Kidnapping

In criminal law, kidnapping is the unlawful carrying away (asportation) and confinement of a person against his or her will. Thus, it is a composite crime. It can also be defined as false imprisonment by means of abduction, both of which are separate crimes that when committed simultaneously upon the same person merge as the single crime of kidnapping. The asportation/abduction element is typically but not necessarily conducted by means of force or fear. That is, the perpetrator may use a weapon to force the victim into a vehicle, but it is still kidnapping if the victim is enticed to enter the vehicle willingly, e.g., in the belief it is a taxicab.

Kidnapping may be done to demand for ransom in exchange for releasing the victim, or for other illegal purposes. Kidnapping can be accompanied by bodily injury which elevates the crime to aggravated kidnapping.[1]

Kidnapping of a child is also known as child abduction, and these are sometimes separate legal categories.

Mauricio rugendas - el malon
El Malón, by Johann Moritz Rugendas (1802–1858), historic painting depicting kidnapping of a woman

Motivations

Dinah tissot
The abduction of Dinah, (watercolor circa 1896–1902 by James Tissot)

Kidnapping of children is usually by one parent against the wishes of a parent or guardian. Kidnapping of adults is often for ransom or to force someone to withdraw money from an ATM, but may also be for the purpose of sexual assault.

In the past, and presently in some parts of the world (such as southern Sudan), kidnapping is a common means used to obtain slaves and money through ransom. In less recent times, kidnapping in the form of shanghaiing (or "pressganging") men was used to supply merchant ships in the 19th century with sailors, whom the law considered unfree labour.

Criminal gangs are estimated to make up to $500 million a year in ransom payments from kidnapping.[2]

Kidnapping has been identified as one source by which terrorist organizations have been known to obtain funding.[3] The Perri, Lichtenwald and MacKenzie article identified "tiger" kidnapping as a specific method used by either the Real Irish Republican Army or Continuity Irish Republican Army, in which a kidnapped family member is used to force someone to steal from their employer.

  • Bride kidnapping is a term often applied loosely, to include any bride "abducted" against the will of her parents, even if she is willing to marry the "abductor". It still is traditional amongst certain nomadic peoples of Central Asia. It has seen a resurgence in Kyrgyzstan since the fall of the Soviet Union and the subsequent erosion of women's rights.[4]
  • Express kidnapping is a method of abduction used in some countries, mainly from Latin America,[5] where a small ransom, that a company or family can easily pay, is demanded.
  • Tiger kidnapping is taking a hostage to make a loved one or associate of the victim do something: e.g. a child is taken hostage to force the shopkeeper to open the safe. The term originates from the usually long preceding observation, like a tiger does on the prowl.

By jurisdiction

Canada

Kidnapping that does not result in a homicide is a hybrid offence that comes with a maximum possible penalty of life imprisonment (18 months if tried summarily). A murder that results from kidnapping is classified as 1st-degree, with a sentence of life imprisonment that results from conviction (the mandatory penalty for murder under Canadian law).

Netherlands

Article 282 prohibits hostaging (and 'kidnapping' is a kind of 'hostaging').[6] Part 1 of Article 282 allows sentencing kidnappers to maximum imprisonment of 8 years or a fine of the fifth category.[7] Part 2 allows maximum imprisonment of 9 years or a fine of the fifth category[7] if there are serious injuries. Part 3 allows maximum imprisonment of 12 years or a fine of the fifth category[7] if the victim has been killed. Part 4 allows sentencing people that collaborate with kidnapping (such as proposing or make available a location where the victim hostaged). Part 1, 2 and 3 will apply also to them.

United Kingdom

Kidnapping is an offence under the common law of England and Wales. Lord Brandon said in 1984 R v D:[8]

First, the nature of the offence is an attack on, and infringement of, the personal liberty of an individual. Secondly, the offence contains four ingredients as follows: (1) the taking or carrying away of one person by another; (2) by force or fraud; (3) without the consent of the person so taken or carried away; and (4) without lawful excuse.[9][10][11]

In all cases of kidnapping of children, where it is alleged that a child has been kidnapped, it is the absence of the consent of that child which is material. This is the case regardless of the age of the child. A very small child will not have the understanding or intelligence to consent. This means that absence of consent will be a necessary inference from the age of the child. It is a question of fact for the jury whether an older child has sufficient understanding and intelligence to consent.[12] Lord Brandon said: "I should not expect a jury to find at all frequently that a child under fourteen had sufficient understanding and intelligence to give its consent."[13] If the child (being capable of doing so) did consent to being taken or carried away, the fact that the person having custody or care and control of that child did not consent to that child being taken or carried away is immaterial. If, on the other hand, the child did not consent, the consent of the person having custody or care and control of the child may support a defence of lawful excuse.[12] It is known as Gillick competence.[14]

Regarding Restriction on prosecution, no prosecution may be instituted, except by or with the consent of the Director of Public Prosecutions, for an offence of kidnapping if it was committed against a child under the age of sixteen and by a person connected with the child, within the meaning of section 1 of the Child Abduction Act 1984.[15] Kidnapping is an indictable-only offence.[16] Kidnapping is punishable with imprisonment or fine at the discretion of the court. There is no limit on the fine or the term of imprisonment that may be imposed provided the sentence is not inordinate.[17][18][19]

