Kiel

Kiel (German: [kiːl] (listen)) is the capital and most populous city in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 249,023 (2016).

Kiel lies approximately 90 kilometres (56 mi) north of Hamburg. Due to its geographic location in the north of Germany, the southeast of the Jutland peninsula and the southwestern shore of the Baltic Sea, Kiel has become one of the major maritime centres of Germany. For instance, the city is known for a variety of international sailing events, including the annual Kiel Week, which is the biggest sailing event in the world. The Olympic sailing competitions of the 1936 and the 1972 Summer Olympics were held in the Bay of Kiel.[6]

Kiel has also been one of the traditional homes of the German Navy's Baltic fleet, and continues to be a major high-tech shipbuilding centre. Located in Kiel is the GEOMAR - Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel at the University of Kiel. Kiel is an important sea transport hub, thanks to its location on the Kiel Fjord (Kieler Förde) and the busiest artificial waterway in the world, Kiel Canal (Nord-Ostsee-Kanal). A number of passenger ferries to Sweden, Norway, Lithuania and other countries operate from here. Moreover, today Kiel Harbour is an important port of call for cruise ships touring the Baltic Sea.

Kiel's recorded history began in the 13th century, but the city was originally a Danish village, in the 8th century. Until 1864 it was administered by Denmark in personal union. In 1866 the city was annexed by Prussia and in 1871 it became part of Germany.

Kiel was one of the founding cities of original European Green Regi51 Award in 2006.[7] In 2005 Kiel's GDP per capita was 35,618, which is well above Germany's national average, and 159% of the European Union's average.[8] The city is home to the University of Kiel (established in 1665).

Kiel
Mid-August 2003 aerial view of the city centre
Mid-August 2003 aerial view of the city centre
Flag of Kiel

Flag
Coat of arms of Kiel

Coat of arms
Location of Kiel
Kiel is located in Germany
Kiel
Kiel
Kiel is located in Schleswig-Holstein
Kiel
Kiel
Coordinates: 54°19′24″N 10°08′22″E / 54.32333°N 10.13944°ECoordinates: 54°19′24″N 10°08′22″E / 54.32333°N 10.13944°E
CountryGermany
StateSchleswig-Holstein
DistrictUrban district
Subdivisions18 districts
Government
 • Lord MayorUlf Kämpfer[1]
 • Governing partiesSPD / Greens / South Schleswig Voter Federation
Area
 • City118.65 km2 (45.81 sq mi)
Elevation
5 m (16 ft)
Population
(2017-12-31)[5]
 • City247,943
 • Density2,100/km2 (5,400/sq mi)
 • Metro
643,594[4]
Time zoneCET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
24103–24159
Dialling codes0431
Vehicle registrationKI
Websitewww.kiel.de
Kiel Stadtsicht
Panoramic view of the city

History

Middle Ages

Kiel Fjord and the village of Kiel was probably first settled by Vikings who wanted to colonise the land that they had raided, and for many years they settled in German villages. This is evidenced by the geography and architecture of the fjord. The city of Kiel was founded in 1233 as Holstenstadt tom Kyle by Count Adolf IV of Holstein, and granted Lübeck city rights in 1242 by Adolf's eldest son, John I of Schauenburg. Being a part of Holstein, Kiel belonged to the Holy Roman Empire and was situated only a few kilometres south of the Danish border.[9]

Kiel Braun-Hogenberg
Kiel in the 16th century

Kiel, the capital of the county (later duchy) of Holstein, was a member of the Hanseatic League from 1284 until it was expelled in 1518 for harbouring pirates. In 1431, the Kieler Umschlag (trade fair) was first held, which became the central market for goods and money in Schleswig-Holstein, until it began to lose significance from 1850 on, being held for the last time in 1900, until recently, when it has been restarted.

Modern times

The University of Kiel was founded on 29 September 1665 by Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. A number of important scholars, including Theodor Mommsen, Felix Jacoby, Hans Geiger and Max Planck, studied or taught there.

SatSchleswigHolstein Hamburg
Schleswig-Holstein with Kiel Fjord at the Baltic Coast
KielerInnenFoerdeLuftaufnahme
Port and Kiel Fjord
Opernhaus Kiel
Kiel Opera House and the tower (107 m) of Kiel Town Hall

From 1773 to 1864, the town belonged to the king of Denmark. However, because the king ruled Holstein as a fief of the Holy Roman Empire only through a personal union, the town was not incorporated as part of Denmark proper. Thus Kiel belonged to Germany, but it was ruled by the Danish king. Even though the empire was abolished in 1806, the Danish king continued to rule Kiel only through his position as Duke of Holstein, which became a member of the German Confederation in 1815. When Schleswig and Holstein rebelled against Denmark in 1848 (the First Schleswig War), Kiel became the capital of Schleswig-Holstein until the Danish victory in 1850.

