Kidney bean

The kidney bean is a variety of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). It is named for its visual resemblance in shape and colour to a kidney. Red kidney beans should not be confused with other red beans, such as adzuki beans.

Kidney beans
Red Rajma BNC
Cooked, boiled red kidney beans
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy532 kJ (127 kcal)
22.8 g
Sugars0.32 g
Dietary fiber7.4 g
0.50 g
8.67 g
VitaminsQuantity %DV
Thiamine (B1)
14%
0.16 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
5%
0.058 mg
Niacin (B3)
4%
0.578 mg
Vitamin B6
9%
0.12 mg
Folate (B9)
33%
130 μg
Vitamin C
1%
1.2 mg
Vitamin E
0%
0.03 mg
Vitamin K
8%
8.4 μg
MineralsQuantity %DV
Calcium
3%
28 mg
Iron
23%
2.94 mg
Magnesium
13%
45 mg
Potassium
9%
403 mg
Sodium
0%
2 mg
Zinc
11%
1.07 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water66.94

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Classification

There are different classifications of kidney beans, such as:

  • Red kidney bean (also known as: common kidney bean, Rajma in India, Surkh (Red) Lobia in Pakistan).
  • Light speckled kidney bean (and long shape light speckled kidney bean).
  • Red speckled kidney bean (and long shape light speckled kidney bean).
  • White kidney bean (also known as cannellini or Lobia in India or Safaid (White) Lobia in Pakistan).

Dishes

Riceandcereal
Rajma served with rice - a popular north Indian dish

Red kidney beans are commonly used in chili con carne and are an integral part of the cuisine in northern regions of India, where the beans are known as rajma and are used in a dish of the same name. Red kidney beans are used in New Orleans and much of southern Louisiana for the classic Monday Creole dish of red beans and rice. The smaller, darker red beans are also used, particularly in Louisiana families with a recent Caribbean heritage. Small kidney beans used in La Rioja, Spain, are called caparrones. In the Netherlands and Indonesia, kidney beans are usually served as soup called brenebon.[1] In the Levant a common dish consisting of kidney bean stew usually served with rice is known as fasoulia. To make bean paste, kidney beans are generally prepared from dried beans and boiling until they are soft, at which point the dark red beans are pulverized into a dry paste.

Toxicity

Raw kidney beans contain relatively high amounts of phytohemagglutinin, and thus are more toxic than most other bean varieties if not pre-soaked and subsequently heated to the boiling point for at least 10 minutes. The US Food and Drug Administration recommends boiling for 30 minutes to ensure they reach a sufficient temperature long enough to completely destroy the toxin.[2] Cooking at the lower temperature of 80 °C (176 °F), such as in a slow cooker, can increase this danger and raise the toxin concentration up to fivefold.[3] Canned red kidney beans, though, are safe to use immediately.[4][5][6]

References

  1. ^ "Recipe: Soup Brenebon". FAO.
  2. ^ "Bad Bug Book (2012)" (pdf). Foodborne Pathogenic Microorganisms and Natural Toxins Handbook: Phytohaemagglutinin. Food and Drug Administration. 2012. Retrieved 26 December 2013. Consumers should boil the beans for at least 30 minutes to ensure that the product reaches sufficient temperature
  3. ^ Phytohaemagglutinin. Foodborne Pathogenic Microorganisms and Natural Toxins Handbook, US Food and Drug Administration (2009)
  4. ^ "Be Careful With Red Kidney Beans in The Slow Cooker". Mother Earth News.
  5. ^ "Cooking safely with slow cookers and crock pots". foodsmart.govt.nz.
  6. ^ "Raw Kidney Beans". Home Food Preservation (Penn State Extension).
Agrotis bilitura

Agrotis bilitura, the potato cutworm, is a moth of the Noctuidae family. It is found from the Tarapacá Region to the Magallanes Region and the Juan Fernández Islands in Chile, Argentina, Huánuco Region in Peru and Uruguay.

The wingspan is 30–43 mm. Adults are on wing from October to November and in January.

The larvae feed on various plants, including beet, artichoke, cotton, beetroot, onion, cauliflower, asparagus, spinach, kidney bean, tobacco, tomato, clovers, carrot, melon, sweet cucumber, beet and cabbage.

