Kickball (also known as soccer baseball in most of Canada[1]) is a game and league game, similar to baseball, invented in the United States by Nicholas C Seuss. As in baseball, one team tries to score by having its players return a ball from home base to the field and then circle the bases, while the other team tries to stop them by tagging them "out" with the ball before they can return to the home base. Instead of hitting a small, hard ball with a bat, players kick an inflated rubber ball; this makes it more accessible to young children. As in baseball, teams alternate half-innings. The team with the most runs after a predefined number of innings wins.

Kickball is a popular playground game and is typically played among young, school-age children. The lack of both specialized equipment and highly skill-based positions (like pitcher) makes the game an accessible introduction to other sports. It is just as popular among adults, who are more commonly known to play similar games like softball and baseball.

"The game seems to afford equal enjoyment to the children and it gives a better understanding of the national game (Baseball), and at the same time affords them an exercise that is not too violent and is full of fun."[2]

Upward Bound (3654408771)
Adults playing kickball.


Kickball, originally called "Kick Baseball", was invented as early as 1917 by Nicholas C Seuss, Supervisor of Cincinnati Park Playgrounds in Cincinnati, Ohio.[3] Seuss submitted his first documented overview of the game which included 12 rules and a field diagram in The Playground Book, published in 1917. Kickball is referred to as "Kick Base Ball" and "Kick Baseball" in this book.[4]

Vintage Early KickBall Hutch Cincinnati
Example of a vintage kickball. This example is manufactured by Hutch Sporting Goods Inc. Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.

Around 1920–1921 "Kick Ball" was used by physical education teachers in public schools to teach young boys and girls the basics of baseball. Around this time, the ball that was used was a soccer ball or volleyball. It was played by ten to thirty players and the field included a "Neutral Zone": an area not to be entered until the ball has actually been kicked. There was no pitcher as the ball would be kicked from the home area, which was a 3 ft circle. The ball must pass beyond the 5 foot line. Base-runners could only advance one base on infield balls. Teams would switch sides only after all team members have kicked.[5]

Kickball 0644
A game in Madison, Wisconsin, 2006
Girls playing kickball in Central Park, New York City, 1973

During this time, it was played on the same field as baseball except that there was only one base corresponding to a baseball diamond's 2nd base. Multiple players could be on base at a time, but all needed to get home before the last kicker kicked and the kicking order had retired.[6]

There were also two short stop player positions: one between 1st and 2nd and the other between 2nd and 3rd. Home plate was marked by a 3 ft by 4 ft rectangle on the ground.[7]

Published in April 1922, Daniel Chase; Supervisor of Physical Education for the New York State Department of Education, describes the earliest known account of adults playing kickball. This game took place at a conference of rural teachers in Mooers Forks, Clinton County, NY where Daniel was teaching games that the teachers could in turn teach to their pupils. They did not have a ball, so they made one out of an old stocking and some rags. The ball was about 7 to 8 inches long and tied off with an old shoelace. The construction of this makeshift ball was demonstrated to the rural teachers by Mr. Braddock Wells. The teachers were assigned numbers to create teams; odd numbers on one team and even numbers on the other. The team captains chose college names to represent each team name. The odds chose Yale & the evens chose Princeton. The game of "Kick Baseball" was the last game they played at the conference to decide the championship for the day. 10 players were chosen for each team and the remaining were organized into a cheering section. Yale kicked first. On the field there was no pitcher, but an extra short-stop between first and second. Only three innings were completed in the heat that day, with Yale ending up as the victor winning 3 to 2. The cheering sections showed great sportsmanship, applauding all good plays impartially.[8]

American World War II correspondent Ernie Pyle reported it being played by U.S. soldiers during the Tunisia Campaign, 1942–43.[9]

"Kick Ball" was promoted as an informal game for soldiers by the United States Department of the Army as early as 1943. In this variant of the game, all kicks had to be home runs, by beating the kicked ball back to home after consecutive passes to all basemen before throwing them out at home.[10]


The game is typically played on a softball diamond with an 8.5 inch to 16 inch diameter inflated rubber ball. As in baseball/softball, the game uses 3 bases, a pitcher's mound, and a home plate. Sometimes, in less formal games, the field is not bounded by a fence as in softball or baseball, but is open. This may result in informal rule changes to accommodate the field. Also it can be played on a rectangular blacktop area with chalk or paint outlines.