During the Second Schleswig War in 1864, Kiel and the rest of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein were conquered by a German Confederation alliance of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia. After the war, Kiel was briefly administered by both the Austrians and the Prussians, but the Austro-Prussian War in 1866 led to the formation of the Province of Schleswig-Holstein and the annexation of Kiel by Prussia in 1867. On 24 March 1865 King William I based Prussia's Baltic Sea fleet in Kiel instead of Danzig (Gdańsk). The Imperial shipyard Kiel was established in 1867 in the town.

When William I of Prussia became Emperor William I of the German Empire in 1871, he designated Kiel and Wilhelmshaven as Reichskriegshäfen ("Imperial War Harbours"). The prestigious Kiel Yacht Club was established in 1887 with Prince Henry of Prussia as its patron. Emperor Wilhelm II became its commodore in 1891.

Because of its new role as Germany's main naval base, Kiel very quickly increased in size in the following years, from 18,770 in 1864 to about 200,000 in 1910. Much of the old town centre and other surroundings were levelled and redeveloped to provide for the growing city. The Kiel tramway network, opened in 1881, had been enlarged to 10 lines, with a total route length of 40 km (25 mi), before the end of the First World War.

Kiel was the site of the sailors' mutiny which sparked the German Revolution in late 1918. Just before the end of the First World War, the German fleet stationed at Kiel was ordered to be sent out on a last great battle with the Royal Navy. The sailors, who thought of this as a suicide mission which would have no effect on the outcome of the war, decided they had nothing to lose and refused to leave the safety of the port. The sailors' actions and the lack of response of the government to them, fuelled by an increasingly critical view of the Kaiser, sparked a revolution which caused the abolition of the monarchy and the creation of the Weimar Republic.

Double-postcard panorama of Kiel from across the Kiel Fjord, 1902
Double-postcard panorama of Kiel from across the Kiel Fjord, 1902
Kiel, Royal Air Force Bomber Command, 1942-1945 CL2772
The German cruiser Admiral Scheer capsized in the docks at Kiel after being hit in a RAF raid on the night of 9/10 April 1945.

During the Second World War, Kiel remained one of the major naval bases and shipbuilding centres of the German Reich. There was also a slave labour camp for the local industry.[10] Because of its status as a naval port and as production site for submarines, Kiel was heavily bombed by the Allies during the Second World War. The bombing destroyed more than 80% of the remaining old town, 72% of the central residential areas, and 83% of the industrial areas.[11] During the RAF bombing of 23/24 July 1944, Luftwaffe fighters tried to intercept the spoof (i.e. decoy) force instead of the main force attacking Kiel,[12] and there was no water for three days; trains and buses did not run for eight days and there was no gas available for cooking for three weeks.[13] There were several bombing raids of the port area during the period 20 February – 20 April 1945 which successfully eliminated many U-Boats, and the few large warships (cruisers Hipper, Scheer, and Köln) still afloat at that time. Although the town was beyond the stop-line set for the western Allies in the German surrender at Lüneburg Heath, it and its port, its scientists, and the canal were seized by a British T-Force led by Major Tony Hibbert on 5 May 1945.[14][15] This forestalled capture of the town by the Soviets, whom the Allies expected to advance from Germany to Denmark in violation of the Yalta agreement.[16]

Like other heavily bombed German cities, the city was rebuilt after the war. In 1946, Kiel was named the seat of government for Schleswig-Holstein, and it officially became the state's capital in 1952.

Today, Kiel is once again an important maritime centre of Germany, with high-tech shipbuilding, submarine construction and one of the three leading institutions in the field of marine sciences in Europe, the IFM-GEOMAR. Regular ferries to Scandinavia and Lithuania, as well as the largest sailing event in the world called the Kiel Week (Kieler Woche) in German and The Kiel Regatta in English. The Kieler Umschlag is another festival, which has been taking place again since 1975. Kiel is also home to a large service sector and a number of research institutions including the University of Kiel, which is the oldest, largest, and most prestigious university in the state.

Geography

Climate

Kiel has an oceanic climate (Cfb in the Köppen climate classification).

Districts

Kiel Population Density
Image showing the population density of Kiel by district. Data from 2010.

The city districts of Düsternbrook, Schreventeich, Ravensberg and Blücherplatz are popular places to live with many 19th century buildings, villas and tree-lined streets. The government offices, ministries and parliament of the state of Schleswig-Holstein are also mainly based in these neighbourhoods, particularly Düsternbrook. In contrast to the heavy bomb damage inflicted on the central parts of the city during the Second World War, most of the residential areas were not severely damaged. Hence, Kiel's more modern-style inner city and Kiel's more historic/elaborate residential areas stand in architectural contrast to one another.

There are plans for large-scale improvement and building efforts for the inner city, providing better pavements, better access to and view of the waterfront, and a generally more attractive feel to the place. These plans, most notably the "Kleiner Kiel Kanal", a restoration of a historic canal that was filled in to make place for road infrastructure, are to be implemented in the next few years.[17]

Main sights

Geistkaempfer Barlach Kiel
Geistkämpfer in front of the Nikolaikirche, by Ernst Barlach
Kiel Rathaus 0336
Kiel Opera House and the Town Hall (Kieler Rathaus)

The oldest building in the city is the 13th century de church, which has a sculpture by Ernst Barlach in front of it called Geistkämpfer.