Agrotis experta

Agrotis experta is a moth of the Noctuidae family. It is found in the Tarapacá and Antofagasta regions of Chile and the Callao District of Peru.

The wingspan is 40–60 mm. Adults are on wing from April to October.

The larvae have been recorded on beet, sesame, alfalfa, cotton, kidney bean, Solanum tuberosum and tobacco.

Baghala ghatogh

Baghala Ghatogh or Baghali Ghatogh (in Persian: باقلا قاتوق) is a northern Iranian dish made with "pacheh baghali" (Rashti fava beans), dill, and eggs. It's usually served with kateh (Persian rice dish) in northern provinces such as Gilan and Mazandaran, and can be considered a khoresh (Persian stew). It is spiced with turmeric, salt, garlic, and sometimes pepper.Outside of Iran this dish is made with either lima beans, kidney beans or fava beans. If you use dried beans to make this dish, they have to be soaked overnight.

Brooklynella hostilis

Brooklynella hostilis is a parasite of marine fish, found in wild fish, farmed fish and aquariums. It is kidney-bean shaped, and approximately 60–80 μm long, with bands of cilia. B. hostilis is the only species in the monotypic taxon Brooklynella, a genus in the order Hartmannulidae. It reproduces by binary fission.B. hostilis causes the disease Brooklynellosis, also known as slime-blotch or clownfish disease. In marine aquariums, B. hostilis infects most teleosts (ray finned fishes). B. hostilis feeds on dead skin cells and can cause severe damage to gills. Affected fish have a gray discoloration, and may breath abnormally fast or abnormally slow. The infection can cause sloughing of skin, and congestion of the gills.

The parasite spreads rapidly, and can easily transfer to a new host. Formalin is an effective treatment.

Caparrones

Caparrones is a Spanish stew made of caparrón, a variety of red kidney bean, and a spicy sausage chorizo, both of which are local specialties of the Spanish La Rioja region. The shape of caparrón bean is shorter and rounder than common red kidney beans. The stew is regarded as one of the most important dishes in Riojan cooking.

Its cultural importance in the region can be compared to Asturian fabada. Caparrones are associated with strength, as well as with flatulence. There are some restaurants and inns in La Rioja that take this name (Mesón los Caparrones, etc.).

This plant is widely cultivated in groves around La Rioja, and the most famous are from Anguiano where a yearly festival is held honoring these beans.Rods obtained from branches of trees like poplar or bushes like elder and used for guiding the plant's growth are called palos de caparrón (caparrón staves). These staves are saved from one year to another tied in bunches called gavillas. There are also some varieties of caparrones called sin palo (without a stave) because they do not grow very tall and so do not require artificial support.

Gnorimoschema stigmaticum

Gnorimoschema stigmaticum is a moth in the family Gelechiidae. It was described by Powell and Povolný in 2001. It is found in North America, where it has been recorded from California.The length of the forewings is 6.6-7.3 mm. The forewings are covered by dark grey-brown scales with blackish tips, paler toward the apex. The inner stigma is elongate-transverse, the distal one distinctly crescent or kidney bean-shaped. Another group of black scales indicating an indistinct stigma at one-third of the costa. The hindwings are grey-brown with darker suffusion along the veins.

Lablab

Lablab purpureus is a species of bean in the family Fabaceae. It is native to Africa and it is cultivated throughout the tropics for food. English language common names include hyacinth bean, lablab-bean bonavist bean/pea, dolichos bean, seim bean, lablab bean, Egyptian kidney bean, Indian bean, bataw and Australian pea. It is the only species in the monotypic genus Lablab.

Navy bean

The navy bean, haricot, pearl haricot bean, boston bean, white pea bean, or pea bean, is a variety of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) native to the Americas, where it was domesticated. It is a small, dry white bean which is smaller than many other types of white beans, and has an oval, slightly flattened shape. It features in such dishes as baked beans, and even pies, as well as in various soups such as Senate bean soup.The green bean plants that produce navy beans may be either of the bush type or vining type, depending on which cultivar they are.Other white beans include cannellini, 'Great Northern', the lima beans known as "butter beans", and the runner bean.

