Kickball

Kickball (also known as soccer baseball in most of Canada[1]) is a game and league game, similar to baseball, invented in the United States by Nicholas C Seuss. As in baseball, one team tries to score by having its players return a ball from home base to the field and then circle the bases, while the other team tries to stop them by tagging them "out" with the ball before they can return to the home base. Instead of hitting a small, hard ball with a bat, players kick an inflated rubber ball; this makes it more accessible to young children. As in baseball, teams alternate half-innings. The team with the most runs after a predefined number of innings wins.

Kickball is a popular playground game and is typically played among young, school-age children. The lack of both specialized equipment and highly skill-based positions (like pitcher) makes the game an accessible introduction to other sports. It is just as popular among adults, who are more commonly known to play similar games like softball and baseball.

"The game seems to afford equal enjoyment to the children and it gives a better understanding of the national game (Baseball), and at the same time affords them an exercise that is not too violent and is full of fun."[2]

Upward Bound (3654408771)
Adults playing kickball.

History

Kickball, originally called "Kick Baseball", was invented as early as 1917 by Nicholas C Seuss, Supervisor of Cincinnati Park Playgrounds in Cincinnati, Ohio.[3] Seuss submitted his first documented overview of the game which included 12 rules and a field diagram in The Playground Book, published in 1917. Kickball is referred to as "Kick Base Ball" and "Kick Baseball" in this book.[4]

Vintage Early KickBall Hutch Cincinnati
Example of a vintage kickball. This example is manufactured by Hutch Sporting Goods Inc. Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.

Around 1920–1921 "Kick Ball" was used by physical education teachers in public schools to teach young boys and girls the basics of baseball. Around this time, the ball that was used was a soccer ball or volleyball. It was played by ten to thirty players and the field included a "Neutral Zone": an area not to be entered until the ball has actually been kicked. There was no pitcher as the ball would be kicked from the home area, which was a 3 ft circle. The ball must pass beyond the 5 foot line. Base-runners could only advance one base on infield balls. Teams would switch sides only after all team members have kicked.[5]

Kickball 0644
A game in Madison, Wisconsin, 2006
GIRLS PLAYING KICKBALL IN CENTRAL PARK - NARA - 551768
Girls playing kickball in Central Park, New York City, 1973

During this time, it was played on the same field as baseball except that there was only one base corresponding to a baseball diamond's 2nd base. Multiple players could be on base at a time, but all needed to get home before the last kicker kicked and the kicking order had retired.[6]

There were also two short stop player positions: one between 1st and 2nd and the other between 2nd and 3rd. Home plate was marked by a 3 ft by 4 ft rectangle on the ground.[7]

Published in April 1922, Daniel Chase; Supervisor of Physical Education for the New York State Department of Education, describes the earliest known account of adults playing kickball. This game took place at a conference of rural teachers in Mooers Forks, Clinton County, NY where Daniel was teaching games that the teachers could in turn teach to their pupils. They did not have a ball, so they made one out of an old stocking and some rags. The ball was about 7 to 8 inches long and tied off with an old shoelace. The construction of this makeshift ball was demonstrated to the rural teachers by Mr. Braddock Wells. The teachers were assigned numbers to create teams; odd numbers on one team and even numbers on the other. The team captains chose college names to represent each team name. The odds chose Yale & the evens chose Princeton. The game of "Kick Baseball" was the last game they played at the conference to decide the championship for the day. 10 players were chosen for each team and the remaining were organized into a cheering section. Yale kicked first. On the field there was no pitcher, but an extra short-stop between first and second. Only three innings were completed in the heat that day, with Yale ending up as the victor winning 3 to 2. The cheering sections showed great sportsmanship, applauding all good plays impartially.[8]

American World War II correspondent Ernie Pyle reported it being played by U.S. soldiers during the Tunisia Campaign, 1942–43.[9]

"Kick Ball" was promoted as an informal game for soldiers by the United States Department of the Army as early as 1943. In this variant of the game, all kicks had to be home runs, by beating the kicked ball back to home after consecutive passes to all basemen before throwing them out at home.[10]

Field

The game is typically played on a softball diamond with an 8.5 inch to 16 inch diameter inflated rubber ball. As in baseball/softball, the game uses 3 bases, a pitcher's mound, and a home plate. Sometimes, in less formal games, the field is not bounded by a fence as in softball or baseball, but is open. This may result in informal rule changes to accommodate the field. Also it can be played on a rectangular blacktop area with chalk or paint outlines.