Kicking strategy

The objective of kickball is to win by scoring more runs than the opposing team, thus kicking (or offensive) strategy is very important. Assuming the rules allow bunting, one popular strategy for putting runners in scoring position is to place fast kickers, particularly those with the ability to bunt the ball in specific directions, near the top of the line-up. Using this strategy, a team might put a fast player who can bunt down the third base line first in the line-up. That player would bunt down the third base line, forcing either the third baseman, the pitcher, or the catcher to field the ball and throw the runner out at first base. This is an optimal play with no outs and no players on base because throwing the ball from third to first base accurately is difficult. A well-placed bunt on the ground also removes the opportunity for the defense to catch the ball in the air for an easy out and can create fielding confusion between the third baseman, the pitcher and the catcher. The runner would then advance as far as their kick and the opposing team's defensive play allows him or her to advance. The next kicker would take stock of the base to which the first kicker has advanced and would try to kick the ball to a place that will maximize the first runner's ability to advance and the second kicker's ability to get on base safely. For instance, if the first kicker is on first base, the second kicker might also kick down the third base line. This would give both kickers a good chance of safely advancing to the next base.

Ideally, a team would have runners on base and fewer than two outs once three to four kickers have kicked following this bunting strategy. At that point in the line-up, it is advantageous to place one or two kickers who can kick the ball into the outfield. The time it takes to field a ball from the outfield will ideally allow runners on base to score, even if the ball is caught in the outfield.

Kickball in the United States

In the past, kickball was mostly considered a child's game in the United States, although recently many US cities have created kickball leagues only for adults. Some US cities have multiple organized leagues for adults over 21 years of age. It gained prominence in the 1970s.[11]

Kickball outside the United States

Kickball is popular among youth in South Korea. Known as balyagu [발야구 (foot-baseball)], it is a staple in PE classes within elementary schools. Kickball is referred to as Soccer-Baseball, Chinese Baseball or California Kickball in some parts of Canada. In Japan kickball is played by elementary school students and is known as キックベース(Kickbase).[12] In England, the variation is often played in P.E. lessons in schools and is referred to as 'Football-Rounders', a mix of Association Football and Rounders.[13]

See also


  1. ^ "This is How Canada Talks - The 10 and 3". 24 August 2017. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
  2. ^ Play, Comprising Games for the Kindergarten, Playground, Schoolroom and College. Little, Brown. 1920. pp. 71–72. Retrieved 2013-09-20.
  3. ^ The Playground. Playground and Recreation Association of America. 1969. p. 240. Retrieved 2010-04-19.
  4. ^ The Playground Book. Cincinnati Board of Education (Ohio), Cincinnati (Ohio). Board of Park Commissioners. 1917. pp. 82–83. Retrieved 2014-09-17.
  5. ^ Mind and Body – A Monthly Journal devoted to Phycical Education Vol 27. The Mind and Body Publish Company. 1921. pp. 205–206. Retrieved 2010-04-19.
  6. ^ University of the State of New York Bulletin, Issue 724. fortnightly. 1920. pp. 131–132. Retrieved 2010-04-19.
  7. ^ School, Church, and Home Games. Association Press. 1922. p. 41. Retrieved 2010-04-19.
  8. ^ The Instructor, Volume 31. F.A. Owen Publishing Company. 1922. p. 26. Retrieved 2013-09-19.
  9. ^ Here Is Your War; Story of G.I. Joe. H. Holt, New York. 1943. p. 28. ISBN 9780803287778. Retrieved 2012-02-21.
  10. ^ Informal games for soldiers. U.S. government printing office. 1943. p. 6. Retrieved 2013-09-18.
  11. ^ Parker, Suzi (25 August 2013). "The Zombies and Non-Prophets of Little Rock". Al Jazeera. New York City. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  12. ^ "21 kick Baseball". Toyama Prefectural Board of Education. Retrieved 14 November 2013.
  13. ^ "secondary Intra-school/Level 1 Resource" (PDF). Your School Games. Retrieved 15 February 2016.

