Khujand (Tajik: Хуҷанд, translit. Xujand; Uzbek: Xo‘jand/Хўжанд; Persian: خجند‌‎, translit. Xojand), sometimes spelled Khodjent and known as Leninabad (Tajik: Ленинобод, translit. Leninobod; Persian: لنین‌آباد‌‎, translit. Leninâbâd) in 1936–1991, is the second-largest city of Tajikistan and the capital of the northernmost province of Tajikistan, now called Sughd. Khujand is one of the oldest cities in Central Asia, dating back about 2,500 years. It is situated on the Syr Darya at the mouth of the Fergana Valley and was a major city along the ancient Silk Road, mainly inhabited by ethnic Tajiks. It is proximate to both the Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan borders.


Хуҷанд (in Tajik)
View on the right side of the Syr River
View on the right side of the Syr River
Flag of Khujand

Official seal of Khujand

Khujand is located in Tajikistan
Location in Tajikistan
Coordinates: 40°17′00″N 69°37′00″E / 40.28333°N 69.61667°E
Country Tajikistan
 • City40 km2 (20 sq mi)
 • Metro
2 651.7 km2 (1 023.8 sq mi)
300 m (1,000 ft)
 • City172,700
 • Density4,242.5/km2 (10,988/sq mi)
 • Metro
724 200
Time zoneUTC+5
Area code(s)00 992 3422


Syr Darya Oblast. City of Khodzhend. Market Square WDL10928
Market Square of Khujand in 1860s

Khujand is the site of Cyropolis (Κυρούπολις) which was established when king Cyrus the Great founded the city during his last expedition against the Saka tribe of Massagetae shortly before his death. Alexander the Great later built his furthest Greek settlement near Cyropolis in 329 BC and named it Alexandria Eschate (Greek: Ἀλεξάνδρεια Ἐσχάτη) or "Alexandria The Furthest".[1] The city would form a bastion for the Greek settlers against the nomadic Scythian tribes who lived north of the Syr Darya River. According to the Roman writer Curtius, Alexandria Ultima (Alexandria the Furthest) retained its Hellenistic culture as late as 30 BC.

Глобус и статуя Темурмалика, Худжанд
Sughd Region Museum

The city became a major staging point on the northern Silk Road. It also became a cultural hub and several famous poets and scientists came from this city.

In the early 8th century, Khujand was captured by the forces of the Umayyad Caliphate, under Qutayba ibn Muslim. The city was incorporated into the Umayyad and subsequent Abbasid Caliphates, and a process of Islamicization began. In the late 9th century, however, it reverted to local rule of Turkic governors, and eventually incorporated for a short period into the Samanid Empire. It came under the rule of the Kara-Khanid Khanate in 999 and after the division of Kara Khanids in 1042, it was initially part of Eastern Kara Khanids, and then later passed to the western one. Karakhitans conquered it in 1137, but it passed to Khwarazmshahs in 1211. In AD 1220, it strongly resisted the Mongol hordes and was thus laid to waste - around 20,000 Mongol soldiers surrounded the city and besieged it but a local man opened the doors of the city and let the Mongol army in. In the 14th century, the city was part of the Chagatai Khanate until it was incorporated into the Timurid Dynasty' in the late 14th century, under which it flourished greatly. The Shaybanid dynasty of Bukhara next annexed Khojand, until it was taken over by the Kokand Khanate in 1802, however Bukhara regained it in 1842 until it was lost a few decades later to the Russia.

In 1866, as most of Central Asia was occupied by Russian Empire, the city became part of the General Governorate of Turkestan, under Tsarist Russia. The threat of forced conscription during World War I led to protests in the city in July 1916, which turned violent when demonstrators attacked Russian soldiers.[2]

In 1918 when Turkestan ASSR was dismantled, the city became a part of Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1929 in order to gain a sufficient number of inhabitants for the newly created Soviet Republic of Tajikistan (Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic) the city of Khujand, inhabited mainly by ethnic Tajiks, was transferred by Soviet Communists from Uzbek SSR to the Tajik SSR. The city was renamed Leninabad on 10 January 1936[3] and it remained part of the Soviet Union until 1991.

With the independence of Tajikistan, Khujand became the second largest city in the nation. It reverted to its original name in 1992 after the breakup of the Soviet Union.