A parent should only be prosecuted for kidnapping their own child "in exceptional cases, where the conduct of the parent concerned is so bad that an ordinary right-thinking person would immediately and without hesitation regard it as criminal in nature".[12][20]

United States

Law in the United States follows from English common law. Following the highly publicized 1932 Lindbergh kidnapping, Congress passed the Federal Kidnapping Act, which authorized the FBI to investigate kidnapping at a time when the Bureau was expanding in size and authority. The fact that a kidnapped victim may have been taken across state lines brings the crime within the ambit of federal criminal law.

Most states recognize different types of kidnapping and punish accordingly. E.g. New York bases its definition of first-degree kidnapping on the duration and purpose.[21] There are several deterrents to kidnapping in the United States of America. Among these are:

  1. The extreme logistical challenges involved in successfully exchanging the money for the return of the victim without being apprehended or surveiled.
  2. Harsh punishment. Convicted kidnappers face lengthy prison terms. If a victim is brought across state lines, federal charges can be laid as well.
  3. Good cooperation and information sharing between law enforcement agencies, and tools for spreading information to the public (such as the AMBER Alert system).

One notorious failed example of kidnap for ransom was the 1976 Chowchilla bus kidnapping, in which 26 children were abducted with the intention of bringing in a $5-million ransom. The children and driver escaped from an underground van without the aid of law enforcement.[22] According to the Department of Justice, kidnapping makes up 2% of all reported violent crimes against juveniles.[23]

From the 1990s on, a gang operating in New York City and New Jersey was involved in the kidnapping and torture of Jewish husbands for the purpose of forcing them to grant religious divorces to their wives. They were finally apprehended on October 9, 2013, in connection with the 2013 New York divorce torture plot.[24][25][26]

According to a 2003 Domestic Violence Report in Colorado, out of a survey of 189 incidents, most people (usually white females) are taken from their homes or residence by a present or former spouse or significant other. They are usually taken by force, not by weapon, and usually the victims are not injured when they are freed.

In 2009, Phoenix, Arizona reported over 300 cases of kidnapping, although subsequent investigation found that the Phoenix police falsified data "Phoenix Kidnappings: Uncovering the Truth". Archived from the original on 2013-04-13.. If true, this would have been the highest rate of any US city and second in the world only to Mexico City.[23] A rise in kidnappings in the southwestern United States in general has been attributed to misclassification by local police, lack of a unified standard, desire for Federal grants, or the Mexican Drug War.[27]

In 2010 the United States was ranked sixth in the world (by absolute numbers, not per capita) for kidnapping for ransom, according to the available statistics (after Colombia, Italy, Lebanon, Peru, and the Philippines).[28]

In 2009, the Los Angeles Times named Phoenix, Arizona,[29] as America's kidnapping capital, reporting that every year hundreds of ransom kidnappings occur there, virtually all within the underworld associated with human and drug smuggling from Mexico, and often done as a way of collecting unpaid debts. However, a later audit by the U.S. Department of Justice Inspector General found only 59 federally reportable kidnappings in 2008, compared to the over 300 claimed on grant applications.[30]

During the year 1999 in the United States, 203,900 children were reported as the victims of family abductions and 58,200 of non-family abductions. However, only 115 were the result of "stereotypical" kidnaps (by someone unknown or of slight acquaintance to the child, held permanently or for ransom).[31]

Statistics

Global kidnapping hotspots
  1999[32] 2006[33] 2014 [34]
1 Colombia Mexico Mexico
2 Mexico Iraq India
3 Brazil India Pakistan
4 Philippines South Africa Iraq
5 Venezuela Brazil Nigeria
6 Ecuador Pakistan Libya
7 Russia and CIS Ecuador Afghanistan
8 Nigeria Venezuela Bangladesh
9 India Colombia Sudan
10 South Africa Bangladesh Lebanon

Countries with the highest rates

Kidnappers arrested Rio
Arrested kidnappers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil lying on the ground

Kidnapping for ransom is a common occurrence in various parts of the world today, and certain cities and countries are often described as the "Kidnapping Capital of the World". As of 2007, that title belongs to Iraq with possibly 1,500 foreigners kidnapped.[35][36] In 2004, it was Mexico,[37] and in 2001, it was Colombia.[38] Statistics are harder to come by. Reports suggest a world total of 12,500-25,500/year with 3,600/year in Colombia and 3,000/year in Mexico around the year 2000.[39] However, by 2016, the number of kidnappings in Colombia had declined to 205 and it continues to decline.[40][41] Mexican numbers are hard to confirm because of fears of police involvement in kidnapping.[42] "Kidnapping seems to flourish particularly in fragile states and conflict countries, as politically motivated militias, organized crime and the drugs mafia fill the vacuum left by government".[33]

