Kidd-class destroyer

The Kidd-class destroyers were a series of four guided missile destroyers (DDGs) based on the Spruance class. The Kidds were designed as more advanced multipurpose ships, in contrast to their predecessor's focus on anti-submarine warfare, adding considerably enhanced anti-aircraft capabilities.[1] Originally ordered for the former Imperial Iranian Navy, the contracts were canceled when the 1979 Iranian Revolution began, and the ships were completed for the United States Navy. Because they were equipped with heavy-duty air conditioning and other features that made them suitable in hot climates, they tended to be used in the Middle East, specifically the Persian Gulf itself.[2] During their service with the U.S. Navy from the 1980s to the late 1990s, the ships were popularly known as the "Ayatollah" class.[3] They were decommissioned and sold to the Republic of China Navy as the Kee Lung class.

Kidd-class destroyer
Kee Lung (DDG-1801) and Ma Kong (DDG-1805) shipped in Zhongzheng Naval Base 20130504b
Class overview
Name: Kidd-class destroyer
Builders: Ingalls Shipbuilding, Pascagoula, Mississippi
Operators:
Preceded by: Spruance class
Succeeded by: Arleigh Burke class
Built: 1978
In commission:
Completed: 4
Active: 4 (Taiwan)
General characteristics
Type: guided missile destroyer
Displacement:
  • Light: 7,289 t (7,174 long tons; 8,035 short tons)
  • Full: 9,783 t (9,628 long tons; 10,784 short tons)
  • Dead Weight: 2,494 t (2,455 long tons; 2,749 short tons)
Length: 563 ft (172 m)
Beam: 55 ft (17 m)
Draught: 31.5 ft (9.6 m)
Propulsion: 4 × General Electric LM2500 gas turbines, 2 shafts, 80,000 shp (60 MW)
Speed: 33 knots (61 km/h; 38 mph)
Range:
  • 6,000 nautical miles (11,000 km; 6,900 mi) at 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph)
  • 3,300 nautical miles (6,100 km; 3,800 mi) at 30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph)
Sensors and
processing systems:
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
Armament:
Aircraft carried: 2 SH-60/S-70C(M)-1/2 LAMPS III helicopters
Aviation facilities: Flight deck and enclosed hangar for up to two medium-lift helicopters

History

These ships were originally ordered by the last Shah (king) of Iran for service in the Persian Gulf, in an air defence role. The Shah was overthrown in the Iranian Revolution, prior to Iran accepting delivery of the ships, causing the United States Navy to integrate the vessels into its own fleet.

Each ship in the class was named after a U.S. Navy Admiral who had died in combat in the Pacific in World War II:

In 1988–90, the Kidds received the "New Threat Upgrade", which allowed cooperative engagement with Aegis Ticonderoga-class cruisers, enabling the cruisers to control the Kidds' surface-to-air missiles in flight while the destroyers remained electronically silent. However, the arrival of the Aegis-equipped Arleigh Burke-class destroyers led to the accelerated retirement of the Kidd class.[2][4]

All four ships were decommissioned from the U.S. Navy in the late 1990s, and were initially offered for sale to Australia in 1997 for A$30 million each.[5] In 1999, the offer was rejected, based on extensive problems the Royal Australian Navy had encountered during the acquisition of two surplus Newport-class tank landing ships from the U.S. Navy in 1994.[5] After the Australian refusal, the four ships were offered to Greece, which also refused.[5]

Sale and reactivation

In 2001, the U.S. authorized the reactivation and sale of all four ships to the Republic of China. All four have been transferred to the Republic of China (Taiwan) Navy under the Kuang Hua VII program. They were sold for a total price of US$732 million with upgraded hardware, overhaul, activation, and training, included a reduced missile loadout of 148 SM-2 Block IIIA and 32 RGM-84L Block II Harpoon anti-ship missiles.[6] The reactivation was done in Charleston, South Carolina, by VSE/BAV.[7]

Kee Lung-class destroyers

The first two ships, ex-Scott and ex-Callaghan, arrived at Su-ao, a military port in eastern Taiwan, in December 2005, and were named Kee Lung and Su Ao in a commissioning ceremony on 17 December 2005. Following the tradition of ship class naming, ROCN has referred these vessels as Kee Lung-class destroyers. The remaining two units, ex-Kidd and ex-Chandler, were delivered in 2006, and named Tso Ying and Ma Kong, respectively.