In 1996 the city experienced the Ashurov protests during which citizens called for the President, Emomali Rakhmonov to step down. The popular protests were followed by a protest from the city's prisoners, many of whom had been sentenced to long jail terms for minor crimes and who were living in poor conditions. The protest led to the Khujand prison riot in which between 24 and 150 prisoners were killed.

In the early 2000s many residents of Khujand had little to no access to water, and what water they did have was unsafe to drink and had to be boiled. In 2004, The Swiss State Secretariat for Economic Affairs and the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development joined to help improve the situation, providing 32,000 water meters for inhabitants and developing improved access to water. Residents pay for their water supply, which in turn helps Khujand's municipal water company to continue to renovate and improve their services. The project is in its third stage of development, and should be completed by 2017. In comparison to other Central Asian projects aiming to improve access to water, this project is considered a success and has been applied to Kyrgyz cities and towns such as Osh, Jalal-Abad, Karabalta, and Talas, with a possible extension into the Kyrgyz capital of Bishkek.[4]


Khujand (LBD - UTDL) AN2218848
Khujand airport terminal

Khujand Airport has regularly scheduled flights to Dushanbe as well as several international destinations (mainly in Russia). There is also a rail connection between Khujand and Samarkand in Uzbekistan on the way to Dushanbe.[5][6] The city is connected by road to Panjakent in the Zeravshan River Valley as well as Dushanbe via the Anzob Tunnel. As of December 2014 the construction of highway between capital and Khujand has been carrying on. Necessary works like cementation and installation of ventilation equipment are still going on inside the Istiqlol Tunnel, after specialists from the ministry detected an error while analyzing the 40-million-U.S.-dollar project in July.

The 5-km tunnel, located 80 km northwest of Dushanbe and built with assistance from Iran, is also a transit route between Dushanbe and the Uzbek capital of Tashkent. After its completion, the Dushanbe-Khujand highway will open for traffic the whole year round and the transit time is expected to be cut by four to five hours. Previously, particularly during cold seasons, the lack of a direct link between northern and southern Tajikistan often led to disruptions of commercial activities in the region [7]


The city is home to Khujand State University, Tajikistan State University of Law, Business, & Politics, Polytechnical Institute of Technical University of Tajikistan, and Khujand Medical College as well as 2 year technical colleges. Secondary education is funded by the state except for when administered at private institutions. Higher education in universities and colleges is subsidized by the Tajik Ministry of Education.


Khujand is mainly inhabited by ethnic Tajiks. Results of population census carried out in 2010: Tajiks - 84%, Uzbeks - 14%, Russians - 0.4%, and others - 1.6%. Sunni Islam is a mainly practiced religion in the city.[3] The population of the city is 389,400 (Report of Statistical Agency 2016).[3] The population in Khujand agglomeration is 884,900 people (2015).

Cultural sites

Tim Griffin Panjshanbe bazar - 13
Panjshanbe bazar, 2011

The city is home to the Khujand Fortress and Historical Museum of Sughd which has around 1200 exhibitions with most being open to the public.[8] The Sheikh Muslihiddin mausoleum is located on the main square across the Panjshanbe Market (Бозори Панҷшанбе / Persian for "Thursday's Market"), one of the largest covered markets in Central Asia.[9]


Khujand experiences a temperate desert climate (Köppen: BWk) with long, hot summers and short, cool winters. Precipitation is light, and it generally falls in winter and autumn.

Sister cities

See also


  1. ^ Prevas, John. (2004). Envy of the Gods: Alexander the Great's Ill-Fated Journey across Asia, p. 121. Da Capo Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts ISBN 0-306-81268-1.
  2. ^ A Country Study: Tajikistan, Tajikistan under Russian Rule, Library of Congress Call Number DK851 .K34 1997,
  3. ^ a b c About Khujand,
  4. ^ International Crisis Group. "Water Pressures in Central Asia", 11 September 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
  5. ^ Rail Map of Tajikistan,
  6. ^ Trains in Tajikistan, Caravanistan (blog),
  7. ^
  8. ^ Khujand Fortress,
  9. ^ Sheikh Muslihiddin mausoleum, aziana travel,
  10. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Khujand". United Nations. Retrieved 5 January 2011.
  11. ^ "Leninabad, Tajikistan". Retrieved 30 January 2013.


  • Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilue 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265. Draft annotated English translation. [1] (See under the heading for "Northern Wuyi").

External links

Coordinates: 40°17′N 69°38′E / 40.283°N 69.633°E

2015 Tajik League

The 2015 Tajik League is the 24th season of Tajik League, the Tajikistan Football Federation's top division of association football. FC Istiklol are the defending champions, having won the previous season.

2015 Tajikistan Cup

The 2015 Tajik Cup was the 24th edition of the Tajik Cup. The cup winner qualified for the 2016 AFC Cup.

2016 Tajik League

The 2016 Tajik League is the 25th season of Tajik League, the Tajikistan Football Federation's top division of association football. FC Istiklol are the defending champions, having won the previous season.

2016 Tajik Super Cup

The 2016 Tajik Supercup was the 7th Tajik Supercup, an annual Tajik football match played between the winners of the previous season's Tajik League and Tajik Cup. The match was contested by 2015 Tajik League and 2015 Tajik Cup champions, Istiklol, and the 2015 Tajik League Runners-up, Khujand. It was held at Stadium Metallurg 1st District in Tursunzoda four days before the first game of the 2016 Tajik League. Istiklol won the match 3–2 thanks to an 82nd-minute winner from Oleksandr Kablash, his second of the match. After Istiklol took the lead through Kablash, Khujand equalised through Farkhod Tokhirov from the penalty spot, before Davron Ergashev restored Istiklol's lead shortly after. Dilshodzhon Karimov squared the game up midway through the second half, before Kablash's second gave Istiklol their sixth Supercup title.

2016 Tajikistan Cup

The 2016 Tajik Cup was the 25th edition of the Tajik Cup. The cup winner qualified for the 2017 AFC Cup.

2017 Tajik League

The 2017 Tajik League is the 26th season of Tajik League, the Tajikistan Football Federation's top division of association football. FC Istiklol are the defending champions, having won the previous season.

2017 Tajikistan Cup

The 2017 Tajik Cup is the 26th edition of the Tajik Cup. The cup winner qualifies for the 2018 AFC Cup.

The draw of the tournament was held on 22 May 2017.

2018 Tajik Cup

The 2018 Tajik Cup is the 27th edition of the Tajik Cup, the knockout football tournament of Tajikistan. The cup winner qualifies for the 2019 AFC Cup.

2018 Tajik League

The 2018 Tajik League is the 27th season of Tajik League, Tajikistan's top division of association football. The season began on 10 March 2018.

2018 Tajik Super Cup

The 2018 Tajik Supercup was the 9th Tajik Supercup, an annual Tajik football match played between the winners of the previous season's Tajik League and Tajik Cup. The match was contested by 2017 Tajik League champions Istiklol, and the 2017 Tajik Cup champions Khujand. It was held at the Central Stadium in Hisor on 2 March 2018. Istiklol won the match 3–2 thanks to an extra-time winner from Nozim Babadjanov. Khujand led a 2-1 at halftime thanks to goals from Firdavs Chakalov and Agbley Jones, with Istiklol getting one back on the brink of halftime after Chakalov. I the second half Belarusian striker Mikalay Zyanko equalised for Istiklol sending the game in to extra time. At the beginning of the second-half of extra-time Nozim Babadjanov gave Istiklol the lead and completed their comeback to win their 7th Supercup.

2019 Tajik League

The 2019 Tajik League is the 28th season of Tajik League, Tajikistan's top division of association football. The season will begin on 6 April 2019.

Buston, Ghafurov District

Buston (formerly Chkalovsk or Chkalov, Tajik: Чкаловск, translit. Çkalov) is a town in northern Tajikistan. It is located in Ghafurov district of Sughd Province, between the cities of Khujand and Ghafurov. Chkalovsk is a city of provincial subordination, administratively subordinated to the provincial capital of Khujand, not to the district capital of Ghafurov.

The population of Chkalovsk in 2007 is estimated at 22,000.As a result of its involvement in the processing of uranium ore mined nearby, Chkalovsk was a closed city until the collapse of the USSR.

Khujand Airport is located in the town.

The Presidential National Guard of Tajikistan formed one of its new units here.

On February 1, 2016 the Government of Tajikistan decided to rename Chkalovsk into Buston (Бӯстон). According to TASS news agency, it was the last town in Tajikistan with a Russian name.

