from the original on 2009-10-29.
  31. ^ a b c d "Climate". kilkennyweather.com.
  32. ^ "Absolute Maximum Air Temperatures for each Month at Selected Stations" (PDF). Met Éireann. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
  33. ^ "Absolute Minimum Air Temperatures for each Month at Selected Stations" (PDF). Met Éireann. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 January 2017. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
  34. ^ Act of the Oireachtas: County of Kilkenny Local Electoral Areas Order 2008
  35. ^ "The History of the Kilkenny Borough Council". Kilkennycity.ie. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  36. ^ An exposed rock face can still be seen from the road.
  37. ^ Leicester Cathedral website
  38. ^ "Medieval walls of Kilkenny City" (PDF). Heritagecouncil.ie. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-08-04. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  39. ^ "City Walls Project". Kilkennycity.ie. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  40. ^ "Kilkenny City Walls Conservation Plan" (PDF). Kilkennycity.ie. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  41. ^ Cathedral of St. Canice Archived 2014-04-16 at Archive.today, extract from A Topographical Dictionary of Ireland (1837)
  42. ^ Green's Bridge, Kilkenny, County Kilkenny.National Inventory of Architectural Heritage (NIAH)
  43. ^ "Home - Kilkenny Tradfest". Kilkenny Tradfest. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  44. ^ "Savour Kilkenny – Festival of Food – October Bank Holiday Weekend 2017". Savourkilkenny.com. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  45. ^ "Official Rhythm & Roots Website". Kilkennyroots.com. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  46. ^ The private theatre of Kilkenny. Books.google.ie. 2006-05-17. Retrieved 2010-08-12.
  47. ^ "Watergate Theatre official website". Watergatetheatre.com. 2010-02-13. Retrieved 2010-08-12.
  48. ^ "KCLR 96FM Official Website". Kclr96fm.com. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  49. ^ "BCI – JNRL Figures for July 08 – June 09" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-10-14. Retrieved 2009-08-20.
  50. ^ "Radio Kilkenny Website". Radiokilkenny.ie. Archived from the original on 2012-10-19. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  51. ^ Team, Fujitsu/Oireachtas Lotus Notes/Domino Development. "Parliamentary Debates". Debates.oireachtas.ie. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  52. ^ Many are held in the Kilkenny Archaeological Society Library at Rothe House, others are available to view on microfiche at Kilkenny County Library
  53. ^ "The Finn's Leinster Journal Newspaper Archive 1771 - 1828". irishnewsarchive.com. Archived from the original on 25 October 2018.
  54. ^ "Home - ABC - Audit Bureau of Circulations". Abc-ireland.ie. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  55. ^ "About Kilkenny - Media - Newspapers". Kilkenny.ie. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
  56. ^ "kilkenny library Local Studies – Photographic Collection". Kilkennylibrary.kilkenny.ie. Archived from the original on 2009-09-17. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  57. ^ "Academy of Urbanism". Archived from the original on 2008-01-19.
  58. ^ "Irish Tidy Towns Competition" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-04-19.
  59. ^ Suty, Mairie de Moret-sur-loing - O. "Liens - Site de la ville de Moret-sur-loing". Ville-moret-sur-loing.com. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  60. ^ "Kilkenny Campus". maynoothuniversity.ie. Maynooth University. Archived from the original on 2018-11-29. Retrieved 2018-11-28.
  61. ^ "Maynooth University Kilkenny Campus". kilkenny.ie. Kilkenny County Council. Archived from the original on 2017-11-26. Retrieved 2018-11-28.
  62. ^ "Kilkenny station" (PDF). Railscot. Irish Railways. Retrieved 2007-09-05.
  63. ^ "Diageo Press Release". Diaego.com. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  64. ^ "Glanbia at a Glance". Glanbia Plc.
  65. ^ "Glanbia – Our History". About Us. Glanbia Plc.
  66. ^ "Our History". Glanbia plc.
  67. ^ "Glanbia – Our Global Footprint". Glanbia Plc.
  68. ^ "World's major Co-operatives & Mutual Businesses" (PDF). ICA Global 300 Report 2010. Intewrnational Cooperative Alliance. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04.
  69. ^ "Top 300 co-operatives generate USD 2 trillion". World Cooperative Monitor. International Co-operative Alliance.
  70. ^ "Glanbia Archives". Kilkenny Archives. St Kieran's College, Kilkenny.
  71. ^ Ireland, CIB-Citizens Information. "Find an Address". Findaddress.citizensinformation.ie. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  72. ^ "HSE Factfile on St Lukes General Hospital". Hse.ie. Archived from the original on 2012-02-22. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  73. ^ "South Eastern Health Board Psychiatric Hospitals". Archived from the original on 2009-07-25. Retrieved 2009-07-23.
  74. ^ "Aut Even Private Hospital". Archived from the original on 2009-07-27.
  75. ^ a b c "Club history". Kch.ie. Archived from the original on 2011-07-21. Retrieved July 6, 2010.
  76. ^ "United we stand - Kilkenny join women's league". Kilkenny People. 11 July 2015. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  77. ^ O'Mahony (January 17, 2009). "A proud tradition carved in Marble". herald.ie. Retrieved 8 February 2011.
  78. ^ a b c From the official website of Kilkenny RFC; see history "I". & Dermot O'Mahony. "II".
  79. ^ "Kilkenny City Storm Website". Archived from the original on August 1, 2015.
  80. ^ "Irish Ice Hockey League Recreational Division 2008 - 2009". Archived from the original on 2009-06-18. Retrieved 2009-07-16.
  81. ^ Art Kavanagh (2004). "The Landed Gentry & Aristocracy of County Kilkenny". Kilkenny. Irish Family Names.