Kiel is Schleswig-Holstein's largest city, and therefore Kiel's shopping district is a major attraction, and will see further improvement and renovation efforts in the upcoming years. Kiel's Holstenstraße (Holsten Street) is one of the longest shopping streets in Germany. The Rathaus (town hall), which was built in 1911, has an operating paternoster and the design of its tower was based on one in Venice. The square in front of it is bordered by a lake and the Opera House. There are also a number of lakes and parks in the city centre, e.g. Schrevenpark (Schreven Park). There are two botanical gardens, the Old Botanical Garden and New Botanical Garden.

As Kiel is situated near the sea, the beaches to the north of Kiel such as Strande, Kiel-Schilksee, Möltenort and Laboe are also popular places to visit in spring and summer.

Kiel Week, more properly known in English as Kiel Regatta, is the largest sailing event in the world and takes place every year in the last full week in June. Many thousands of boats and ships of all kinds and eras take part in the parade. Kiel Week is also a festival, Volksfest and fair as well as a maritime event. There are a number of yachting and sailing clubs in picturesque settings.

Kiel also features a number of museums, including zoological, geological, historical, fine art, industrial and military museums. Notable is the Stadt- und Schifffahrtsmuseum Warleberger Hof (City and Maritime Museum), which belongs to the association museen am meer. In addition to preserving architecture from the 16th century and historic rooms with painted stucco ceilings, it displays urban and cultural exhibits of the 19th and 20th centuries.[18] Particularly intriguing is the history of the carnival in Kiel.[18] Laboe is home to the Laboe Naval Memorial, as well as the Second World War submarine U-995, which are popular tourist sites.

Willy Lucas - Die Holstenstraße in Kiel 1917

Holstenstraße Kiel 1917 (Willy Lucas)

DBP 1982 1132 Kieler Woche

Special issue stamp Kiel Week 1982

Ubena von Bremen Kiel2007

Historic ships at Kiel Week

Alter Botanischer Garten Kiel Pavillon

Old Botanical Garden, Kiel

U995 Laboe

U995 Laboe

Warleberger Hof Wappen Kiel2008

Warleberger Hof

Culture

Sports

There are a number of sports venues in Kiel, most notably the Sparkassen-Arena (formerly known as Baltic Sea Hall or Ostseehalle), which is the home ground of one of the most successful team handball clubs in the world and multiple German champion, THW Kiel. There is currently no Bundesliga football club in Kiel, but 2. Bundesliga side Holstein Kiel plays at Holstein-Stadion.

Education and scientific research

The University of Kiel (German: Christian-Albrechts-Universität), which was founded by Duke Christian Albrecht in 1665, is with round about 25.000 students the only full university of Schleswig-Holstein. Independent, but partly linked to the University Kiel are other research facilities such as the German National Library of Economics – Leibniz Informationcenter for Economy, the Kiel Institute for the World Economy, the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel and the research institute of the Bundeswehr for water sound and geophysics. Besides these there are other educational institutions such as the Fachhochschule Kiel (founded in 1969) and the Muthesius School of Arts (founded in 1907). The projects Murmann School of Global Management and Economics and Multimedia Campus Kiel weren’t successful at last. The Wirtschaftsakademie Schleswig-Holstein offers besides advanced training at the Berfusakademie dual study courses for economists, business information specialists and industrial engineers.

Noteworthy as departmental research institute is the federal institute for dairy research which was merged into the Max-Rubner-Institut together with other institutions in 2004. The state capital Kiel is a corporative sponsoring member of the Max Planck Society.[19]

The ARGE-SH as eldest building research institution of the republic of Germany has its headquarters in Kiel.

There are twelve Gymnasiums in Kiel, of which the Kieler Gelehrtenschule, founded in 1320 as a humanistic gymnasium, is the oldest. Other secondary schools are amongst others the Gymnasium Elmschenhagen and the Max-Planck-Schule with a focus on natural sciences and the Ricarda-Huch-Schule with a focus on languages. Furthermore, there are many comprehensive schools – partially with secondary schools – all over the city area and private schools, too.

Economy and infrastructure

Holsten strasse Kiel
The Holstenstraße is one of the longest shopping streets in Germany — Kiel is the largest city in the state of Schleswig-Holstein.

Kiel's economy is dominated by the service sector, transport and maritime industries. Kiel is also one of the major ports of the German Navy, and a leading centre of German high-tech military and civil shipbuilding. Kiel is the home of Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft, a shipyard founded in 1838 famed for its construction of submarines. HDW built the first German submarine Brandtaucher in 1850, and is today a subsidiary of ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems, the leading German group of shipyards.