Pirates

Kidnapping on the high seas in connection with piracy has been increasing. It was reported that 661 crewmembers were taken hostage and 12 kidnapped in the first 9 months of 2009.[43]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Definition of kidnapping". 2017. Sources: Cornell University Law School. Cambridge English Dictionary. English Oxford Living Dictionaries. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  2. ^ "Kidnap and ransom market value".
  3. ^ Perri, Frank S., Lichtenwald, Terrance G., and MacKenzie, Paula M. (2009). "Evil Twins: The Crime-Terror Nexus" (PDF). Forensic Examiner. pp. 16–29.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ "Bride Kidnapping - a Channel 4 documentary". Channel4.com.
  5. ^ Garcia Jr; Juan A. "Express kidnappings". Thepanamanews.com. Archived from the original on July 30, 2007. Retrieved December 7, 2006.
  6. ^ "wetten.nl - Regeling - Wetboek van Strafrecht - BWBR0001854". wetten.overheid.nl (in Dutch). Retrieved 2016-09-18.
  7. ^ a b c € 78,000
  8. ^ The Law Reports. Lord Brandon: R v D [1984] AC 778, [1984] 3 WLR 186, [1984] 2 All ER 449, 79 Cr App R 313, [1984] Crim LR 558, HL, reversing [1984] 2 WLR 112, [1984] 1 All ER 574, 78 Cr App R 219, [1984] Crim LR 103, CA
  9. ^ Lord Brandon: R v D [1984] AC 778 at 800, HL. The following cases are relevant: R v Reid [1973] QB 299, [1972] 3 WLR 395, [1972] 2 All ER 1350, 56 Cr App R 703, [1972] Crim LR 553, CA; [as well as:] R v Wellard [1978] 1 WLR 921, [1978] 3 All ER 161, 67 Cr App R 364, CA; [and:] R v Cort [2003] EWCA Crim 2149, [2003] 3 WLR 1300, [2004] 1 Cr App R 18, CA; [and:] R v Hendy-Freegard.
  10. ^ "Hendy-Freegard v R [2007] EWCA Crim 1236 (23 May 2007)". Bailii.org. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
  11. ^ Chris Johnston. "The Times | UK News, World News and Opinion". Business. timesonline.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-05-14. EWCA Crim 1236, [2007] 3 WLR 488.
  12. ^ a b c R v D [1984] AC 778, HL
  13. ^ R v D [1984] AC 778 at 806, HL
  14. ^ For the Charging child abduction and kidnapping in the same indictment see: R v C [1991] 2 FLR 252, [1991] Fam Law 522, CA.
  15. ^ The Child Abduction Act 1984, section 5 Archived January 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ "Kidnapping - False Imprisonment:Offences against the Person: Sentencing Manual: Legal Guidance: The Crown Prosecution Service". Cps.gov.uk. 2010-03-31. Archived from the original on 2012-01-12. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
  17. ^ For background, see: R v Morris [1951] 1 KB 394, 34 Cr App R 210, CCA. (Also:) R v Spence and Thomas, 5 Cr App R (S) 413, [1984] Crim LR 372, CA. Further information: Crown Prosecution Service: "Kidnapping - False Imprisonment: Offences against the Person: Sentencing Manual: Legal Guidance: The Crown Prosecution Service". Cps.gov.uk. 2011-06-24. Archived from the original on 2012-04-21. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
  18. ^ For the CPS guidance, see: "Legal Guidance:The Crown Prosection Service: Prosecuting Cases of Child Abuse". Cps.gov.uk. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
  19. ^ For Offences against the person, see: "Offences against the Person: Legal Guidance: The Crown Prosecution Service". Cps.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 2012-04-10. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
  20. ^ Gary Slapper (23 August 2007). "The Law Explored: abduction and false imprisonment". The Times. London. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
  21. ^ The Gale Group (2008). West's Encyclopedia of American Law (2nd ed.). Retrieved 2011-01-09.
  22. ^ "Chowchilla kidnap, Crime Library website". Crimelibrary.com. 1976-07-15. Archived from the original on 2014-04-03. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
  23. ^ a b "Project America: Crime: Crime Rates: Kidnapping". Project.org. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
  24. ^ Samaha, Albert; "Bad Rabbi: Tales of Extortion and Torture Depict a Divorce Broker's Brutal Grip on the Orthodox Community" Archived April 7, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Dec 4, 2013; Village Voice
  25. ^ Pleasance, Chris (2016-04-07) "Jewish Rabbi Known As The Prodfather Admits Torturing Husbands Into Agreeing To Divorce Their Wives In FBI Sting" Archived September 24, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Daily Mail
  26. ^ "Three Orthodox Jewish Rabbis Convicted of Conspiracy to Kidnap Jewish Husbands in Order to Force Them to Consent to Religious Divorces" Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Apr 21, 2015; U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation
  27. ^ Ross, Brian (2009-02-11). "Kidnapping Capital of the U.S.A." ABC News. Retrieved 2013-02-05.
  28. ^ "Business Horizons". FindArticles.com. 14 May 2011. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012.
  29. ^ Quinones, Sam (2009-02-12). "Phoenix, kidnap-for-ransom capital". Latimes.com. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
  30. ^ U.S. Department of Justice Office of the Inspector General Audit Division (2012). Report GR-60-12-006 Review of the Phoenix Police Department's 2008 Kidnapping Statistic reported in Department of Justice Grant Applications (PDF).
  31. ^ Sedlack, Andrea J. (2002). "National Estimates of Missing Children: An Overview". NISMART Series Bulletin: 7, 10. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
  32. ^ Rachel Briggs (Nov 2001). "The Kidnapping Business". Guild of Security Controllers Newsletter. Retrieved 2011-01-10.
  33. ^ a b IKV Pax Christi (July 2008). "Kidnapping is a booming business" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-20. Retrieved 2011-01-10.
  34. ^ RiskMap Report 2015 - Kidnap and extortion overview (PDF). controlrisks.com. p. 122. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-01-31. Retrieved 2015-01-30.
  35. ^ "Counterpunch.org". Counterpunch.org. 2004-09-30. Archived from the original on 2011-07-26. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
  36. ^ NGO Coordination committee for Iraq
  37. ^ "Highbeam.com". Highbeam.com. Archived from the original on 2007-05-24. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
  38. ^ "news.bbc.co.uk". BBC News. 2001-06-27. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
  39. ^ "Facts about Kidnapping". Free Legal Advice. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
  40. ^ "Military Personnel – Logros de la Política Integral de Seguridad y Defensa para la Prosperidad" (PDF) (in Spanish). mindefensa.gov.co. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-13.
  41. ^ "Colombia kidnappings down 92% since 2000, police say". bbc.com. 28 December 2016.
  42. ^ Dickerson, Marla; Sanchez, Cecilia (Aug 5, 2008). "Mexican police linked to rising kidnappings". LA Times. Retrieved 2011-01-10.
  43. ^ "Unprecedented increase in Somali pirate activity". Commercial Crime Services. 21 Oct 2009. Archived from the original on 2010-12-16. Retrieved 2011-01-09.