External links

A Thorn for Every Heart

A Thorn for Every Heart (often abbreviated to ATFEH) is a post-hardcore band from Chino Hills, California.

Bill Taunton Stadium

Baker Field at Bill Taunton Stadium is a baseball stadium in Willmar, Minnesota that is home to the Willmar Stingers of the Northwoods League, a collegiate summer baseball league. Bill Taunton Stadium is also home to Willmar High School baseball, Ridgewater College baseball, two local VFW teams, and an American Legion team. The stadium annually hosts a kickball game between the Willmar Stingers and teachers at nearby Roosevelt Elementary on the last day of school. In 2010, the stadium hosted the Minnesota State Amateur Baseball Tournament.The current grandstand was put up in 2005 as part of $1 million in renovations after a tornado wiped out the old grandstand. Enhancements were made to the ballpark for the 2017 season: a home plate club area featuring tables with swivel seats; a ballpark beach experience with festive games such as bean bags and jenga; a newly created dugout suite for smaller groups; and permanent sun shades and new aluminum barstools with seatbacks in all hospitality suites.Baker Field at Bill Taunton Stadium is named for two prominent local figures. Bill Taunton was a grocerer, Air Force veteran, community leader, and Big Ten Umpire instrumental in bringing the American Legion State Tournament to Willmar three times, including 1979, the first full season for this ball field. Orville Baker was Willmar Parks Superintendent from 1956 until his death in 1977. When the previous ballpark, Hodapp Field, was torn down for a new football stadium, the park board dedicated the new baseball field to his memory.

Cambridge Common

Cambridge Common is a public park in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. It is located near Harvard Square and borders on several parts of Harvard University. This park is a popular place to play kickball, softball, soccer, and frisbee. The north end of the park has a large playground. The park is maintained by the Cambridge Department of Public Works.

Central Park (Atlanta)

Central Park is a 17.37 acre park in the Fourth Ward West neighborhood of the Old Fourth Ward in Atlanta, Georgia. It was known as Bedford-Pine Park prior to 1999. The open space was created as a result of City of Atlanta Urban Renewal in the 1960s.

The Atlanta community comes to this park for casual use and coordinated events such as free movie nights that occur on certain days in the spring time and weekly during the summer season. Food festivals and work out classes are also hosted at Central Park, “Yoga in The Park” that bring the community together and are great activities for individuals that visit Atlanta, Georgia.In addition to the Music Midtown festivals being held in Central Park in the early 2000s, Central Park also currently hosts the two very widely known music festivals, Shaky Knees as well as Shaky Beats in May. These music festivals last for 3–4 days and are a huge attraction and activity for both residents and tourists.

This park is a sports oriented park with basketball courts, tennis courts, multi-purpose fields (soccer, football, kickball, softball) and a small playground for children. Plus, it has an indoor recreation center with a basketball court, small weight room and meeting rooms.In August 2013, a visioning process (master plan) for the park was started and involves the Fourth Ward West neighborhood association, Friends of Central and Renaissance Parks, Park Pride and the City of Atlanta Parks and Recreation Department.

Hundreds of park users were interviewed and the final plan should be available by the summer of 2014. This plan may include sand volleyball courts, outdoor fitness equipment, walking/fitness path, new basketball courts, splash pad for children and a regulation size baseball field. All of this to be handled in phases as funding is made available.