Statistics

In 2005, the GDP per person was €35,618, which is well above the national average of Germany and 159% of the European Union average.[8]

2005 EUROSTAT[20] Nominal GDP per capita
Wappen Kiel.svgKiel 35,618
 Schleswig-Holstein €24,250
 Germany €27,219
 EU28 €22,400

Notable companies

Some of the most notable companies having branches or their headquarters in Kiel are:

Ferry operators

Military contractors

Engineering and industrial machinery

Others

Kiel is also home to several insurances and banks, most notably the HSH Nordbank, Provinzial NordWest, Förde Sparkasse, Kieler Volksbank eG and Evangelischen Bank eG.

There is also an active startup scene in Kiel with startup accelerator StarterKitchen and startups like SciEngines GmbH, Real-Eyes, myBoo, SealMedia, Cliplister, Druckpreis.DE, promotionbasis.de, Yoosello, GetAnEdge, Flowy Apps, fraguru, lokalportal, PianoMotion and ubique art.[21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29]

Kiel is home to several media companies, including a branch of the Norddeutscher Rundfunk producing one radio channel and several local programmes in Kiel, a station of the British Forces Broadcasting Service, the daily newspaper Kieler Nachrichten and several smaller local radio channels and magazines.

Transport

Kiel Karte 1
traffic map

Kiel is situated near an important pan-European motorway, the A7, which connects northern Europe with central and southern Europe.

The central railway station, Kiel Hauptbahnhof, has hourly trains to Hamburg, Lübeck, Flensburg, and Husum. The Intercity Express (ICE) connects Kiel with Berlin, Frankfurt, Cologne and Munich. There are 8 regional railway stations within the city proper,[30][31] which are connected with each other, the main railway station Kiel Hbf and other stations by regional trains, which can be used within the boundaries of the city with a normal bus ticket.[32]

The city's bus service is provided by local company KVG. Autokraft and Verkehrsbetriebe Kreis Plön providing regional bus service, and the Schlepp- und Fährgesellschaft Kiel provides public transport on the fjord with ferries.

Kiel is a significant port for passenger and cargo shipping from Germany to Scandinavia, the Baltic States and Russia. Passenger ferries operate to and from Gothenburg in Sweden (Stena Line, 13​12 hours, daily), Oslo in Norway (Color Line, 19​12 hours, daily), and Klaipėda in Lithuania (DFDS Lisco, 21 hours, 6 times per week). Cargo ferries operate from and to Saint Petersburg in Russia (DFDS Lisco, twice a week), and Kaliningrad in Russia (NSA, once a week).

The nearest international airport is Hamburg Airport, which is situated approximately 90 kilometres (56 mi) to the south of Kiel. There is a shuttle bus service (KIELIUS) operating between Hamburg Airport and Kiel central railway station. There is also an airport at Lübeck.

Notable people

Coronation portrait of Peter III of Russia -1761
Peter III of Russia (1728–1762)
Henri Lehmann
Henri Lehmann
Max planck
Max Planck (1858–1947), physicist
Fotothek df pk 0000249 051
Ernst Busch
Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F025579-0006, Bonn, Bundesratspräsident cropped
Helmut Lemke
Melina
Judith Malina
Eric Braeden - Monte-Carlo Television Festival
Eric Braeden
Cora E b-girl
Cora E
Heike Henkel cropped
Heike Henkel, high jumper

Up to 1800

1800 to 1850

1850 to 1900

1900 to 1910

1910 to 1920

1920 to 1950

Since 1950

Sport

International relations

Kiel is twinned with:[39]