Further reading

External links

All-Ireland Minor Hurling Championship

The GAA Hurling All-Ireland Minor Championship is an annual championship of hurling for male players under the age of 18 and is organised by the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA). The championship has been awarded every year - except for a brief hiatus during the Emergency - since the first tournament in 1928.

The final, usually held on the first Sunday in September, serves as the culmination of a series of games played during the summer months, and the results determine which county's team receives the Irish Press Cup. The championship was initially a straight knockout competition open only to the champions of each of the four provinces of Ireland. During the 1990s the tournament began to be expanded, incorporating a "back-door system" for teams beaten in the provincial series. In the present format, it begins in May with provincial championships held in Leinster, Munster and Ulster, with the respective champions, runners-up and Galway contesting the subsequent All-Ireland Championship.

Six teams currently participate in the championship, the most dominant teams coming from the province of Munster. Cork, Kilkenny and Tipperary have historically dominated the championship since the beginning. Between them, these teams have won 58 out of 85 (approx 68%) championships completed during its history. Galway have dominated the championship in recent times, having won seven titles since 1999.

The title has been won by ten different teams, nine of which have won the title more than once. The all-time record-holders are Kilkenny, who have won the competition 21 times. Galway are the current title holders.

All-Ireland Senior Club Hurling Championship

The GAA Hurling All-Ireland Senior Club Championship, known simply as the All-Ireland Club Championship, is an annual inter-county hurling competition organised by the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA). It is the highest inter-county club hurling competition in Ireland, and has been contested every year since the 1970-71 championship.

The final, currently held on St. Patrick's Day, is the culmination of a series of games played between October and February with the winners receiving the Tommy Moore Cup. The All-Ireland Championship has always been played on a straight knockout basis whereby once a team loses they are eliminated from the championship. Currently qualification is limited to teams competing in the Galway Championship, the Leinster Championship, the Munster Championship and the Ulster Championship.

Four teams currently participate in the All-Ireland semi-finals. The most successful teams are from Galway – seven different Galway clubs have won the All-Ireland title on 13 separate occasions.