FK Khujand

FK Khujand (Tajik: Дастаи Футболи Хуҷанд, Dastai Futboli Xujand) is a Tajik football club based in Khujand, currently playing in the Tajik League, the top division in the country.


Inoyat Hojieva (Tajik: Иноят Ҳоҷиева), mostly known as Farzona (Tajik: Фарзона) is a Tajik poet and writer.

Farzona was born on November 3, 1960, in Khujand, Tajikistan. She was influenced by Forough Farrokhzad and other Persian poets, such as Firdowsi and Rumi.

Farzona's works are well known throughout Persian-speaking countries. She is known as Forough of Tajikistan.

Her frequently playful and witty poetry draws on rich traditions of Persian literature in a rather humorous way. In late 1980, she wrote a poem called "To the Nation that Gave Birth to Ahmad Zohir".


Ghafurov (also Gafurov, Tajik: Ғафуров, translit. Ğafurov/Ƣafurov; Russian: Гафуров, translit. Gafurov) is a town in Ghafurov district, Sughd Province, Tajikistan. It has a population of 18100 (2014 estimate), down from 18,900 in the 1989 census. The town was created in 1965, and until 1978 had the name Sovietabad (Russian: Советабад). In that year it was renamed in honor of Bobojon Ghafurovich Ghafurov, commemorating his term of office as the First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Tajikistan from 1946 to 1956.

Ghafurov is the administrative center of Ghafurov district. The city lies a few kilometers southeast of the provincial capital of Khujand near the border with Kyrgyzstan. A chief product of the city is vegetable and fruit preserves. There is also a cotton industry. The nearest train station is Khujand (formerly Leninabad).

Khujand Airport

Khujand International Airport (IATA: LBD, ICAO: UTDL) is an airport serving Khujand, the second-largest city in Tajikistan. Khujand was formerly known as Leninabad (during the Soviet era); hence the IATA code LBD. It is located out of the city, in the nearby town of Chkalovsk.

List of newspapers in Tajikistan

This is a list of newspapers and news agencies in Tajikistan.

Tajikistan Cup

Tajikistan Cup (Tajiki: Ҷоми Тоҷикистон / Jâmi Tâjikistân; Russian: Кубок Таджикистана) is the top knockout tournament of the Tadjikistan football.

Timur Malik

Timur Malik (Persian: تیمور ملک‎) was a statesman in the Khwarazmian Empire, who served as the governor of Khujand in the region of Transoxiana. He is known for his valiant though ultimately unsuccessful defense of Khujand in 1219-1220 during the Mongol invasions, and is hence considered a national hero in Tajikistan.

Climate data for Khujand
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.7
Average high °C (°F) 3.5
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.4
Average low °C (°F) −3.2
Record low °C (°F) −22.8
Average precipitation mm (inches) 15.1
Average precipitation days 11.4 11.0 12.7 12.6 12.0 6.3 4.1 2.6 3.2 6.8 7.4 10.4 100.5
Average relative humidity (%) 77.8 75.4 64.0 56.3 48.7 34.8 33.8 38.4 43.3 55.4 75.2 76.4 56.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 124.0 127.1 167.4 210.0 294.5 357.0 381.3 359.6 300.0 223.2 156.0 102.3 2,802.4
Source #1: World Meteorological Organisation (UN) [10]
Source #2: (temperature mean & extremes, humidity)[11]
Largest cities or towns in Tajikistan
Rank Name Administrative division Pop.
1 Dushanbe Dushanbe 775,800 Qurghonteppa
2 Khujand Sughd 169,700
3 Qurghonteppa Khatlon 101,600
4 Kulob Khatlon 99,700
5 Istaravshan Sughd 58,600
6 Vahdat Region of Republican Subordination 52,900
7 Tursunzoda Region of Republican Subordination 50,900
8 Konibodom Sughd 48,900
9 Isfara Sughd 45,900
10 Panjakent Sughd 40,000
Aini District
Asht District
Ghafurov District
Ghonchi District
Isfara District
Istaravshan District
Konibodom District
Kuhistoni Mastchoh
Mastchoh District
Panjakent District
Jabbor Rasulov
Shahriston District
Spitamen District
Zafarobod District

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