Football in Bulgaria

Football (Bulgarian: футбол, futbol) is the most popular sport in Bulgaria. It was introduced in 1893–1894 by Swiss gymnastics teachers invited to the country. A football (initially called ритнитоп, ritnitop, "kickball") match was first played in Varna's High School for Boys in 1894, where it was introduced by Georges de Regibus, and the game was brought to Sofia by Charles Champaud the following year. The rules of the game were published in Bulgarian by Swiss teachers in the Uchilishten pregled magazine in 1897, and football continued to gain popularity in the early 20th century. Among the founders of the Turkish team Galatasaray S.K. in 1905 was the Bulgarian Lycée de Galatasaray student Blagoy Balakchiev, and the first Bulgarian club, Futbol Klub, was established in Sofia in 1909 on the initiative of Sava Kirov. PFC Botev Plovdiv was founded in 1912, PFC Slavia Sofia in 1913, and PFC Levski Sofia in 1914. The Bulgaria national football team debuted on 21 May 1924 in a 1924 Summer Olympics qualifier, losing 0–6 to Austria in Vienna. What is today PFC CSKA Sofia was established on 5 May 1948. In the 1950s and 1960s Bulgarian football achieved its biggest Olympic success, being third in the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne and second in the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City, also finishing fifth in Euro 1968. In 1962, Bulgaria first qualified for a FIFA World Cup tournament, in total of seven participations to date. In the 1986 FIFA World Cup, Bulgaria did reach the round of 16. Then, in the 1994 FIFA World Cup, came Bulgaria's biggest World Cup success, the fourth place, the elimination of reigning world champions Germany and Hristo Stoichkov's top goalscorer prize.

Hearts and Unicorns

Hearts and Unicorns is the first full-length release by California indie rock band Giant Drag. It was released September 13, 2005 in the U.S. and February 27, 2006 in the UK on Kickball Records.

Interscope Records

Interscope Records is an American record label owned by Universal Music Group through its Interscope Geffen A&M imprint. It was founded in late 1990 by Jimmy Iovine and Ted Field as a $20 million joint venture with Warner Music Group's Atlantic Records. At the time, it differed from most record companies by giving decision-making authority to its A&R staff and allowing artists and producers complete creative control. It had its first hit records less than a year after it was founded, and achieved profitability in 1993. Iovine served as chairman and CEO until May 2014, when he was succeeded by John Janick.In 1992, Interscope acquired the exclusive rights to market and distribute releases from the hardcore hip hop label Death Row, whose artists included 2Pac, Dr. Dre, and Snoop Dogg, a decision which ultimately put the label at the center of the mid-1990s gangsta rap controversy. As a result, Time Warner, then-owner of Atlantic, severed ties with Interscope by selling its 50 percent stake back to Field and Iovine for $115 million in 1995. In 1996, 50% of the label was acquired for a reported $200 million by MCA Inc., later known as Universal Music Group.

Artists who have signed to Interscope include Eminem,

Ice Cube, The 1975, Madonna, Billie Eilish, Juice WRLD, Børns, Carly Rae Jepsen, Daya, Ellie Goulding, Gwen Stefani, Imagine Dragons, Jamie N Commons, Kali Uchis, J. Cole, Kendrick Lamar, Lady Gaga, Lana Del Rey, Lil Mosey, Machine Gun Kelly, Maroon 5, OneRepublic, Rae Sremmurd, BLACKPINK, Selena Gomez, Skylar Grey, Tame Impala, U2,, X Ambassadors, and Zedd.

Invisible runner rule

An invisible runner, or ghost runner, is a device used in baseball-style games, including softball, stickball, and kickball, when a team has fewer than four players. Used primarily in schoolyard games, the rule is called into action when a live runner on base is next in line to bat. The specifics of the rule vary regionally, and are often negotiated prior to the start of the game.

It's Hard to Move You

It's Hard to Move You is the second full-length album by A Thorn for Every Heart. The band began recording in late 2005/early 2006 with producer Matt Squire (Panic! at the Disco, The Receiving End of Sirens). They initially claimed to be done recording in January 2006 with a summer 2006 release date, but was sent back to the studio by the label, recording additional songs with Mark Hoppus of Blink-182. The album was later set to be released on July 31, 2007, but was shelved when Interscope shut-down Kickball Records, leaving all Kickball projects in limbo and A Thorn For Every Heart without a label. The album was leaked completely online on June 1st, 2007.