The title has been won by 26 different clubs, 10 of whom have won the title more than once. The all-time record-holders are Ballyhale Shamrocks, who have won the championship on 6 occasions. Cuala are the current champions.

All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship

The GAA Hurling All-Ireland Senior Championship, known simply as the All-Ireland Championship, is an annual inter-county hurling competition organised by the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA). It is the highest inter-county hurling competition in Ireland, and has been contested every year except one since 1887.

The final, currently held on the third Sunday in August, is the culmination of a series of games played during July and August, with the winning team receiving the Liam MacCarthy Cup. The All-Ireland Championship has always been played on a straight knockout basis whereby once a team loses they are eliminated from the championship. The qualification procedures for the championship have changed several times throughout its history. Currently, qualification is limited to teams competing in the Leinster Championship, the Munster Championship and the two finalists in the Joe McDonagh Cup.

Twelve teams currently participate in the All-Ireland Championship, with the most successful teams coming from the provinces of Leinster and Munster. Kilkenny, Cork and Tipperary are considered "the big three" of hurling. They have won 93 championships between them.

The title has been won by 13 different teams, 10 of whom have won the title more than once. The all-time record-holders are Kilkenny, who have won the championship on 36 occasions. Limerick are the current champions.The All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship final was listed in second place by CNN in its "10 sporting events you have to see live", after the Olympic Games. After covering the 1959 All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship Final between Kilkenny and Waterford for BBC Television, English commentator Kenneth Wolstenholme was moved to describe hurling as his second favourite sport in the world after his first love, soccer.

Brian Cody

Brian Cody (born 12 July 1954) is an Irish hurling manager and former player. He has been the manager of the Kilkenny senior team since 1998, where he has since become the county's longest-serving manager and most successful in terms of major titles won. Cody is regarded as the greatest manager in the history of the game.Born in Sheestown, County Kilkenny, Cody was introduced to hurling by his father Brian senior the long-serving chairman of the local club team. He enjoyed All-Ireland success at colleges level as captain with St. Kieran's College while simultaneously enjoying championship successes at underage levels with the James Stephens club. A two-time All-Ireland medallist with the James Stephens senior team, Cody also won two Leinster medals and three championship medals.

Cody made his debut on the inter-county scene at the age of sixteen when he first linked up with the Kilkenny minor team. An All-Ireland-winning captain in this grade, he later won two All-Ireland medals with the under-21 team. Cody made his senior debut during the 1973 championship. He went on to play a key role for Kilkenny in attack and later defence during a hugely successful era, and won three All-Ireland medals, four Leinster medals and two National Hurling League medals. An All-Ireland runner-up on two occasions, Cody captained the team to All-Ireland victory in 1982.

As a member of the Leinster inter-provincial team, Cody won one Railway Cup medal as a non-playing substitute in 1977. Throughout his inter-county career he made 24 championship appearances. Cody retired from inter-county hurling during the 1986 championship.

After being involved in team management and coaching in all grades at club level with James Stephens, Cody was appointed manager of the Kilkenny senior team on 16 November 1998. He has since gone on to lead Kilkenny through a period of unprecedented provincial and national dominance, winning 42 major honours. These include eleven All-Ireland Championships, including a record-equalling four-in-a-row between 2006 and 2009, fifteen Leinster Championships in eighteen seasons, nine National Leagues, including five league-championship doubles, and seven Walsh Cups.

County Kilkenny

County Kilkenny (Irish: Contae Chill Chainnigh) is a county in Ireland. It is in the province of Leinster and is part of the South-East Region. It is named after the city of Kilkenny. Kilkenny County Council is the local authority for the county. As of the 2016 census the population of the county was 99,232. The county was based on the historic Gaelic kingdom of Ossory (Osraighe), which was co-terminus with the Diocese of Ossory.

Henry Shefflin

Henry Shefflin (born 11 January 1979) is an Irish hurler who played as a centre-forward for the Kilkenny senior team.