Kicking strategy

The objective of kickball is to win by scoring more runs than the opposing team, thus kicking (or offensive) strategy is very important. Assuming the rules allow bunting, one popular strategy for putting runners in scoring position is to place fast kickers, particularly those with the ability to bunt the ball in specific directions, near the top of the line-up. Using this strategy, a team might put a fast player who can bunt down the third base line first in the line-up. That player would bunt down the third base line, forcing either the third baseman, the pitcher, or the catcher to field the ball and throw the runner out at first base. This is an optimal play with no outs and no players on base because throwing the ball from third to first base accurately is difficult. A well-placed bunt on the ground also removes the opportunity for the defense to catch the ball in the air for an easy out and can create fielding confusion between the third baseman, the pitcher and the catcher. The runner would then advance as far as their kick and the opposing team's defensive play allows him or her to advance. The next kicker would take stock of the base to which the first kicker has advanced and would try to kick the ball to a place that will maximize the first runner's ability to advance and the second kicker's ability to get on base safely. For instance, if the first kicker is on first base, the second kicker might also kick down the third base line. This would give both kickers a good chance of safely advancing to the next base.

Ideally, a team would have runners on base and fewer than two outs once three to four kickers have kicked following this bunting strategy. At that point in the line-up, it is advantageous to place one or two kickers who can kick the ball into the outfield. The time it takes to field a ball from the outfield will ideally allow runners on base to score, even if the ball is caught in the outfield.

Kickball in the United States

In the past, kickball was mostly considered a child's game in the United States, although recently many US cities have created kickball leagues only for adults. Some US cities have multiple organized leagues for adults over 21 years of age. It gained prominence in the 1970s.[11]

Kickball outside the United States

Kickball is popular among youth in South Korea. Known as balyagu [발야구 (foot-baseball)], it is a staple in PE classes within elementary schools. Kickball is referred to as Soccer-Baseball, Chinese Baseball or California Kickball in some parts of Canada. In Japan kickball is played by elementary school students and is known as キックベース(Kickbase).[12] In England, the variation is often played in P.E. lessons in schools and is referred to as 'Football-Rounders', a mix of Association Football and Rounders.[13]

See also

References

  1. ^ "This is How Canada Talks - The 10 and 3". the10and3.com. 24 August 2017. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
  2. ^ Play, Comprising Games for the Kindergarten, Playground, Schoolroom and College. Little, Brown. 1920. pp. 71–72. Retrieved 2013-09-20.
  3. ^ The Playground. Playground and Recreation Association of America. 1969. p. 240. Retrieved 2010-04-19.
  4. ^ The Playground Book. Cincinnati Board of Education (Ohio), Cincinnati (Ohio). Board of Park Commissioners. 1917. pp. 82–83. Retrieved 2014-09-17.
  5. ^ Mind and Body – A Monthly Journal devoted to Phycical Education Vol 27. The Mind and Body Publish Company. 1921. pp. 205–206. Retrieved 2010-04-19.
  6. ^ University of the State of New York Bulletin, Issue 724. fortnightly. 1920. pp. 131–132. Retrieved 2010-04-19.
  7. ^ School, Church, and Home Games. Association Press. 1922. p. 41. Retrieved 2010-04-19.
  8. ^ The Instructor, Volume 31. F.A. Owen Publishing Company. 1922. p. 26. Retrieved 2013-09-19.
  9. ^ Here Is Your War; Story of G.I. Joe. H. Holt, New York. 1943. p. 28. ISBN 9780803287778. Retrieved 2012-02-21.
  10. ^ Informal games for soldiers. U.S. government printing office. 1943. p. 6. Retrieved 2013-09-18.
  11. ^ Parker, Suzi (25 August 2013). "The Zombies and Non-Prophets of Little Rock". Al Jazeera. New York City. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  12. ^ "21 kick Baseball". Toyama Prefectural Board of Education. Retrieved 14 November 2013.
  13. ^ "secondary Intra-school/Level 1 Resource" (PDF). Your School Games. Retrieved 15 February 2016.

External links

A Thorn for Every Heart

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Cambridge Common

Cambridge Common is a public park in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. It is located near Harvard Square and borders on several parts of Harvard University. This park is a popular place to play kickball, softball, soccer, and frisbee. The north end of the park has a large playground. The park is maintained by the Cambridge Department of Public Works.

Central Park (Atlanta)

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The Atlanta community comes to this park for casual use and coordinated events such as free movie nights that occur on certain days in the spring time and weekly during the summer season. Food festivals and work out classes are also hosted at Central Park, “Yoga in The Park” that bring the community together and are great activities for individuals that visit Atlanta, Georgia.In addition to the Music Midtown festivals being held in Central Park in the early 2000s, Central Park also currently hosts the two very widely known music festivals, Shaky Knees as well as Shaky Beats in May. These music festivals last for 3–4 days and are a huge attraction and activity for both residents and tourists.