Nude Bowl

The Nude Bowl was a popular skateboarding locale from the late 1970s to the early 1990s. The name comes from the fact that the site was once a nudist resort named "Desert Gardens Ranch."It is outside Desert Hot Springs, California and consists of an abandoned kidney bean shaped swimming pool and a few foundations of buildings that used to surround the area. There is no paved road to the Nude Bowl.

Initially, the Nude Bowl was merely a skateboarding party location, but by the 1990s, large parties and violence became commonplace there. After numerous complaints about guns and fighting around the Nude Bowl, the police filled it in with dirt. Skateboarders returned, removed the dirt, and repaired the bowl. After a few months, the police broke up the concrete and buried the remains of the bowl, but recently the pool was dug up and repaired and is now intact.

Phaseolus

Phaseolus (bean, wild bean) is a genus in the family Fabaceae containing about 70 plant species, all native to the Americas, primarily Mesoamerica.At least four of the species have been domesticated since pre-Columbian times for their beans. Most prominent among these is the common bean, P. vulgaris, which today is cultivated worldwide in tropical, semitropical, and temperate climates.

Previous classifications placed a number of other well-known legume species in this genus, but they were subsequently reassigned to the genus Vigna, sometimes necessitating a change of species name. For example, older literature refers to the mung bean as Phaseolus aureus, whereas more modern sources classify it as Vigna radiata. Similarly, the snail bean Vigna caracalla was discovered in 1753 and in 1970 moved from Phaseolus to Vigna. The modern understanding of Phaseolus indicates a genus endemic only to the New World.

Phaseolus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including common swift, garden dart, ghost moth Hypercompe albicornis, H. icasia and the nutmeg.

Phaseolus polystachios

Phaseolus polystachios, also known as the thicket bean or wild kidney bean, is a perennial, herbaceous vine that is native to North America. It is unique among the Phaseolus in that its native range extends across the eastern temperate United States to southeast Canada, while most Phaseolus are tropical or subtropical. It is the namesake for the Polystachios group clade, which is the most species-rich within Phaseolus (17 species). In spite of its common name, it is more closely related to the lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), and it holds potential as a crop wild relative due to its resistance to white mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum).

Phaseolus vulgaris

Phaseolus vulgaris, also known as the common bean, green bean and French bean, among other names, is a herbaceous annual plant grown worldwide for its edible dry seeds or unripe fruit (both commonly called beans). The main categories of common beans, on the basis of use, are dry beans (seeds harvested at complete maturity), snap beans (tender pods with reduced fibre harvested before the seed development phase) and shell (shelled) beans (seeds harvested at physiological maturity). Its leaf is also occasionally used as a vegetable and the straw as fodder. Its botanical classification, along with other Phaseolus species, is as a member of the legume family Fabaceae, most of whose members acquire the nitrogen they require through an association with rhizobia, a species of nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

The common bean is a highly variable species that has a long history of cultivation. All wild members of the species have a climbing habit, but many cultivars are classified either as bush beans or dwarf beans, or as pole beans or climbing beans, depending on their style of growth. These include the kidney bean, the navy bean, the pinto bean, and the wax bean. The other major types of commercially grown bean are the runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus) and the broad bean (Vicia faba). Beans are grown on every continent except Antarctica. Worldwide, 27 million tonnes of dried beans and 24 million tonnes of green beans were grown in 2016. In 2016, Myanmar was the largest producer of dried beans, while China produced 79% of the world total of green beans.

The wild P. vulgaris is native to the Americas. It was originally believed that it had been domesticated separately in Mesoamerica and in the southern Andes region, giving the domesticated bean two gene pools. However, recent genetic analyses show that it was actually domesticated in Mesoamerica first, and traveled south, probably along with squash and maize (corn). The three Mesoamerican crops constitute the "Three Sisters" central to indigenous North American agriculture.

Phytohaemagglutinin

Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA, or phytohemagglutinin) is a lectin found in plants, especially certain legumes. PHA actually consists of two closely related proteins, called leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) and PHA-E. The letters E and L indicate these proteins agglutinate erythrocytes and leukocytes (red and white blood cells respectively). Phytohaemagglutinin has carbohydrate-binding specificity for a complex oligosaccharide containing

galactose, N-acetylglucosamine, and mannose.It is found in the highest concentrations in uncooked red kidney beans and white kidney beans (also known as cannellini), and it is also found in lower quantities in many other types of green beans and other common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), as well as broad beans (Vicia faba) such as fava beans. It has a number of physiological effects and is used in medical research. In high doses, it is a toxin.