The opposition-led Legislature Yuan originally allocated only enough money to purchase half of the SM-2 missiles that the destroyers can carry; a further purchase of 100 supplemental SM-2MRs was included in the 2007 annual budget to ensure all four ships had a full load of SM-2.

By end of 2008, Su Ao was spotted to have eight HF-3 AShMs installed in place of eight Harpoon AShMs.[8] It has been speculated from 2014 on that a navalized Sky Bow missile system, currently planned for an upcoming shipbuilding programme that involves the procurement of up to 15 general purpose frigates and three or four air defense destroyers[9][10], will also be replacing the Standard Missile system on these vessels. No plan for any Mk 26-compatible version of the Sky Bow III missile is ever known to have existed.

Ships in class

Name Hull No. Crest Builder Laid Down Launched Commissioned Decommissioned Status
Kidd DDG-993 USS Kidd (DDG-993) crest Ingalls Shipbuilding 26 June 1978 11 August 1979 27 March 1981 12 March 1998 Sold to Taiwan, 30 May 2003; commissioned as ROCS Tso Ying (DDG-1803)
Callaghan DDG-994 USS Callaghan (DDG-994) crest 23 October 1978 1 December 1979 29 August 1981 31 March 1998 Sold to Taiwan, 30 May 2003; commissioned as ROCS Su Ao (DDG-1802)
Scott DDG-995 USS Scott (DDG-995) crest 12 February 1979 1 March 1980 24 October 1981 10 December 1998 Sold to Taiwan, 30 May 2003; commissioned as ROCS Kee Lung (DDG-1801)
Chandler DDG-996 USS Chandler (DDG-996) crest 7 May 1979 28 June 1980 13 March 1982 23 September 1999 Sold to Taiwan, 30 May 2003; commissioned as ROCS Ma Kong (DDG-1805)

See also

References

  1. ^ DDG-993 KIDD-class, archived from the original on 9 March 2016
  2. ^ a b Kidd Class, Destroyer History Foundation, archived from the original on 14 March 2016
  3. ^ Chris Bishop, ed. (1988). The Encyclopedia of World Sea Power. New York: Crescent Books. p. 94. ISBN 0-517-65342-7.
  4. ^ Spruance Class, archived from the original on 14 March 2016
  5. ^ a b c McPhedran, Ian (5 November 1999). "Navy told US ships too risky". Herald Sun. News Corporation. p. 26.
  6. ^ "DDG-993 KIDD-class". GlobalSecurity.Org. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
  7. ^ "Vsebav completes reactivation of ex-Kidd class guided missile destroyers". PR Newswire. Retrieved 25 November 2010.
  8. ^ luke822's album, archived from the original on 20 October 2012, Photo of ship-mounted Hsiung Feng-III Anti-ship missiles taken at Su Ao Harbour
  9. ^ ROC Navy "Year 2020" plan (Traditional Chinese)
  10. ^ Industry briefing released by Navy Command Headquarters, Ministry of National Defense ROC (Traditional Chinese)

External links

Carrier battle group

A carrier battle group (CVBG) consists of an aircraft carrier (designated CV) and its large number of escorts, together defining the group. The first naval task forces built around carriers appeared just prior to and during World War II. The Imperial Japanese Navy, IJN, was the first to assemble a large number of carriers into a single task force, known as Kido Butai. This task force was used with devastating effect in the Imperial Japanese Navy's attack on Pearl Harbor. Kido Butai operated as the IJN's main carrier battle group until four of its carriers were sunk at the Battle of Midway. In contrast, the United States Navy deployed its large carriers in separate formations, with each carrier assigned its own cruiser and destroyer escorts. These single-carrier formations would often be paired or grouped together for certain assignments, most notably the Battle of the Coral Sea and Midway. By 1943, however, large numbers of fleet and light carriers became available, which required larger formations of three or four carriers. These groups eventually formed the Fast Carrier Task Force, which became the primary battle unit of the U.S. Fifth and Third Fleets.

With the construction of the large 'super carriers' of the Cold War era, the practice of operating each carrier in a single formation was revived. During the Cold War, the main role of the CVBG in case of conflict with the Soviet Union would have been to protect Atlantic supply routes between the United States and Europe, while the role of the Soviet Navy would have been to interrupt these sea lanes, a fundamentally easier task. Because the Soviet Union had no large carriers of its own, a situation of dueling aircraft carriers would have been unlikely. However, a primary mission of the Soviet Navy's attack submarines was to track every allied battle group and, on the outbreak of hostilities, sink the carriers. Understanding this threat, the CVBG expended enormous resources in its own anti-submarine warfare mission.