Further reading

External links

2014 kidnapping and murder of Israeli teenagers

On 12 June 2014, three Israeli teenagers were kidnapped at the bus/hitchhiking stop at the Israeli settlement of Alon Shvut in Gush Etzion, in the West Bank, as they were hitchhiking to their homes. The three teens were Naftali Frenkel (16, from Nof Ayalon), Gilad Shaer (16, from Talmon), and Eyal Yifrah (19, from Elad).Gilad Shaer called a police emergency hotline to report the kidnapping. The emergency call recording, initially under a gag order, was leaked to the public. After Shaer's whispered message "They kidnapped me", the taped call also recorded shouting in Arabic from the kidnappers and several volleys of automatic gunfire. Within days, Israeli investigators, though lacking conclusive proof, strongly suspected the teenagers had been killed, and, if so, knew where the victims' bodies would probably have been dumped.

The Israel Defense Forces initiated Operation Brother's Keeper (Hebrew: מבצע שובו אחים‎, Mivtza Shuvu Ahim) in search of the three teenagers. As part of the operation, in the following 11 days Israel arrested around 350 Palestinians, including nearly all of Hamas' West Bank leaders. Five Palestinians were killed during the military operation.On 15 June, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said that the teens had been kidnapped by Hamas, which Hamas denied. Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas maintained that as of 22 June there was no evidence that Hamas was behind the kidnapping.On 25 July, BBC correspondent Jon Donnison tweeted that Israeli police spokesman Mickey Rosenfeld stated that the kidnappings did not occur on the orders of, or with the knowledge of the Hamas leadership, and that the crime was the action of a "lone cell". Sheera Frenkel had reported similar views from Israel and Palestinian sources some ten days earlier. Rosenfeld later denied having used the words "lone cell".On 5 August, Israel said that it had arrested Hussam Qawasmeh, a cousin of Marwan Qawasmeh, on 11 July, who is suspected of having organized the killing of the three teenagers. According to court documents, Qawasmeh stated that Hamas members in Gaza financed the recruitment and arming of the killers. Hussam Qawasmeh's lawyers stated that he confessed under "heavy torture" from Israeli security services, Shin Bet. Qawasmeh's lawyer stated "What he said during interrogation was that he was responsible for ordering the kidnapping", and that "[t]he orders came from him personally."On 26 June, the Israel Security Agency released the identities of two Hamas suspects in the kidnapping. Both ISA and Palestinian authorities said that the two men have been missing since the night of the kidnapping, and the ISA stated that both had engaged in terrorism, been arrested, and served time in the past, and were considered suspects immediately after the kidnapping. A senior Palestinian intelligence official said off the record that their disappearance constituted clear evidence the two suspects have links with the abduction.On 30 June, search teams found the bodies of the three missing teenagers in a field north-west of Hebron. They had apparently been shot dead shortly after the abduction. Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu vowed a tough response to the killings.On 20 August 2014, a Hamas official Salah al-Arouri, who had been publicly identified as the mastermind of the operation several days after the kidnapping, on 19 June, said that the organization's armed wing, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, was behind the kidnapping and murder. The Shin Bet had been investigating him in the belief that he ran a major Hamas network in the West Bank, headed by Riad Nasser of Deir Qadis, near Ramallah, and that he was behind the kidnapping. Following this line of investigation may have delayed the capture of Hussam al-Qarasme, who was only arrested on 10 July. al-Arouri, one of the founders of Hamas's military wing, made his comments at a conference in Istanbul, where he lives in exile. The Israeli Defense establishment thinks that Arouri is unconnected with the kidnapping, and was boasting. Hamas leader Khaled Mashal said that some Hamas members had kidnapped and murdered the Israeli teens but stated that they were not acting on orders from the Hamas leadership, which he said, were "not aware of this action taken by this group of Hamas members in advance" and the first he heard about it was through the Israeli investigation into the events. Meshaal, who has headed Hamas' exiled political wing since 2004, has denied being involved in the "details" of Hamas "military issues". He praised the kidnappers hoping the action could lead to the release of Palestinian prisoners. According to J.J. Goldberg, the military indictment contains no evidence of orders from Hamas itself and strengthens the thesis that the incident was organized by the Qawasmeh family alone from start to finish. According to Amos Harel and Chaim Levinson, the kidnappers planned to wait a few days, then contact senior Hamas operatives in the Hebron area, to manage the hostage and negotiate a prisoner swap with Israel. In their view it appears doubtful that any senior Hamas official would have been ready to accept that kind of risk.On 23 September 2014, after Israel killed the two suspects, Marwan Qawasmeh and Amar Abu-Isa (aka Amer Abu Aysha) in a shootout, IDF Chief Lt. Gen. Benny Gantz announced that Operation Brother's Keeper "has come to an end."On 6 January 2015, Hussam Qawasmeh, a member of Hamas, was jailed and sentenced to three life terms in prison for the murders. He must also pay $63,000 in compensation to the victims' families.