The lectin has a number of effects on cell metabolism; it induces mitosis, and affects the cell membrane in regard to transport and permeability to proteins. It agglutinates most mammalian red blood cell types.

As a toxin, it can cause poisoning in monogastric animals, such as humans, through the consumption of raw or improperly prepared kidney beans. Measured in haemagglutinating units (hau), a raw red kidney bean may contain up to 70,000 hau. This can be reduced to safe levels by correct cooking (boiling for at least 30 minutes at 100 °C/ 212 °F). Insufficient cooking, such as in a slow cooker at 75 °C/ 167 °F, may not completely destroy the toxins.

Beans also contain alpha amylase inhibitor, but not in sufficient quantities to affect the digestion of starch after consumption of beans.Poisoning can be induced from as few as five raw beans, and symptoms occur within three hours, beginning with nausea, then vomiting, which can be severe and sustained (profuse), followed by diarrhea. Recovery occurs within four or five hours of onset, usually without the need for any medical intervention.In medicine these proteins are useful and are used as a mitogen to trigger T-lymphocyte cell division and to activate latent HIV-1 from human peripheral lymphocytes. In neuroscience, anterograde tracing is a research method that uses the protein product phytohaemagglutinin PHA-L as a molecular tracer that can be taken up by the cell and transported across the synapse into the next cell thereby tracing the path of axonal projections and relative connections that nerve impulses travel beginning with the source located at the perikaryon (cell body or soma) and through the presynaptic part located on neuron's efferent axon all the way to the point of termination at the efferent synapse which then provides input to another neuron.Lymphocytes cultured with phytohaemagglutinin can be used for karyotype analysis. Stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes by phytohaemagglutinin presents a classic model of transition of cells from the quiescent G0 phase of the cell cycle into G1-, and subsequently progression through S-, G2- and M- phases of the cycle.

Rajma

Rājmā or Rāzmā is a popular vegetarian dish, originating from the Indian subcontinent, consisting of red kidney beans in a thick gravy with many Indian whole spices and, is usually served with rice. Although kidney beans did not originate from the Indian subcontinent, it is a part of regular diet in Northern India and Nepal. The dish developed after the red kidney bean was brought to the Indian subcontinent from Mexico. A 100 gram serving of boiled Rajma beans contains about 140 calories, 5.7 grams of protein, 5.9 grams of fat and 18 grams of carbohydrate. Rajma chawal is kidney beans served with boiled rice.

Some of the best Rajma is said to be grown in the Nepal hills, north Indian state of Himachal Pradesh and the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir. Rajma chawal served with chutney of Anardana is the famous dish of Peerah, a town in Ramban district of Jammu. Going further, the Rajma of Chinta Valley in Doda district, a short distance from the town of Bhaderwah of Jammu province are said to be amongst the most popular. These are smaller in size than most Rajma grown in plains and have a slightly sweetish taste.

The combination of Rajma and rice generally lists as a top favorite of North Indians and Nepalis. Rajma is prepared with onion, garlic and many spices in India, and it is one of the staple foods in Nepal.

Rajma Masala is a very popular dish in the Northern states of India. The Punjabi way of cooking Rajma Masala is to soak it overnight in water, boil it using a pressure cooker and mix bhuna masala made with chopped onions, pureed tomato, ginger, garlic and milieu of fresh spices including cumin, coriander and chilli powder.Rajma Masala combined with rice is referred to as Rajma Chawal and is a very popular North Indian dish. Punjabi's enjoy greeting their guests with Rajma Chawal topped with pure butter. You may garnish the dish with coriander leaves if you like it. An accompaniment of Chaas or buttermilk makes meal complete and sumptuous.

Singularity theory

In mathematics, singularity theory studies spaces that are almost manifolds, but not quite. A string can serve as an example of a one-dimensional manifold, if one neglects its thickness. A singularity can be made by balling it up, dropping it on the floor, and flattening it. In some places the flat string will cross itself in an approximate "X" shape. The points on the floor where it does this are one kind of singularity, the double point: one bit of the floor corresponds to more than one bit of string. Perhaps the string will also touch itself without crossing, like an underlined "U". This is another kind of singularity. Unlike the double point, it is not stable, in the sense that a small push will lift the bottom of the "U" away from the "underline".