General Electric LM2500

The General Electric LM2500 is an industrial and marine gas turbine produced by GE Aviation. The LM2500 is a derivative of the General Electric CF6 aircraft engine.

The LM2500 is available in 3 different versions:

The LM2500 delivers 33,600 shaft horsepower (shp) (25,060 kW) with a thermal efficiency of 37 percent at ISO conditions. When coupled with an electric generator, it delivers 24 MW of electricity at 60 Hz with a thermal efficiency of 36 percent at ISO conditions.

The improved, 3rd generation, LM2500+ version of the turbine delivers 40,500 shp (30,200 kW) with a thermal efficiency of 39 percent at ISO conditions. When coupled with an electric generator, it delivers 29 MW of electricity at 60 Hz with a thermal efficiency of 38 percent at ISO conditions.

The latest, 4th generation, LM2500+G4 version was introduced in November 2005 and delivers 47,370 shp (35,320 kW) with a thermal efficiency of 39.3 percent at ISO conditions.As of 2004, the U.S. Navy and at least 29 other navies had used a total of more than one thousand LM2500/LM2500+ gas turbines to power warships. Other uses include hydrofoils, hovercraft and fast ferries.

In 2012, GE developed an FPSO version to serve the oil and gas industry's demand for a lighter, more compact version to generate electricity and drive compressors to send natural gas through pipelines.

Guided missile destroyer

A guided-missile destroyer is a destroyer designed to launch guided missiles. Many are also equipped to carry out anti-submarine, anti-air, and anti-surface operations. The NATO standard designation for these vessels is DDG. Nations vary in their use of destroyer D designation in their hull pennant numbering, either prefixing or dropping it altogether. The U.S. Navy has adopted the classification DDG in the American hull classification system.

In addition to the guns, a guided-missile destroyer is usually equipped with two large missile magazines, usually in vertical-launch cells. Some guided-missile destroyers contain powerful radar systems, such as the United States’ Aegis Combat System, and may be adopted for use in an anti-missile or ballistic-missile defense role. This is especially true of navies that no longer operate cruisers, so other vessels must be adopted to fill in the gap.

List of ship launches in 1979

The list of ship launches in 1979 includes a chronological list of all ships launched in 1979.

List of ship launches in 1980

The list of ship launches in 1980 includes a chronological list of all ships launched in 1980.

Mark 26 missile launcher

The Mark 26 Guided Missile Launching System (GMLS) was a United States Navy fully automated system that stows, handles, and launches a variety of missiles. The system supported RIM-66 Standard, RUR-5 ASROC, and potentially other weapons. The Mark 26 had the shortest reaction time and the fastest firing rate of any comparable dual arm shipboard launching system at the time. With only one man at the control console, a weapon can be selected, hoisted to the guide arm, and launched. Several mods (0 to 5) provided magazine capabilities of 24 to 64 missiles.

New Threat Upgrade

New Threat Upgrade (NTU) was a United States Navy program to improve and modernize the capability of existing cruisers and destroyers equipped with Terrier and Tartar anti-aircraft systems, keeping them in service longer. It was a key component of then-President Ronald Reagan's 600-ship Navy plan.

RIM-24 Tartar

The General Dynamics RIM-24 Tartar was a medium-range naval surface-to-air missile (SAM), and was among the earliest surface-to-air missiles to equip United States Navy ships. The Tartar was the third of the so-called "3 T's", the three primary SAMs the Navy fielded in the 1960s and 1970s, the others being the RIM-2 Terrier and RIM-8 Talos.

RIM-66 Standard

The RIM-66 Standard MR (SM-1MR/SM-2MR) is a medium-range surface-to-air missile (SAM), with a secondary role as anti-ship missile, originally developed for the United States Navy (USN). A member of the Standard Missile family of weapons, the SM-1 was developed as a replacement for the RIM-2 Terrier and RIM-24 Tartar that were deployed in the 1950s on a variety of USN ships. The RIM-67 Standard (SM-1ER/SM-2ER) is an extended range version of this missile with a solid rocket booster stage.

ROCS Kee Lung (DDG-1801)

ROCS Kee Lung (基隆, DDG-1801) is the lead ship of her class of guided-missile destroyers currently in active service of Republic of China Navy.