See also

References

  1. ^ Landeshauptstadt Kiel. "Kiels Oberbürgermeister". Archived from the original on 2015-02-20.
  2. ^ https://www.destatis.de/DE/ZahlenFakten/LaenderRegionen/Regionales/Gemeindeverzeichnis/Administrativ/Aktuell/05Staedte.html.
  3. ^ "Alle politisch selbständigen Gemeinden mit ausgewählten Merkmalen am 31.12.2018 (4. Quartal)". DESTATIS. Archived from the original on 10 March 2019. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  4. ^ "Growth - KielRegion - Association for Business Development Kiel / Germany". Archived from the original on 2015-11-29.
  5. ^ "Statistikamt Nord – Bevölkerung der Gemeinden in Schleswig-Holstein 4. Quartal 2017 (XLS-file)". Statistisches Amt für Hamburg und Schleswig-Holstein (in German).
  6. ^ "General Information". Kieler Woche. Archived from the original on 2005-12-30. Retrieved 2006-03-13.
  7. ^ "European Grean Capitals". European Commission. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  8. ^ a b GDP per person 2005 in Euro Archived 2008-12-27 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ "A brief history of Kiel". Kiel - a portrait of the city. City of Kiel. Retrieved 2007-07-01.
  10. ^ Victor, Edward. "Alphabetical List of Camps, Subcamps and Other Camps". Archived from the original on 2012-02-22. Retrieved 2008-07-25.
  11. ^ "The Navy changed the face of Kiel". Kiel — a portrait of the city. City of Kiel. Retrieved 2008-07-25.
  12. ^ Jones, R. V. (1978). Most Secret War: British Scientific Intelligence 1939-1945. London: Hamish Hamilton. p. 466. ISBN 0-241-89746-7.
  13. ^ Campaign Diary: July 44 Archived 2007-07-06 at the UK Government Web Archive, Royal Air Force Bomber Command 60th Anniversary site Archived 2007-07-06 at the UK Government Web Archive. Accessed 4 May 2007
  14. ^ Jones, Gwilym Thomas (2001). Living history chronicles. General Store Publishing House. pp. 102–104. ISBN 1-894263-50-2. Archived from the original on 17 February 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2009.
  15. ^ A diary of ‘T’ Force operations in KIEL Archived 2014-10-23 at the Wayback Machine ARCRE—Archive research & document copying
  16. ^ "Operation Eclipse". History Learning Site.
  17. ^ "Kleiner Kiel Kanal". kleiner-kiel-kanal.de. Retrieved 2015-08-27.
  18. ^ a b "Kieler Stadtmuseum Warleberger Hof" Archived 2009-08-26 at the Wayback Machine, City of Kiel webpage, in German
  19. ^ "Liste der korporativ fördernden Mitglieder der MPG, PDF" (PDF). 2011-01-14. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-01-14. Retrieved 2017-09-23.
  20. ^ "Regional GDP per inhabitant in the EU 27" (PDF). Eurostat. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-16. Retrieved 2008-08-19.
  21. ^ "Imprint". real-eyes.eu. REALEYES GmbH. Archived from the original on 2011-04-04. Retrieved 2015-05-17.
  22. ^ "Imprint - my Boo". bamboo bike, bikes – Kiel, Germany. Retrieved 2015-05-17.
  23. ^ "EDGE | Edge Impressum". light-instruments.de. Archived from the original on 2015-05-18. Retrieved 2015-05-17.
  24. ^ "Flowy Apps – Imprint". flowyapps.com. Archived from the original on 2015-03-22. Retrieved 2015-05-17.
  25. ^ "fraguru - the art of questioning our lives". fraguru.org. Archived from the original on 2015-08-01. Retrieved 2015-05-17.
  26. ^ "Mein Ort. Meine Nachbarn. Mein Lokalportal". Lokalportal. Retrieved 2015-05-17.
  27. ^ "Impressum". pianomotion.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2015-05-17.
  28. ^ "Home | ubique art - Die Austellung ist überall". ubique-art.starterkitchen.de. Retrieved 2015-05-17.
  29. ^ "Firmensitze von Deutschen Startups | Gründerszene" [Headquarter Locations of German Startups | Gründerszene]. gruenderszene.de. Retrieved 2015-05-17.
  30. ^ Suchsdorf, Kronshagen, Kiel-Hassee CITTI-Park, Kiel-Russee, Melsdorf, Kiel-Schulen am Langsee, Kiel-Elmschenhagen, Raisdorf
  31. ^ "Liniennetzplan Kiel (Public Transport Plan Kiel)" (PDF). KVG Kiel. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2015. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  32. ^ "VRK Tarifzonenplan (Tariff Zone Plan Kiel)" (PDF). Verkehrsregion Kiel. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  33. ^ 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 21, Peter III. retrieved 23 March 2018
  34. ^ 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 23, Reinhold, Karl Leonhard retrieved 23 March 2018
  35. ^ 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 17, Löwe, Johann Karl Gottfried retrieved 23 March 2018
  36. ^ The New International Encyclopædia, Olshausen, Robert retrieved 23 March 2018
  37. ^ The New International Encyclopædia, Leskien, August retrieved 23 March 2018
  38. ^ 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 16, Liliencron, Detlev von retrieved 23 March 2018
  39. ^ "Twin cities of Kiel" (in German).
  40. ^ Griffin, Mary (2011-08-02). "Coventry's twin towns". Coventry Telegraph. Archived from the original on 2013-08-06. Retrieved 2013-08-06.
  41. ^ "Coventry - Twin towns and cities". Coventry City Council. Archived from the original on 2013-04-12. Retrieved 2013-08-06.
  42. ^ P.C., Net. "Gdynia - International Gdynia - International co-operation of Gdynia". www.gdynia.pl. Archived from the original on 2016-10-19.

External links

Bay of Kiel

The Bay of Kiel or Kiel Bay (German: Kieler Bucht, German pronunciation ; Danish: Kiel Bugt) is a bay in the southwestern Baltic Sea, off the shores of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany and the islands of Denmark. It is connected with the Bay of Mecklenburg in the east, the Little Belt in the northwest, and the Great Belt in the North.

Maritime traffic entering or leaving the Baltic through the two Belts must enter the bay. Once in, through traffic to the Baltic passes through another strait, the Fehmarn Belt, into the Bay of Mecklenburg, which opens out into the Baltic Sea. In the other direction, traffic can either pass northward through the Great Belt, keeping Langeland on the port side, or enter the Kiel Fjord and traverse the Kiel Canal directly to the mouth of the Elbe River and the North Sea. The Kiel Fjord ends at Kiel, the capital of Schleswig-Holstein.