The title "It's Hard to Move You" is a quote from Summer So Bleak, a track on A Thorn for Every Heart's debut release, Silence Is Golden (EP).

Kokon Chomonjū

Kokon Chomonjū (古今著聞集), lit. A Collection of Notable Tales Old and New, is a Kamakura-period collection of setsuwa. It was compiled by Tachibana Narisue (橘成季) and completed in 1254. The twenty volumes are divided by subject into thirty chapters: chapter 16 concerns art and painting and 17 kemari or "kickball". Of the 726 tales, nearly two-thirds are set in the Heian period. In a note between tales 721 and 722, Narisue states that "the original aim of this collection was to collect fine stories about music and poems, and depict them as if in paintings".


Matball, known in some areas as Big Base,, is a sport, usually played indoors but also sometimes outdoors. Matball is a safe haven game (sometimes termed a bat-and-ball game, despite the lack of a bat) similar to kickball, but with the key difference that bases are larger, often gym mats (giving the names "matball" and "big base"), and multiple runners can be on each base.

McCarren Park

McCarren Park is a public park in Brooklyn, New York City. It is located in both Williamsburg, Brooklyn and Greenpoint, Brooklyn and is bordered by Nassau Avenue, Bayard Street, Lorimer Street and North 12th Street. It is operated by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Opened in 1906 and originally named Greenpoint Park, the park was renamed McCarren Park in 1909 after State Senator Patrick H. McCarren (1849–1909), who began work as a cooper at Williamsburg sugar refineries and eventually became the Democratic boss of Brooklyn. The park is a popular destination for recreational softball, volleyball, soccer, handball, and other games. It is also used for sunbathing and dog-walking. In late 2004, the park's track was resurfaced and has been a popular destination for running enthusiasts.

Events on the baseball fields of McCarren Park include members of the punk and indie communities gathering to participate in league-controlled kickball tournaments. For several years, the baseball fields have hosted tournament play for the Hasidim; weekend afternoons provide T-ball and softball games for organized area youth groups; Latino families and friends often utilize the fields to play soccer and volleyball into the late hours of the night. Since June 2003, McCarren Park has hosted SummerScreen in McCarren Park, and The Renegade Craft Fair, a DIY event. The fair attracts artists and creative types, featuring a wide range of merchandise such as reconstructed clothing, comic books, tote bags and other handmade goods.


NOOMA is a series of short films produced by Flannel promoting spiritual reflections on individual life experiences. The name NOOMA comes from a phonetic spelling of the Greek word πνευμα (pneuma), meaning "wind", "spirit", or "breath". The video series consists of 24 videos created from 2002-2009 featuring Christian teacher Rob Bell.

Olly olly oxen free

Olly olly oxen free is a catchphrase used in children's games such as hide and seek, capture the flag, and kick the can to indicate that players who are hiding can come out into the open without losing the game, that the position of the sides in a game has changed (as in which side is in the field or which side is at bat or "up" in baseball or kickball), or, alternatively, that the game is entirely over.

The Dictionary of American Regional English says that the phrase may be derived from all ye, all ye outs in free, all the outs in free, or possibly calling all the "outs" in free; in other words, all who are out may come in without penalty. Various calls used for such purposes have gone by the collective name of "ollyoxalls" in some places. Others speculate that the phrase may be a corruption of a hypothetical and ungrammatical German phrase alle, alle, auch sind frei (all, all, also are free).Variants besides Alle alle auch sind frie include Olly olly in come free, All ye early merchants free, Olly olly umphrey, Olly olly ee, Olly olly auction free, Outtie outtie let's be free, Olly olly oxen free, All-y all-y all set free, All-ye all-ye in come free, Ally alley ocean free, Olly olly ogden free, and Olly olly all's in freeOlly olly oxen free or a variant is the name of songs released by the Ted Weems orchestra (sung by a young Perry Como), Terry Scott Taylor (on the album Imaginarium: Songs from the Neverhood) and Amanda Palmer (on the album Theatre Is Evil), of a film starring Katharine Hepburn, and a video game by Night School Studio.