ROCS Ma Kong (DDG-1805)

ROCS Ma Kong (馬公, DDG-1805) is a Kee Lung-class guided-missile destroyer currently in active service of Republic of China Navy. It is named after Ma Kong City, Penghu Island, a port city and the location of an important ROCN base.

She was formerly the American Kidd-class destroyer USS Chandler (DDG-996) which was decommissioned from the United States Navy in September 1999 and sold to the Republic of China Navy on 30 May 2003.

ROCS Su Ao (DDG-1802)

ROCS Su Ao (蘇澳, DDG-1802) is a Kee Lung-class destroyer guided-missile destroyer currently in active service of the Republic of China Navy. Su Ao was formerly American Kidd-class destroyer USS Callaghan (DDG-994), which was decommissioned from the United States Navy in 1998. For some time after the ship's 30 May 2003 purchase, Su Ao was tentatively named Ming Teh (明德), following the example of Chi Teh (紀德), but it was later decided to be named Su Ao, after the Su-Ao naval base in eastern Taiwan.

Tartar Guided Missile Fire Control System

The Tartar Guided Missile Fire Control System is an air defense system developed by the United States Navy to defend warships from air attack. Since its introduction the system has been improved and sold to several United States allies.

USS Callaghan (DDG-994)

USS Callaghan (DD/DDG-994) was the second ship of the Kidd class of destroyers operated by the U.S. Navy. Derived from the Spruance class, these vessels were designed for air defense in hot weather. She was named for Rear Admiral Daniel J. Callaghan, who was killed in action aboard his flagship, the heavy cruiser San Francisco, during the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal on 13 November 1942.

Originally to be named Daryush, the ship was ordered by the Shah of Iran, but was undelivered when the 1979 Iranian Revolution occurred. Subsequent to this, the U.S. Navy elected to commission her and her sister ships for service in the Persian Gulf and Mediterranean Sea, as they were equipped with heavy-duty air conditioning and were also well suited to filtering sand and the NBC warfare contaminants.

USS Chandler

Two ships in the United States Navy have been named USS Chandler. The first was named for William E. Chandler and the second for Theodore E. Chandler.

USS Chandler (DD-206), was a Clemson-class destroyer, commissioned in 1919, served in World War II and decommissioned in 1945.

USS Chandler (DDG-996), was a Kidd-class destroyer, commissioned in 1982 and decommissioned in 1999. She was transferred to Taiwan.

USS Chandler (DDG-996)

USS Chandler (DDG-996) was the final ship in the Kidd class of guided-missile destroyers operated by the U.S. Navy. Derived from the Spruance class, these vessels were designed for air defense in hot weather. She was named after Rear Admiral Theodore E. Chandler.

Originally named Andushirvan, the ship was originally ordered by the Shah of Iran, but was undelivered when the 1979 Iranian Revolution occurred. Subsequent to this, the U.S. Navy elected to commission her for service in the Persian Gulf and Mediterranean Sea, as she was equipped with heavy-duty air conditioning and was also well suited to filtering sand and the results from NBC warfare. She was commissioned in 1982.

Chandler was decommissioned in 1999. She was transferred to the Republic of China, renamed Wu Teh (DDG-1805) in 2004, and finally recommissioned as ROCS Ma Kong (DDG-1805) in 2006.

USS Scott

USS Scott refers to several ships of the U.S. Navy:

USS Keith (DE-241) was originally named USS Scott

USS Scott (DE-214), a Buckley-class destroyer escort, named for Robert R. Scott.

USS Scott (DDG-995), a Kidd-class destroyer named for Rear Admiral Norman Scott.

USS Scott (DDG-995)

USS Scott (DDG-995) was a Kidd-class destroyer of the United States Navy. She was named for Rear Admiral Norman Scott, who was killed during a surface action at the First Naval Battle of Guadalcanal (sometimes referred to as the Battle of Friday the 13th) aboard USS Atlanta, winning a posthumous Medal of Honor for his actions.

Originally named Nader, Scott was ordered by the Shah of Iran, but was undelivered at the time of the Iranian Revolution and the U.S. Navy elected to commission her and her sister ships for service in the Persian Gulf. The destroyers were equipped with heavy-duty air conditioning and were also well suited to filtering sand and the results from NBC warfare. She was commissioned in 1981.

Scott completed a major re-fit in Philadelphia in 1988 that focused on upgrading its radar and fire control tracking system.

Scott was decommissioned from the U.S. Navy on 10 December 1998.

Kidd-class destroyers
 United States Navy
 Republic of China Navy
Kee Lung class
 Imperial Iranian Navy

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