A native of Ballyhale, County Kilkenny, Shefflin first played competitive hurling whilst at school in St. Kieran's College. He arrived on the inter-county scene at the age of seventeen when he first linked up with the Kilkenny minor team, before later lining out with the under-21 and intermediate sides. He made his senior debut during the 1999 league. Shefflin has since gone on to play a key role in the forwards for Kilkenny, and has won a record ten All-Ireland medals on the field of play as well as thirteen Leinster medals and six National Hurling League medals. The All-Ireland-winning captain in 2007, he has been an All-Ireland runner-up on three occasions.As a member of the Leinster inter-provincial team at various times, Shefflin has won three Railway Cup medals. At club level he is a three-time All-Ireland medallist with Ballyhale Shamrocks. He has also won four Leinster medals and six championship medals with the club.

Shefflin's career tally of 28 goals and 485 points ranks him as the top championship scorer of all-time.Throughout his career Shefflin has made 71 championship appearances, setting him apart as the third most "capped" player of all-time. He announced his retirement from inter-county hurling on 25 March 2015.Although Shefflin played in a Kilkenny side that favoured physicality over skill he is still widely regarded as one of the greatest hurlers in the history of the game, with some Kilkenny men ranking him as the number one player of all-time. His seeming inability to take sideline cuts is not recognized. During his playing days he won a record-breaking eleven All-Star awards, as well as being the only player ever to be named Hurler of the Year on three occasions. He has been repeatedly voted onto teams made up of the sport's greats, including in 2009 when he was picked on a special Leinster team of the past twenty-five years as well as being named in the top spot on a special list of the 125 greatest hurlers of all-time.

Kilkenny Castle

Kilkenny Castle (Irish: Caisleán Chill Chainnigh) is a castle in Kilkenny, Ireland built in 1195 to control a fording-point of the River Nore and the junction of several routeways. It was a symbol of Norman occupation and in its original thirteenth-century condition it would have formed an important element of the defences of the town with four large circular corner towers and a massive ditch, part of which can still be seen today on the Parade.

The property was transferred to the people of Kilkenny in 1967 for £50 and the castle and grounds are now managed by the Office of Public Works. The gardens and parkland adjoining the castle are open to the public. The Parade Tower is a conference venue. Awards and conferring ceremonies of the graduates of "Kilkenny Campus" of National University of Ireland, Maynooth have been held there since 2002.

Kilkenny GAA

The Kilkenny County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association (Kilkenny GAA) (Irish: Cumann Lúthchleas Gael Coiste Cill Chainnigh) is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland and is responsible for Gaelic Games in County Kilkenny. The county board has its head office and main grounds at Nowlan Park and is also responsible for Kilkenny inter-county teams in all codes at all levels. The Kilkenny branch of the Gaelic Athletic Association was founded in 1887.

In hurling, the dominant sport in the county, Kilkenny compete annually in the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship, which they have won thirty-six times, the Leinster Senior Hurling Championship, which they have won seventy one times, and the National Hurling League, which they have won eighteen times. Brian Cody has been manager of the Kilkenny senior hurling team since the 1999 championship. Cillian Buckley is senior hurling captain for the 2018 season. Ballyhale Shamrocks county champions nominated T.J. Reid as senior hurling captain for the 2019 season.

Kilkenny Hill

Kilkenny Hill is a mountain in the Central New York region of New York. It is located northwest of Unadilla, New York. Kilkenny Hill is part of the Northern Allegheny Plateau Ecoregion.In the mid 1800s Colonel North built a reservoir on Kilkenny Hill. Pipe was ran into Unadilla, New York and three fire hydrants were installed for fire protection.

Kilkenny Senior Hurling Championship

The Kilkenny Senior Hurling Championship (known for sponsorship reasons as the St. Canice's Credit Union Senior Hurling Championship) is an annual hurling competition organised by the Kilkenny County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association since 1887 for the top hurling teams in the county of Kilkenny in Ireland.