2015 kidnapping and beheading of Copts in Libya

On February 12, 2015, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) released a report in their online magazine Dabiq showing photos of 21 Egyptian Coptic Christian construction workers that they had kidnapped in the city of Sirte, Libya, and whom they threatened to kill to "avenge the [alleged] kidnapping of Muslim women by the Egyptian Coptic Church". The men, who came from different villages in Egypt, 13 of them from Al-Our, Minya Governorate, were kidnapped in Sirte in two separate attacks on December 27, 2014, and in January 2015. This was not the first time that Egyptians in Libya have been the subject of abuse for political reasons, a pattern that goes back to the 1950s.Earlier, in 2014, a militia group in eastern Libya declared its affiliation with ISIL and then took over parts of Derna in late 2014. People allied to the group claimed responsibility for attacks across the country, including the Corinthia Hotel attack in January 2015.On April 19, 2015, ISIL released another video in which they murdered about 30 Ethiopian Christians.

Abu Sayyaf

Abu Sayyaf ( (listen); Arabic: جماعة أبو سياف‎; Jamāʿat Abū Sayyāf, ASG; Filipino: Grupong Abu Sayyaf), unofficially known as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – Philippines Province, is a Jihadist militant and pirate group that follows the Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam. It is based in and around Jolo and Basilan islands in the southwestern part of the Philippines, where for more than four decades, Moro groups have been engaged in an insurgency seeking to make the province independent. The group is considered violent and was responsible for the Philippines' worst terrorist attack, the bombing of Superferry 14 in 2004, which killed 116 people. The name of the group is derived from the Arabic abu (Arabic: أبو‎) ("father of"), and sayyaf (Arabic: سيّاف‎) ("swordsmith"). As of 2012, the group was estimated to have between 200 and 400 members, down from 1,250 in 2000. They use mostly improvised explosive devices, mortars and automatic rifles.

Since its inception in 1991, the group has carried out bombings, kidnappings, assassinations and extortion. They have been involved in criminal activities, including kidnapping, rape, child sexual assault, forced marriage, drive-by shootings, extortion and drug trafficking. The goals of the group "appear to have alternated over time between criminal objectives and a more ideological intent".The group has been designated as a terrorist group by Australia, Canada, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom and the United States. From 15 January 2002 – 24 February 2015, fighting Abu Sayyaf became a mission of the American military's Operation Enduring Freedom and part of the Global War on Terrorism. Several hundred United States soldiers were stationed in the area to mainly train local forces in counter-terror and counter-guerrilla operations, but, following a status of forces agreement and under Philippine law, they were not allowed to engage in direct combat.The group was founded by Abdurajak Abubakar Janjalani, and led after his death in 1998 by his younger brother Khadaffy Janjalani until his death in 2006. On 23 July 2014, Abu Sayyaf leader Isnilon Hapilon swore an oath of loyalty to Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the leader of ISIL. In September 2014, the group began kidnapping people for ransom, in the name of ISIL.