Enterprise Center

Enterprise Center is an 18,400-seat arena located in downtown St. Louis, Missouri, United States. Its primary tenant is the St. Louis Blues of the National Hockey League, but it is also used for other functions, such as NCAA basketball, NCAA hockey, concerts, professional wrestling and more. In a typical year, the facility hosts about 175 events. Industry trade publication Pollstar has previously ranked Enterprise Center among the top ten arenas worldwide in tickets sold to non-team events, but the facility has since fallen into the upper sixties, as of 2017.The arena opened in 1994 and was known as Kiel Center until 2000, Savvis Center from 2000 to 2006, and Scottrade Center from 2006 to 2018. On May 21, 2018, the St. Louis Blues and representatives of Enterprise Holdings, based in St. Louis, announced that the naming rights had been acquired by Enterprise and that the facility's name would change to Enterprise Center, effective July 1, 2018.

Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft

Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft (often just called Germaniawerft, "Germania shipyard") was a German shipbuilding company, located in the harbour at Kiel, and one of the largest and most important builders of U-boats for the Kaiserliche Marine in World War I and the Kriegsmarine in World War II. The original company was founded in 1867 but went bankrupt and was bought out by Friedrich Krupp. Krupp was very interested in building warships and in the time before the First World War built a number of battleships for the Kaiserliche Marine, including SMS Posen, SMS Prinzregent Luitpold, SMS Kronprinz, and SMS Sachsen. A total of 84 U-boats were built in the shipyard during the war. After the war it returned to the normal production of yachts and transports.

German National Library of Economics

The German National Library of Economics (ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics) is the world’s largest research infrastructure for economic literature, online as well as offline. The ZBW is a member of the Leibniz Association and has been a foundation under public law since 2007. Several times the ZBW received the international LIBER award for its innovative work in librarianship. The ZBW allows for access of millions of documents and research on economics, partnering with over 40 research institutions to create a connective Open Access portal and social web of research. Through its EconStor and EconBiz, researchers and students have accessed millions of datasets and thousands of articles. The ZBW also edits two journals: Wirtschaftsdienst and Intereconomics.

German submarine U-237

German submarine U-237 was a Type VIIC U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II.

The submarine was laid down on 23 April 1942 at the Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft yard at Kiel as yard number 667, launched on 17 December and commissioned on 30 January 1943 under the command of Oberleutnant zur See Hubert Nordheimer. After training with the 5th U-boat Flotilla at Kiel, she went to the 23rd flotilla as a trials boat and then to the 31st flotilla. She was sunk by American bombs at the Germaniawerft in Kiel during a raid on 14 May 1943, but was raised, repaired and returned to service. She was sunk a second time by British bombs at the Deutsche Werke in Kiel on 4 April 1945.

Handball-Bundesliga

The Handball-Bundesliga (HBL) is the top German professional handball league. The league has been sponsored by Toyota since 2007 and therefore the league was called the Toyota Handball-Bundesliga. Since 2012 it is sponsorsed by the Deutsche Kreditbank AG (DKB) and therefore the name has changed into DKB Handball-Bundesliga. The winners of the Handball-Bundesliga are recognised as the German handball champions.

The HBL headquarters are in Dortmund.

Holstein Kiel

Holstein Kiel (KSV Holstein or Kieler SV Holstein) is a German association football and sports club based in the city of Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein. Through the 1900s till 1960s the club was one of the most dominant side in northern Germany. Holstein appear regular in the national playoffs, finishing as vice-champions in 1910 and 1930 before capturing their most important title, the German football championship in 1912. Holstein also winning six regional titles and finishing as runners-up another nine times. They remained a first division side until the formation of the Bundesliga in 1963.

Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft

Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft (often abbreviated HDW) is a German shipbuilding company, headquartered in Kiel. It is part of the ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems (TKMS) group, owned by ThyssenKrupp. The Howaldtswerke shipyard was founded in Kiel in 1838 and merged with Hamburg-based Deutsche Werft to form Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft (HDW) in 1968. The company's shipyard was formerly used by Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft until the end of World War II.

Kiel, Wisconsin

Kiel is a city in Calumet and Manitowoc counties in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. The population was 3,738 at the 2010 census. Of this, 3,429 residents lived in Manitowoc County, and 309 residents lived in Calumet County. The city is located primarily within Manitowoc County, though a portion extends west into adjacent Calumet County and is known as "Hinzeville".It was once known as the Wooden Shoes Capital of Wisconsin as it held the only wooden shoes factory in Wisconsin.

Kiel Auditorium

Kiel Auditorium was an indoor arena located in St. Louis, Missouri. It was the home of the St. Louis University basketball team and hosted the NBA's St. Louis Hawks, from 1955 to 1968.

The arena, completed in 1934, at a cost of $6 million, seated 9,300 and was built by Fruin-Colnon Construction. It was originally named the Municipal Auditorium, but was renamed in honor of former St. Louis Mayor Henry Kiel in 1943. A unique feature of the auditorium was that it was split into two; the front of the building was the Kiel Opera House. It was possible to use both sides at once as the stages were back to back. President Harry Truman gave a speech there in which both sides were opened to see his speech.