The series of games are played during the summer months with the county final currently being played at Nowlan Park in October. The prize for the winning team is the Tom Walsh Cup. The championship is one of the few county championships that still uses a single elimination format whereby once a team loses they are eliminated from the championship.

The Kilkenny County Championship is an integral part of the wider Leinster Senior Club Hurling Championship. The winners of the Kilkenny county final join the champions of the other hurling counties to contest the provincial championship.

Twelve teams currently participate in the Kilkenny County Championship. The title has been won at least once by 26 different teams. The all-time record-holders are Tullaroan, who have led the roll of honour since the championship began and have won a total of 20 titles.

Ballyhale Shamrocks are the title-holders after defeating Bennettsbridge by 2-20 to 2-17 in the 2018 championship final.

Leinster Senior Hurling Championship

The Leinster GAA Hurling Senior Championship, known simply as the Leinster Championship, is an annual inter-county hurling competition organised by the Leinster Council of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA). It is the highest inter-county hurling competition in the province of Leinster, and has been contested every year since the 1888 championship.

The final, usually held on the first Sunday in July, serves as the culmination of a series of games played during May and June, and the results determine which team receives the Bob O'Keeffe Cup. The championship was previously played on a straight knockout basis whereby once a team lost they were eliminated from the championship, however, as of 2018 the championship will use a round-robin system.

The Leinster Championship is an integral part of the wider GAA Hurling All-Ireland Senior Championship. The winners of the Leinster final, like their counterparts in the Munster Championship, are rewarded by advancing directly to the semi-final stage of the All-Ireland series of games. The losers of the Leinster final enter the All-Ireland series at the quarter-final stage, while the third-placed team advances to the preliminary quarter-finals.

Five teams currently participate in the Leinster Championship. The most successful team in hurling, namely Kilkenny, play their provincial hurling in the Leinster Championship. They have won the provincial title on 71 occasions while they have also claimed 36 All-Ireland titles.

Fifteen teams have competed since the inception of the Leinster Championship in 1888. The title has been won at least once by six teams, all of whom have won the title more than once. Galway are the current champions.

List of All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship winning captains

This is the list of All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship winning captains. Each team has one captain. In many counties the captain is chosen by the club that won the Senior County Hurling Championship in the previous year. In recent years, this practice is being replaced by the manager picking one of the more experienced players to take this role. The captain accepts the cup on behalf of the team and makes a speech in which he thanks all who helped in the success of the team.

List of All Stars Awards winners (hurling)

This is a list of all past winners of the official GAA GPA All Stars Awards since the first awards in 1971. As an insight to the prominent players of the 1960s, it also includes the unofficial "Cuchulainn" awards presented from 1963 to 1967 under the auspices of Gaelic Weekly magazine.

Since 1971, the All Star Awards in hurling have been presented annually to a set of fifteen hurlers from that year's All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship, who are seen to be deserving of being named in a "Team of the Year". The shortlist is compiled by a selection committee steering group, while the overall winners are chosen by inter-county players themselves. The All Star is regarded by players as the highest individual award available to them, due to it being picked by their peers.

List of Dáil by-elections

This is a list of by-elections to Dáil Éireann, the house of representatives of the Oireachtas, the Irish legislature. By-elections in Ireland occur to fill vacant seats which can be caused by the death, resignation or expulsion of a sitting Teachta Dála (member of parliament).

There have been 131 by-elections since 1923, to fill 133 vacancies. 92 of these were caused by the death of a sitting Teachta Dála (TD). There were seven by-elections during the lifetime of the 31st Dáil. There were no by-elections during the 3rd, 7th, 9th, 11th, 22nd, 25th and 26th Dála. The longest period without a by-election was almost 10 years between 1984 and 1994. The largest number of by-elections on one day was on 11 March 1925, when seven constituencies filled nine vacancies caused by the National Party's split from Cumann na nGaedheal. Those seven by-elections included two which filled two vacancies, via the single transferable vote. All the other by-elections have used its single-winner analogue, the alternative vote.