Ariel Castro kidnappings

The Ariel Castro kidnappings took place between 2002 and 2004 when three young women — Michelle Knight, Amanda Berry, and Georgina "Gina" DeJesus — were kidnapped by Ariel Castro and held captive in his home in the Tremont neighborhood of Cleveland, in the U.S. state of Ohio. They were subsequently imprisoned until May 6, 2013, when Berry escaped with her then-six-year-old daughter and contacted the police. Knight and DeJesus were rescued by responding officers and Castro was arrested within hours.

On May 8, 2013, Castro was charged with four counts of kidnapping and three counts of rape. Castro pleaded guilty to 937 criminal counts of rape, kidnapping, and aggravated murder as part of a plea bargain. He was sentenced to life plus 1,000 years in prison without the possibility of parole. One month into his sentence, Castro committed suicide by hanging himself with bed sheets in his prison cell.

Bride kidnapping

Bride kidnapping, also known as bridenapping, marriage by abduction or marriage by capture, is a practice in which a man abducts the woman he wishes to marry. Bride kidnapping has been practiced around the world and throughout history. It continues to occur in countries in Central Asia, the Caucasus region, and parts of Africa, and among peoples as diverse as the Hmong in Southeast Asia, the Tzeltal in Mexico, and the Romani in Europe.

In most nations, bride kidnapping is considered a sex crime rather than a valid form of marriage. Some types of it may also be seen as falling along the continuum between forced marriage and arranged marriage. The term is sometimes used to include not only abductions, but also elopements, in which a couple runs away together and seeks the consent of their parents later; these may be referred to as non-consensual and consensual abductions respectively. However, even when the practice is against the law, judicial enforcement remains lax in some areas. Bride kidnapping occurs in various parts of the world, but it is most common in the Caucasus and Central Asia. Bride kidnapping is often (but not always) a form of child marriage. It may be connected to the practice of bride price, and the inability or unwillingness to pay it.Bride kidnapping is distinguished from raptio in that the former refers to the abduction of one woman by one man (and his friends and relatives), and is still a widespread practice, whereas the latter refers to the large scale abduction of women by groups of men, possibly in a time of war (see also war rape).

Some cultures today maintain symbolic bride kidnapping ritual as part of traditions surrounding a wedding, in a nod to the practice of bride kidnapping which may have figured in that culture's history. According to some sources, the honeymoon is a relic of marriage by capture, based on the practice of the husband going into hiding with his wife to avoid reprisals from her relatives, with the intention that the woman would be pregnant by the end of the month.

Chibok schoolgirls kidnapping

On the night of 14–15 April 2014, 276 female students were kidnapped from the Government Secondary School in the town of Chibok in Borno State, Nigeria. Responsibility for the kidnappings was claimed by Boko Haram, an extremist terrorist organization based in northeastern Nigeria. 57 of the schoolgirls managed to escape over the next few months and some have described their capture in appearances at international human rights conferences. A child born to one of the girls and believed by medical personnel to be about 20 months old also was released, according to the Nigerian president's office.Since then hopes were raised on various occasions that the 219 remaining girls might be released. Newspaper reports suggested that Boko Haram was hoping to use the girls as negotiating pawns in exchange for some of their commanders in jail.In May 2016, one of the missing girls, Amina Ali, was found. She claimed that the remaining girls were still there, but that six had died. A further 21 girls were freed in October 2016, while another was rescued the next month. Another was found in January 2017. 82 more girls were freed in May 2017. One of the girls was rescued in January 2018.

Child abduction

Child abduction or child theft is the unauthorized removal of a minor (a child under the age of legal adulthood) from the custody of the child's natural parents or legally appointed guardians.

The term child abduction includes two legal and social categories which differ by their perpetrating contexts: abduction by members of the child's family or abduction by strangers:

Parental child abduction is the unauthorized custody of a child by a family relative (usually one or both parents) without parental agreement and contrary to family law ruling, which may have removed the child from the care, access and contact of the other parent and family side. Occurring around parental separation or divorce, such parental or familial child abduction may include parental alienation, a form of child abuse seeking to disconnect a child from targeted parent and denigrated side of family. This is, by far, the most common form of child abduction.

Abduction or kidnapping by strangers (by people unknown to the child and outside the child's family) is rare. Some of the reasons why a stranger might kidnap an unknown child include:

extortion to elicit a ransom from the parents for the child's return

illegal adoption, a stranger steals a child with the intent to rear the child as their own or to sell to a prospective adoptive parent

human trafficking, stealing a child with the intent to exploit the child themselves or through trade to someone who will abuse the child through slavery, forced labor, or sexual abuse.

murder

David Carpenter

David Joseph Carpenter (born May 6, 1930), a.k.a. the Trailside Killer, is an American serial killer known for stalking and murdering several people on hiking trails in state parks near San Francisco, California. Carpenter killed at least ten people, with one attempted victim, Steven Haertle, surviving. He used a .38 caliber handgun in all but one of the killings; a .44 caliber handgun was used in the killing of Edda Kane on Mount Tamalpais.