The Kiel Auditorium replaced the St. Louis Coliseum as the city's main indoor arena.

In 1955, the auditorium was also the venue for the second international conference of Alcoholics Anonymous, which established the service conference structure for the movement.

Kiel Auditorium played host to a variety of concerts and wrestling events, from the 1950s, until its closure in 1991. In 1983, it was the host of the Miss Universe Pageant. From the 1950s until the 1970s, the Kiel Auditorium was behind only Madison Square Garden as North America's most famous wrestling arena, hosting three NWA World Heavyweight Championship title changes from 1959 until 1986. The most notable wrestling event that took place at the Kiel Auditorium was WCW's premier event, Starrcade 1990. The building was demolished in 1992, but not before hosting the Missouri Valley Conference men's basketball tournament the preceding year.

After its demolition, its games and concerts temporarily went to the St. Louis Arena.

The Enterprise Center (originally named "Kiel Center", then "Savvis Center", then "Scottrade Center", before the current naming rights were purchased) now stands on the site of the former Kiel Auditorium. The Opera House portion of the building, on the northern part of the property, facing Market Street, was not torn down. It remained vacant for a while, but was renovated and reopened under the name Peabody Opera House in 2011.

Kiel Canal

The Kiel Canal (German: Nord-Ostsee-Kanal, literally "North-[to]-Baltic Sea canal", formerly known as the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Kanal) is a 95-kilometre (59 mi) long freshwater canal in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. The canal was finished in 1895, but later widened, and links the North Sea at Brunsbüttel to the Baltic Sea at Kiel-Holtenau. An average of 250 nautical miles (460 km) is saved by using the Kiel Canal instead of going around the Jutland Peninsula. This not only saves time but also avoids storm-prone seas and having to pass through the Sound or Belts.

Besides its two sea entrances, the Kiel Canal is linked, at Oldenbüttel, to the navigable River Eider by the short Gieselau Canal.

Kiel FK 166

The Kiel FK 166 was a single-seat prototype "exercise" biplane built by Kiel Flugzeugbau in the 1930s.The sole FK166 (registered D-ETON) was a biplane with cantilevered wings constructed mainly of wood with fabric and plywood covering. The elliptical plan upper wings, supported only by cabane struts in the centre, were given 2.5° dihedral, spanning approx ¾ the span of the 0° dihedral lower wing. Fitted with a fixed tail-wheel undercarriage the FK166 also featured a strut braced tailplane at the tip of the fin.

Kurt Alder

Kurt Alder (German: [ˈaldɐ]; 10 July 1902 – 20 June 1958) was a German chemist and Nobel laureate.

Maschinenbau Kiel

Maschinenbau Kiel GmbH designed, manufactured and marketed marine diesel engines, diesel locomotives and tracked vehicles under the MaK brand name. The three primary operating divisions of Maschinenbau Kiel GmbH were sold to different companies in the 1990s.

Rheinmetall acquired the military vehicles division in 1990. Siemens acquired the locomotive manufacturing division in 1992. Siemens sold the locomotive division to the current owner, Vossloh, in 1998. Caterpillar Inc. acquired the marine diesel engine division in 1997.

Both Vossloh and the marine diesels division of Caterpillar are still based in Kiel, Caterpillar continues to use MaK brand name on their products. The companies are major employers in Kiel.

Richard Kiel

Richard Dawson Kiel (September 13, 1939 – September 10, 2014) was an American actor and voice artist. Standing 7 ft 1 1⁄2 in (217 cm) tall, he was known for his role as Jaws in the James Bond franchise, portraying the character in The Spy Who Loved Me (1977) and Moonraker (1979); he lampooned the role with a tongue-in-cheek cameo in Inspector Gadget (1999). His next-most recognized role is the tough but eloquent Mr. Larson in Happy Gilmore (1996). Other notable films include The Longest Yard (1974), Silver Streak (1976), Force 10 from Navarone (1978), Cannonball Run II (1984), Pale Rider (1985) and Tangled (2010).

Sailing at the 1972 Summer Olympics

Sailing/Yachting is an Olympic sport starting from the Games of the 1st Olympiad (1896 Olympics in Athens, Greece). With the exception of 1904 and the canceled 1916 Summer Olympics, sailing has always been included on the Olympic schedule.

The Sailing program of 1972 consisted of a total of six sailing classes (disciplines). For each class seven races were scheduled from 29 August 1972 to 8 September 1972 of the coast of Kiel-Schilksee in the Bay of Kiel. Kiel hosted the Olympic sailing competitions for the second time, having previously done so during the 1936 Summer Olympics.

The sailing was done on the triangular type Olympic courses.

THW Kiel

THW Kiel is a handball club from Kiel, Germany. Currently, they compete in the Handball-Bundesliga and are the record champion with 20 titles.