Twenty-two TDs were first elected at a by-election and never subsequently re-elected at a general election. The only person twice elected at by-elections was Thomas Hennessy.

List of Kilkenny senior hurling team captains

This article lists players who have captained the Kilkenny senior hurling team in the Leinster Senior Hurling Championship and the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship. The captain is chosen from the club that has won the Kilkenny Senior Hurling Championship.

N10 road (Ireland)

The N10 road is a national primary road in Ireland, connecting Kilkenny to the M9 Dublin – Waterford route. It consists of a route from northeast of Kilkenny, a ringroad around the city, and a route southeast from the city.

National Hurling League

The National Hurling League is an annual inter-county hurling competition featuring teams from Ireland and England. Founded in 1925 by the Gaelic Athletic Association, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation within the league system.

The league has 35 teams divided into six divisions, with either five or six teams in each division. Promotion and relegation between these divisions is a central feature of the league. Although primarily a competition for Irish teams, teams from England – currently Lancashire, London and Warwickshire – also take part, while in the past New York also fielded a team for the latter stages of the league. Teams representing subdivisions of counties, such as Fingal and South Down have also participated at various times.The National Hurling League has been associated with a title sponsor since 1985. Ford, Royal Liver and Church & General have all served as sponsors of the league since then. The competition is currently sponsored by Allianz and is officially known as the Allianz Hurling League.The league season runs from January to March with each team in the group playing each other once. Division 1 of the league features the top twelve hurling teams split into two divisions of six. A knock-out stage follows for the four top-placed teams in each division. The winners of the Division 1 title are awarded the Dr. Croke Cup and are officially regarded as the National Hurling League champions.

The National Hurling League title has been won by 10 different teams, 9 of whom have won the title more than once. The all-time record-holders are Tipperary, who have won the league on 19 occasions. Kilkenny are the current champions.

Nowlan Park

Nowlan Park is the principal Gaelic Athletic Association stadium in Kilkenny, Ireland. Named after James Nowlan (the longest serving President of the GAA), the stadium hosts major hurling matches and is home to the Kilkenny hurling team.

The stadium consists of the following stands.

Old Stand (O'Loughlin Road) mainly bench-seats (uncovered, planning for a new roof submitted after storm damaged old roof in 2014) (New roof completed in late 2014 and opened in early 2015)

Paddy Grace Stand (New Stand, Hebron Road) mainly bench-seats (covered)

Ted Carrol Stand (country end) 4,000 plastic seats (covered)

City Terrace (covered) The target capacity under the Kilkenny GAA 2010-15 plan is 30,000.A large part of the Old Stand's roof was blown off during a violent storm on 12 February 2014. The rest was removed for health and safety reasons.History was made at Nowlan Park on 7 June 2014 when Kilkenny versus Offaly was broadcast on Sky Sports, the first time a Championship fixture of any kind was broadcast live to a UK-wide audience. British viewers were reported to have been "amazed and confused [...] bemused but impressed [...] amused and confounded" after catching a glimpse of the teatime action.Opened in 1927 replaced St. James Park.

R712 road (Ireland)

The R712 road is a short regional road in Ireland, located in County Kilkenny.The official description of the R712 from the Roads Act 1993 (Classification of Regional Roads) Order 2012 reads:

R712: Kilkenny — Paulstown, County Kilkenny (Part old N10)Between its junction with N77 at Baun in the county of Kilkenny and its junction with R448 at Paulstown in the county of Kilkenny via Castlecomer Road and Dublin Road in the borough of Kilkenny: Aughmalogue Bridge, Coolgrange and Garryduff Cross in the county of Kilkenny.