German Autumn

The German Autumn (German: Deutscher Herbst) was a series of events in Germany in late 1977 associated with the kidnapping and murder of industrialist Hanns Martin Schleyer, president of the Confederation of German Employers' Associations (BDA) and the Federation of German Industries (BDI), by the Red Army Faction (RAF) insurgent group, and the hijacking of the Lufthansa airplane Landshut by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP). They demanded the release of ten RAF members detained at the Stammheim Prison plus two Palestinian compatriots held in Turkey and US$15 million in exchange for the hostages. The assassination of Siegfried Buback, the attorney-general of West Germany on 7 April 1977, and the failed kidnapping and murder of the banker Jürgen Ponto on 30 July 1977, marked the beginning of the German Autumn. It ended on 18 October, with the liberation of the Landshut, the death of the leading figures of the first generation of the RAF in their prison cells, and the death of Schleyer.

The phrase "German Autumn" is derived from the 1978 film Deutschland im Herbst (Germany in Autumn), a German omnibus film whose segments covered the social atmosphere during late 1977, while offering different critical perspectives and arguments pertaining to the situation. The directors involved were Heinrich Böll, Hans Peter Cloos, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Alexander Kluge, Maxmiliane Mainka, Edgar Reitz, Katja Rupé, Volker Schlöndorff, Peter Schubert and Bernhard Sinkel. Kluge and Beate Mainka-Jellinghaus edited the film.

Groom kidnapping

Groom kidnapping, colloquially known as Pakaruah shaadi or Jabaria shaadi, is a phenomenon in the western parts of Bihar, and eastern Uttar Pradesh states in India, wherein eligible bachelors are abducted by the bride's family and later forcefully married, to avoid heavy dowry costs. Considering the traditional regard for the marriage sacrament, most such marriages are not annulled. Additionally, the groom may suffer criminal charges under Indian dowry law, and end up fighting lengthy legal battles.

The practice started becoming noticeable towards the late 20th century, as dowry costs became prohibitive and organized gangs came forward to carry out the abductions. In 2009, 1224 kidnappings for marriage were reported in Bihar, carried out on behalf of the families of the brides.

Juliana of the Netherlands

Juliana (Dutch pronunciation: [ˌjyliˈjaːnaː]; Juliana Louise Emma Marie Wilhelmina; 30 April 1909 – 20 March 2004) was Queen of the Netherlands from 1948 until her abdication in 1980.

Juliana was the only child of Queen Wilhelmina and Prince Henry. From birth she was heir presumptive to the Dutch throne. She was educated privately. In 1937, she married Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld with whom she had four children: Beatrix, Irene, Margriet, and Christina.

She reigned for nearly 32 years. Her reign saw the decolonization of Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) and Suriname and their independence from the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Upon her death at the age of 94, she was the longest-lived former reigning monarch in the world.

Kidnapping of David Rohde

David Stephenson Rohde, a journalist for The New York Times, and two associates were kidnapped by members of the Taliban in November 2008. Rohde was in Afghanistan doing research for a book. After being held captive for eight months, in June 2009, Rohde and one of his associates escaped and made their way to safety.

During his captivity, Rohde's colleagues at The New York Times appealed to other members of the news media not to publish any stories reporting on the abduction. Their intentions in doing so were to maximize Rohde's chances for survival and/or release.

Kidnapping of Elizabeth Smart

Elizabeth Ann Smart was kidnapped at age fourteen on June 5, 2002, by Brian David Mitchell from her home in the Federal Heights neighborhood of Salt Lake City, Utah. She was held captive by Mitchell and his wife, Wanda Barzee, on the outskirts of Salt Lake City, and later, in San Diego County, California. Her captivity lasted approximately nine months before she was discovered in Sandy, Utah, approximately 18 miles (29 km) from her home.

Smart was abducted from her home at knifepoint by Mitchell, while her younger sister, Mary Katherine, pretended to be asleep. Mitchell, who claimed to be a religious preacher, held Smart at a camp in the woods with Barzee, where he repeatedly raped her. During her captivity, Smart accompanied her captors in public on various occasions and went largely unrecognized by those she came in contact with.Since her abduction, Smart has gone on to become an advocate for missing persons and victims of sexual assault. Barzee was sentenced to 15 years in federal prison in 2010 for her role in the kidnapping and abduction, although was granted early release on September 19, 2018, for previously uncredited time served. Extensive disputes over Mitchell's competence to stand trial lasted several years before he was deemed mentally capable in 2010, though he was diagnosed by forensic psychologists as having antisocial and narcissistic personality disorders. Mitchell was sentenced to life in prison in 2011.

Kidnapping of Jaycee Dugard

The kidnapping of Jaycee Dugard occurred on June 10, 1991, in Meyers, California. Dugard, 11 years old, was abducted from a street while walking to a school bus stop. Searches began immediately after her disappearance, but no reliable leads were generated despite the fact that her stepfather, Carl Probyn, witnessed her kidnapping and chased the kidnappers on his mountain bike. Dugard remained missing until 2009, when a convicted sex offender, Phillip Garrido, visited the University of California, Berkeley campus in Berkeley accompanied by two girls on August 24 and 25 that year. The unusual behavior of the trio sparked an investigation that led Garrido's parole officer to order him to take the two girls to a parole office in Concord, California, on August 26. He was accompanied by a woman identified as Jaycee Dugard, 29 years old.