It's been used on television, in episodes of The Twilight Zone, Star Trek, Seinfeld, and Will & Grace; in song lyrics ("Stranger than Fiction" by Bad Religion, "Alpha Desperation March" by The Mountain Goats, "Papercut Skin" by The Matches, "Bad Girls Club" by Falling in Reverse, "It's Raining" by Peter, Paul and Mary); films (Lavender, Happy Death Day, The Nines;, Mother's Day); the comic strip Peanuts; and the novels Mother Night and Thirteen Reasons Why

Orange Is the New Black (season 6)

The sixth season of the American comedy-drama television series Orange Is the New Black premiered on Netflix on July 27, 2018, at 12:00 am PDT in multiple countries. It consists of thirteen episodes, each between 50 and 84 minutes. The series is based on Piper Kerman's memoir, Orange Is the New Black: My Year in a Women's Prison (2010), about her experiences at FCI Danbury, a minimum-security federal prison. The series is created and adapted for television by Jenji Kohan.This season takes place in a maximum security prison, after the inmates incite a riot at Litchfield Penitentiary during the previous season, and the season deals with the fallout from the riot. The main story arc of the season involves a gang-like war between two cell blocks which is sparked by the feud between two sisters. Meanwhile, the guards play a fantasy sport game called "fantasy inmate". Several supporting characters who appeared throughout the first five seasons are absent in this season due to change in setting, but this season introduces several new characters featured in maximum security.

Rejuvenile (book)

Rejuvenile: Kickball, Cartoons, Cupcakes, and the Reinvention of the American Grown-up is a non-fiction book written by author Christopher Noxon and published by Crown Publishing in 2006. The term "rejuvenile" refers to people who "cultivate tastes and mindsets traditionally associated with those younger than themselves."

Vivian Girls

Vivian Girls were an American band from Brooklyn, New York. The only consistent members were Cassie Ramone and Katy Goodman, on guitar and bass respectively, whereas the group had several drummers throughout its history. They took their name from a book by Henry Darger.


Waka may refer to:

Waka (poetry), a genre of Japanese poetry

Waka (canoe), canoes of the Māori of New Zealand

Waka taua, a Māori war canoe

Waka (Ethiopia)

WAKA, a CBS television station in Selma, Alabama

World Adult Kickball Association

Waka/Jawaka, a 1972 album by Frank Zappa

Waka language an Adamawa language of Nigeria

Wakawaka language of Queensland, Australia (extinct)

Cyclone Waka, a tropical cyclone that formed to the northwest of Samoa on December 29, 2001

Waka music, a musical genre from Yorubaland of Nigeria

Huaca or wak'a, in the Quechua language, a class of sacred objects

Waka, a character in Ōkami

Waka, a pronunciation for angle brackets

Waka (mythology), Hawaiian lizard goddessIn places:

Waka, Texas, a community in the Texas Panhandle

El Perú (Maya site) or Waka', Maya ruins in Guatemala

Waka National Park, a national park in central Gabon

World Adult Kickball Association

The World Adult Kickball Association (WAKA) is the largest sanctioning body for the recreational sport of adult kickball. WAKA was founded in Washington, D.C., in 1998 and now has leagues in over 35 states, as well as in countries such as India.

The World Adult Kickball Association (WAKA) was named one of America’s fastest growing private companies by Inc. Magazine in September 2010.

WAKA holds seasonal kickball divisions across the nation. Divisional winners are invited to the annual World Kickball Championship called the Founder's Cup in Las Vegas each October.

Charities are also a staple of the WAKA experience. Each division is encouraged to participate in at least one charitable event each season.

WAKA recently sanctioned a division in Iraq in support of U.S. troops.

WAKA has published official rules for its kickball league. In 2005, WAKA filed a lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia against a rival, DCKickball. In the suit, WAKA claims intellectual property to the official rules of kickball, and seeks $356,000 in compensatory and punitive damages. The lawsuit was settled on April 15, 2008.

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