2007 and 2012 were the most successful years in the club's history, as THW completed the treble, winning the domestic league, the domestic cup and the EHF Champions League. In 2012 the team won every league game, a first in any top flight German team sports.

Treaty of Kiel

The Treaty of Kiel (Norwegian: Kieltraktaten) or Peace of Kiel (Swedish and Norwegian: Kielfreden or freden i Kiel) was concluded between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Sweden on one side and the Kingdoms of Denmark and Norway on the other side on 14 January 1814 in Kiel. It ended the hostilities between the parties in the ongoing Napoleonic Wars, where the United Kingdom and Sweden were part of the anti-French camp (the Sixth Coalition) while Denmark–Norway was allied to Napoleon Bonaparte.Frederick VI of Denmark joined the anti-French alliance, ceded Heligoland to George III of the United Kingdom, and further ceded the Kingdom of Norway to Charles XIII of Sweden in return for Swedish Pomerania. Specifically excluded from the exchange were the Norwegian dependencies of Greenland, Iceland and the Faroe Islands, which remained in the union with Denmark. (Norway would unsuccessfully contest the Danish claim to all of Greenland in the Eastern Greenland Case of 1931–33.)

However, not all provisions of the treaty would come into force. Norway declared its independence, adopted a constitution and elected Crown Prince Christian Frederik as its own king. Sweden therefore refused to hand over Swedish Pomerania, which instead passed to Prussia after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. After a short war with Sweden, Norway accepted entering into a personal union with Sweden at the Convention of Moss. King Christian Frederik abdicated after convening an extraordinary Storting, which revised the Constitution to allow for the Union. It was formally established when the Storting elected Charles XIII as king of Norway on 4 November 1814.

University of Kiel

Kiel University (German: Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, CAU) is a university in the city of Kiel, Germany. It was founded in 1665 as the Academia Holsatorum Chiloniensis by Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp and has approximately 27,000 students today. Kiel University is the largest, oldest, and most prestigious in the state of Schleswig-Holstein. Until 1864/66 it was not only the northernmost university in Germany but at the same time the 2nd largest university of Denmark. Faculty, alumni, and researchers of the Kiel University have won 12 Nobel Prizes. Kiel University is a member of the German Universities Excellence Initiative since 2006. The Cluster of Excellence The Future Ocean, which was established in cooperation with the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel in 2006, is internationally recognized. The second Cluster of Excellence "Inflammation at Interfaces" deals with chronic inflammatory diseases. The Kiel Institute for the World Economy is also affiliated with Kiel University.

Climate data for Kiel
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13.4
(56.1)
16.0
(60.8)
21.4
(70.5)
29.3
(84.7)
33.5
(92.3)
34.4
(93.9)
34.2
(93.6)
35.0
(95.0)
30.1
(86.2)
25.2
(77.4)
19.5
(67.1)
14.8
(58.6)
35.0
(95.0)
Average high °C (°F) 2
(36)
3
(37)
6
(43)
11
(52)
16
(61)
20
(68)
21
(70)
21
(70)
18
(64)
13
(55)
8
(46)
4
(39)
12
(53)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.7
(33.3)
1.0
(33.8)
3.3
(37.9)
6.7
(44.1)
11.5
(52.7)
15.1
(59.2)
16.3
(61.3)
16.3
(61.3)
13.3
(55.9)
9.7
(49.5)
5.3
(41.5)
2.1
(35.8)
8.4
(47.2)
Average low °C (°F) −2
(28)
−2
(28)
0
(32)
3
(37)
7
(45)
11
(52)
12
(54)
12
(54)
10
(50)
7
(45)
3
(37)
0
(32)
5
(41)
Record low °C (°F) −20.8
(−5.4)
−24.8
(−12.6)
−14.5
(5.9)
−6.9
(19.6)
−3.0
(26.6)
1.6
(34.9)
4.3
(39.7)
4.7
(40.5)
0.6
(33.1)
−6.2
(20.8)
−12.0
(10.4)
−15.1
(4.8)
−24.8
(−12.6)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 65
(2.6)
40
(1.6)
54
(2.1)
52
(2.0)
57
(2.2)
69
(2.7)
79
(3.1)
69
(2.7)
66
(2.6)
67
(2.6)
86
(3.4)
74
(2.9)
778
(30.5)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 18 15 13 14 12 14 15 16 15 17 18 18 185
Average relative humidity (%) 87 84 81 77 74 74 76 78 81 85 86 87 81
Mean monthly sunshine hours 38.5 64.4 106.4 171.1 230.2 237.1 218.7 220.4 150.5 102.3 52.0 34.9 1,626.5
Source: DWD; wetterkontor.de; [1]; [2]
Places adjacent to Kiel
Capitals of area states
City-states1
Capitals of former states
Cities in Germany by population
1,000,000+
500,000+
200,000+
100,000+
Members of the Hanseatic League by quarter
Wendish
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Flag of Schleswig-Holstein Urban and rural districts in the state of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany Flag of Germany
Urban districts
Rural districts

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