Phillip, 58, and his wife, Nancy Garrido, 54, of Antioch, were arrested by police for kidnapping, imprisonment, and sexual assault. On April 28, 2011, they pleaded guilty to Dugard's kidnapping and sexual assault. Law enforcement officers believe Dugard was kept in concealed tents, sheds, and lean-tos in an area behind the Garridos' house in Antioch for 18 years. During such time, Dugard bore two daughters, 11 and 15 at the time of her reappearance. On June 2, 2011, Garrido was sentenced to 431 years to life imprisonment; his wife, Nancy, received 36 years to life. Garrido is a person of interest in at least one other San Francisco Bay Area missing person case.

In 2010, the State of California awarded the Dugard family US$20 million. In 2011, Dugard wrote an autobiography titled A Stolen Life. Her second book, Freedom: My Book of Firsts, was published in 2016. According to interviews, she remains single, focusing on herself, her children, and her family. Her exact location has not been told to the public.

Kidnapping of Shannon Matthews

On 19 February 2008, Shannon Louise Matthews (born 9 September 1998), a nine-year-old girl, was reported missing in Dewsbury, West Yorkshire, England. The search for her became a major missing person police operation which was compared to the disappearance of Madeleine McCann. Shannon was found alive and well on 14 March 2008 at a Batley Carr house belonging to 39-year-old Michael Donovan, uncle of Craig Meehan – the boyfriend of the kidnapped girl's mother, Karen Matthews.

The kidnapping was subsequently discovered to have been planned by Karen and Donovan to generate money from the publicity. Donovan—also known as Paul Drake—was to have eventually "found" Shannon, taken her to a police station and claimed the reward money, which would be split between Donovan and the child's mother. Donovan was arrested at the scene, and charged with kidnapping and false imprisonment. Karen was charged with child neglect and perverting the course of justice on 8 April 2008. Their joint trial at Leeds Crown Court commenced on 11 November 2008 and concluded on 4 December with both defendants found guilty. They were both given eight-year prison sentences.Meehan was convicted of possessing child pornography which was discovered on his computer during the investigation, but had nothing to do with the kidnapping.

Lindbergh kidnapping

On March 1, 1932, Charles Augustus Lindbergh Jr., 20-month-old son of aviator Charles Lindbergh and Anne Morrow Lindbergh, was abducted from the crib in the upper floor of his home in Highfields in East Amwell, New Jersey, United States. On May 12, the child's corpse was discovered by a truck driver off the side of a nearby road.In September 1934, a German immigrant carpenter named Richard Hauptmann was arrested for the crime. After a trial that lasted from January 2 to February 13, 1935, he was found guilty of first-degree murder and sentenced to death. Despite his conviction, he continued to profess his innocence, but all appeals failed and he was executed in the electric chair at the New Jersey State Prison on April 3, 1936. Newspaper writer H. L. Mencken called the kidnapping and trial "the biggest story since the Resurrection." Legal scholars have referred to the trial as one of the "trials of the century". The crime spurred Congress to pass the Federal Kidnapping Act, commonly called the "Lindbergh Law", which made transporting a kidnapping victim across state lines a federal crime.

Machine Gun Kelly

George Kelly Barnes (July 18, 1895 – July 18, 1954), better known by his nickname "Machine Gun Kelly", was an American gangster from Memphis, Tennessee, during the prohibition era. His nickname came from his favorite weapon, a Thompson submachine gun. He is most well known for the kidnapping of the oil tycoon and businessman Charles F. Urschel in July 1933, from which he and his gang collected a $200,000 ransom. Urschel had collected and left considerable evidence that assisted the subsequent FBI investigation, which eventually led to Kelly's arrest in Memphis, Tennessee, on September 26, 1933. His crimes also included bootlegging and armed robbery.

Shanghaiing

Shanghaiing or crimping is the practice of kidnapping people to serve as sailors by coercive techniques such as trickery, intimidation, or violence. Those engaged in this form of kidnapping were known as crimps. The related term press gang refers specifically to impressment practices in Great Britain's Royal Navy.

Suicide door

A suicide door is the slang term for an automobile door hinged at its rear rather than the front. Such doors were originally used on horse-drawn carriages, but are rarely found on modern vehicles, primarily because they are widely perceived as being unsafe.

Popularized in the custom car trade, the term is (understandably) avoided by major automobile manufacturers in favor of alternatives such as "coach doors" (Rolls-Royce), "FlexDoors" (Opel), "freestyle doors" (Mazda), "rear access doors" (Saturn), and "rear-hinged doors" (preferred technical term).

Types of crime
Classes
Against the person
Against property
Against public order
Against the state
Against justice
Inchoate offenses
Classes of crimes
Elements of crimes
Inchoate offences
Defences
Offences against the person
Sexual offences
Public order offences
Offences against property
Forgery, personation and cheating
Offences against justice
Other common law areas

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.