Historical population
YearPop.±%
182123,230—    
183123,741+2.2%
184119,071−19.7%
185115,257−20.0%
186113,235−13.3%
187112,710−4.0%
188112,299−3.2%
189111,048−10.2%
190110,609−4.0%
191119,514+83.9%
192610,046−48.5%
193610,237+1.9%
194610,291+0.5%
195110,572+2.7%
195612,328+16.6%
196112,081−2.0%
196612,030−0.4%
197113,306+10.6%
198116,886+26.9%
198617,517+3.7%
199117,669+0.9%
199618,696+5.8%
200220,735+10.9%
200622,179+7.0%
201124,423+10.1%
201626,512+8.6%
[17][17][18][19][20][21][1]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
3.1
 
 
47
35
 
 
2.6
 
 
47
35
 
 
2.7
 
 
51
38
 
 
2.2
 
 
55
40
 
 
2.4
 
 
60
44
 
 
2.4
 
 
65
49
 
 
2.1
 
 
69
52
 
 
3.1
 
 
68
52
 
 
2.7
 
 
64
48
 
 
3.8
 
 
57
44
 
 
3.2
 
 
51
39
 
 
3.6
 
 
48
36
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Climate data for Kilkenny Weather Observing Station 1978–2007 (Extremes June 1957 to April 2008)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.1
(57.4)
15.9
(60.6)
19.2
(66.6)
23.5
(74.3)
26.0
(78.8)
31.5
(88.7)
31.4
(88.5)
30.8
(87.4)
26.6
(79.9)
23.7
(74.7)
17.5
(63.5)
15.5
(59.9)
31.5
(88.7)
Average high °C (°F) 8.2
(46.8)
8.6
(47.5)
10.6
(51.1)
12.9
(55.2)
15.7
(60.3)
18.2
(64.8)
20.3
(68.5)
20.2
(68.4)
17.8
(64.0)
14.1
(57.4)
10.8
(51.4)
8.8
(47.8)
13.8
(56.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.9
(40.8)
5.2
(41.4)
6.9
(44.4)
8.5
(47.3)
11.1
(52.0)
13.8
(56.8)
15.8
(60.4)
15.6
(60.1)
13.4
(56.1)
10.3
(50.5)
7.3
(45.1)
5.6
(42.1)
9.9
(49.8)
Average low °C (°F) 1.6
(34.9)
1.9
(35.4)
3.2
(37.8)
4.2
(39.6)
6.5
(43.7)
9.3
(48.7)
11.3
(52.3)
11.0
(51.8)
9.1
(48.4)
6.5
(43.7)
3.7
(38.7)
2.4
(36.3)
5.9
(42.6)
Record low °C (°F) −14.1
(6.6)
−11.1
(12.0)
−7.9
(17.8)
−5.4
(22.3)
−3.7
(25.3)
0.5
(32.9)
2.3
(36.1)
1.2
(34.2)
−1.6
(29.1)
−4.8
(23.4)
−7.0
(19.4)
−10.8
(12.6)
−14.1
(6.6)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 78.3
(3.08)
66.1
(2.60)
67.9
(2.67)
56.4
(2.22)
60.4
(2.38)
61.0
(2.40)
54.6
(2.15)
77.8
(3.06)
69.0
(2.72)
95.3
(3.75)
80.2
(3.16)
90.4
(3.56)
857.4
(33.76)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 18 16 18 14 16 14 14 15 15 18 17 18 193
Average snowy days 3.6 3.6 2.5 0.8 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 2.0 12.8
Average relative humidity (%) 79.5 74.3 69.2 63.6 63.4 65.9 65.2 65.1 67.5 74.2 78.9 81.8 70.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 55.8 64.4 99.2 147.0 173.6 147.0 145.7 145.7 124.0 93.0 66.0 49.6 1,314
Mean daily sunshine hours 1.8 2.3 3.2 4.9 5.6 4.9 4.7 4.7 4.0 3.0 2.2 1.6 3.6
Source: Met Éireann[27][32][33]
Places adjacent to Kilkenny
Republic of Ireland
Northern Ireland
Places in County Kilkenny
Towns
Villages
Townlands
Largest urban areas in the Republic of Ireland by population

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