Vladimir Arnold describes the main goal of singularity theory as describing how objects depend on parameters, particularly in cases where the properties undergo sudden change under a small variation of the parameters. These situations are called perestroika (Russian: перестройка), bifurcations or catastrophes. Classifying the types of changes and characterizing sets of parameters which give rise to these changes are some of the main mathematical goals. A simple example might be the outline of a smooth object like a kidney bean. From some angles the outline is a smooth curve but as the object is rotated, the outline will first form a sharp corner and then a self-intersection with cusps. Singularities can occur in a wide range of mathematical objects, from matrices depending on parameters to wavefronts.

Strongylodon macrobotrys

Strongylodon macrobotrys, commonly known as jade vine, emerald vine or turquoise jade vine, is a species of leguminous perennial liana (woody vine), a native of the tropical forests of the Philippines, with stems that can reach up to 18 m in length. Its local name is Tayabak. A member of the Fabaceae (the pea and bean family), it is closely related to beans such as kidney bean and runner bean. Strongylodon macrobotrys is pollinated by birds and bats.

Tom Terrific

Tom Terrific was an early animated series on American television, presented as part of the Captain Kangaroo children's television show.

Created by Gene Deitch under the Terrytoons studio (which by that time was a subsidiary of CBS, the network that broadcast Captain Kangaroo), Tom Terrific ran in a series of five-minute cartoons created specifically for the Captain Kangaroo show from 1957-1959, and was rerun on Kangaroo for years thereafter. For several years after 1962, Tom Terrific would be broadcast every other week, alternating with Lariat Sam, another Terrytoons creation.

Gene Deitch adapted the feature from his earlier newspaper comic strip, "Terr'ble Thompson!" distributed during the 1950s by United Features Syndicate. Terr'ble Thompson was a six-year-old boy who imagined himself to be the "Hero of Hist'ry" and freely travelled back in time to assist historical figures. An illustrated book reprinting the adventures of this precursor to Tom Terrific was published by Fantagraphics Books.All the voices were performed by Lionel Wilson (who later voiced Eustace Bagge from the Cartoon Network series Courage the Cowardly Dog).

Drawn in a simple black-and white style reminiscent of children's drawings, it featured a gee-whiz boy hero, Tom Terrific, who lived in a treehouse and could transform himself into anything he wanted thanks to his magic, funnel-shaped "thinking cap," which also enhanced his intelligence. He had a comic lazybones of a sidekick, Mighty Manfred the Wonder Dog, and an arch-foe named Crabby Appleton, whose motto was, "I'm rotten to the core!" Other foes included Mr. Instant the Instant Thing King; Captain Kidney Bean; Sweet Tooth Sam the Candy Bandit; and Isotope Feeney the Meany.

Tom Terrific appeared in the 1999 pilot Curbside in where he was voiced by Haley Joel Osment.Tom Terrific was ranked # 32 by TV Guide magazine among its "50 Greatest TV Cartoon Characters." There has never been an authorized VHS, DVD or Blu-ray release of the series.

Trenton Speedway

Trenton Speedway was a racing facility located near Trenton, New Jersey at the New Jersey State Fairgrounds. Races for the United States' premier open-wheel and full-bodied racing series of the times were held at Trenton Speedway.

Yun dou juan

Yun dou juan (芸豆卷), kidney bean rolls, is a traditional dish of Beijing cuisine. The traditional culinary method of this dish begins with the preparation of the main ingredient by first crushing the kidney beans and then soaking the crushed beans overnight. The skin of the crushed beans would stay afloat on the surface after a night and thus separated and discarded.

After the water is heated to the boiling point, the kidney beans would then be boiled in the hot water for at least an hour and then steamed for at least twenty minutes afterward.

The kidney beans would then be crushed and compressed into linear mash/paste form with diameter of 3.5 cm. The mash/paste would then be placed on a piece of wet cloth and formed into rectangular shape with knife, and a layer of bean paste is placed on top of the rectangular shaped kidney bean mash/paste, and rolled together. When serving, the resulting roll would be cut into smaller pieces.

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