This park is a sports oriented park with basketball courts, tennis courts, multi-purpose fields (soccer, football, kickball, softball) and a small playground for children. Plus, it has an indoor recreation center with a basketball court, small weight room and meeting rooms.In August 2013, a visioning process (master plan) for the park was started and involves the Fourth Ward West neighborhood association, Friends of Central and Renaissance Parks, Park Pride and the City of Atlanta Parks and Recreation Department.

Hundreds of park users were interviewed and the final plan should be available by the summer of 2014. This plan may include sand volleyball courts, outdoor fitness equipment, walking/fitness path, new basketball courts, splash pad for children and a regulation size baseball field. All of this to be handled in phases as funding is made available.

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Football (Bulgarian: футбол, futbol) is the most popular sport in Bulgaria. It was introduced in 1893–1894 by Swiss gymnastics teachers invited to the country. A football (initially called ритнитоп, ritnitop, "kickball") match was first played in Varna's High School for Boys in 1894, where it was introduced by Georges de Regibus, and the game was brought to Sofia by Charles Champaud the following year. The rules of the game were published in Bulgarian by Swiss teachers in the Uchilishten pregled magazine in 1897, and football continued to gain popularity in the early 20th century. Among the founders of the Turkish team Galatasaray S.K. in 1905 was the Bulgarian Lycée de Galatasaray student Blagoy Balakchiev, and the first Bulgarian club, Futbol Klub, was established in Sofia in 1909 on the initiative of Sava Kirov. PFC Botev Plovdiv was founded in 1912, PFC Slavia Sofia in 1913, and PFC Levski Sofia in 1914. The Bulgaria national football team debuted on 21 May 1924 in a 1924 Summer Olympics qualifier, losing 0–6 to Austria in Vienna. What is today PFC CSKA Sofia was established on 5 May 1948. In the 1950s and 1960s Bulgarian football achieved its biggest Olympic success, being third in the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne and second in the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City, also finishing fifth in Euro 1968. In 1962, Bulgaria first qualified for a FIFA World Cup tournament, in total of seven participations to date. In the 1986 FIFA World Cup, Bulgaria did reach the round of 16. Then, in the 1994 FIFA World Cup, came Bulgaria's biggest World Cup success, the fourth place, the elimination of reigning world champions Germany and Hristo Stoichkov's top goalscorer prize.

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Invisible runner rule

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Olly olly oxen free

Olly olly oxen free is a catchphrase used in children's games such as hide and seek, capture the flag, and kick the can to indicate that players who are hiding can come out into the open without losing the game, that the position of the sides in a game has changed (as in which side is in the field or which side is at bat or "up" in baseball or kickball), or, alternatively, that the game is entirely over.

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Waka

Waka may refer to:

Waka (poetry), a genre of Japanese poetry

Waka (canoe), canoes of the Māori of New Zealand

Waka taua, a Māori war canoe

Waka (Ethiopia)

WAKA, a CBS television station in Selma, Alabama

World Adult Kickball Association

Waka/Jawaka, a 1972 album by Frank Zappa

Waka language an Adamawa language of Nigeria

Wakawaka language of Queensland, Australia (extinct)

Cyclone Waka, a tropical cyclone that formed to the northwest of Samoa on December 29, 2001

Waka music, a musical genre from Yorubaland of Nigeria

Huaca or wak'a, in the Quechua language, a class of sacred objects

Waka, a character in Ōkami

Waka, a pronunciation for angle brackets

Waka (mythology), Hawaiian lizard goddessIn places:

Waka, Texas, a community in the Texas Panhandle

El Perú (Maya site) or Waka', Maya ruins in Guatemala

Waka National Park, a national park in central Gabon

World Adult Kickball Association

The World Adult Kickball Association (WAKA) is the largest sanctioning body for the recreational sport of adult kickball. WAKA was founded in Washington, D.C., in 1998 and now has leagues in over 35 states, as well as in countries such as India.

The World Adult Kickball Association (WAKA) was named one of America’s fastest growing private companies by Inc. Magazine in September 2010.

WAKA holds seasonal kickball divisions across the nation. Divisional winners are invited to the annual World Kickball Championship called the Founder's Cup in Las Vegas each October.

Charities are also a staple of the WAKA experience. Each division is encouraged to participate in at least one charitable event each season.

WAKA recently sanctioned a division in Iraq in support of U.S. troops.

WAKA has published official rules for its kickball league. In 2005, WAKA filed a lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia against a rival, DCKickball. In the suit, WAKA claims intellectual property to the official rules of kickball, and seeks $356,000 in compensatory and punitive damages. The lawsuit was settled on April 15, 2008.

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