Khorasan Province

Khorasan (Persian: استان خراسانlisten ) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, also called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times) was a province in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area comprising the east and north-east of the Persian Empire. The name Khorāsān is Persian and means "where the sun arrives from."[1] The name was first given to the eastern province of Persia during the Sasanian Empire[2] and was used from the late middle ages in distinction to neighbouring Transoxiana.[3][4][5] The province roughly encompassed the western half of the historical Greater Khorasan.[6] The modern boundaries of the Iranian province of Khorasan were formally defined in the late nineteenth century[2] and the province was divided into three separate administrative divisions in 2004.[7]

Khorasan Province

استان خراسان
Location of Khorasan within Iran (pre-2004)
Location of Khorasan within Iran (pre-2004)
Country Iran
DissolvedSeptember 2004
Time zoneUTC+03:30 (IRST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+04:30 (IRST)
Main language(s)Persian
Golden Dome of Imam Reza shrine and Goharshad Mosque - 1976
The domes of the Imam Reza shrine and the Goharshad Mosque, 1976, at Mashhad, a major city in the former Khorasan and now the capital of the Razavi Khorasan Province
Ferdows Congregation Mosque1
The Ferdows Congregation Mosque at Ferdows city situated in the Iranian province of South Khorasan

History

The name Khorāsān (lit. "sunrise"; "East"; or "land of the rising sun") was originally given to the eastern province of Persia during the Sassanian period.[2] The old Iranian province of Khorasan roughly formed the western half of the historical Greater Khorasan,[8] a region which included parts that are today in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Some of the main historical cities of Persia are located in the older Khorasan: Nishapur and Tus (now in Iran); Merv and Sanjan (now in Turkmenistan); Samarkand and Bukhara (both now in Uzbekistan); Herat and Balkh (now in Afghanistan); and Khujand and Panjakent (now in Tajikistan). The term was also used from the late middle ages–especially in post-Mongol (Chagatai and Timurid) times–to distinguish the region from neighbouring Transoxiana.[9][10][11] The modern Iranian boundaries of the province of Khorasan were defined and formalised in the late nineteenth century.[2]

In August 1968 and September 1978, the region was the scene of two major earthquakes that left 12,000 and 25,000 people dead, respectively. A third major earthquake, the 1997 Qayen earthquake, took place on 10 May 1997 and left 1,567 dead, 2,300 injured, and 50,000 homeless.

Modern divisions of Khorasan

Khorasan was the largest province of Iran until it was divided into three separate provinces in September 2004:[12]

Some parts of the province were added to

Demographics

The major ethnic groups in this region are Fars or Persians with Kurdish tribesmen, Turks and Turkmen as the minorities. Most of the people in the region natively speak closely related modern day dialects of Persian. The largest cluster of settlements and cultivation stretches around the city of Mashhad northwestward, containing the important towns of Quchan, Shirvan, and Bojnurd.

See also

References

  1. ^ Compare Levant and Mashriq.
  2. ^ a b c d "Khorāsān". britannica.com. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
  3. ^ Svat Soucek, A History of Inner Asia, Cambridge University Press, 2000, p.4
  4. ^ C. Edmund Bosworth, (2002), 'CENTRAL ASIA iv. In the Islamic Period up to the Mongols' Encyclopaedia Iranica (online)
  5. ^ C. Edmund Bosworth, (2011), 'MĀ WARĀʾ AL-NAHR' Encyclopaedia Iranica (online)
  6. ^ Dabeersiaghi, Commentary on Safarnâma-e Nâsir Khusraw, 6th Ed. Tehran, Zavvâr: 1375 (Solar Hijri Calendar) 235–236
  7. ^ Online edition, Al-Jazeera Satellite Network. "Iran breaks up largest province". Archived from the original on 20 May 2006. Retrieved 30 April 2006.
  8. ^ Dabeersiaghi, Commentary on Safarnâma-e Nâsir Khusraw, 6th Ed. Tehran, Zavvâr: 1375 (Solar Hijri Calendar) 235–236
  9. ^ Svat Soucek, A History of Inner Asia, Cambridge University Press, 2000, p.4
  10. ^ C. Edmund Bosworth, (2002), 'CENTRAL ASIA iv. In the Islamic Period up to the Mongols' Encyclopaedia Iranica (online)
  11. ^ C. Edmund Bosworth, (2011), 'MĀ WARĀʾ AL-NAHR' Encyclopaedia Iranica (online)
  12. ^ Online edition, Al-Jazeera Satellite Network. "Iran breaks up largest province". Archived from the original on 20 May 2006. Retrieved 30 April 2006.
Belharat Rural District

Belharat Rural District (Persian: دهستان بلهرات‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in Miyan Jolgeh District, Nishapur County, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 11,677, in 3,037 families. The rural district has 21 villages.

Binalud Rural District

Binalud Rural District (Persian: دهستان بينالود‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in the Central District of Nishapur County, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 7,006, in 1,751 families. The rural district has 31 villages.

Fazl Rural District (Razavi Khorasan Province)

Fazl Rural District (Persian: دهستان فضل‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in the Central District of Nishapur County, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 15,323, in 4,400 families. The rural district has 46 villages.

Ghazali Rural District

Ghazali Rural District (Persian: دهستان غزالي‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in Miyan Jolgeh District, Nishapur County, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 8,835, in 2,180 families. The rural district has 19 villages.

Kavir Rural District (South Khorasan Province)

Kavir Rural District (Persian: دهستان كوير‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in Deyhuk District, Tabas County, South Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 3,507, in 1,011 families. The rural district has 21 villages.

Khusf County

Khusf County (Persian: شهرستان خوسف‎) is a county in South Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 24,922, in 7,254 families. The county has two districts (bakhsh): the Central District and Jolgeh-e Mazhan District. The County has two cities: Khusf and Mohammadshahr.

Meyami Rural District (Razavi Khorasan Province)

Meyami Rural District (Persian: دهستان ميامي‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in Razaviyeh District, Mashhad County, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 44,348, in 10,174 families. The rural district has 26 villages.

Miyan Jolgeh District

Miyan Jolgeh District (Persian: بخش میان‌جلگه‎) is a district (bakhsh) in Nishapur County, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 37,117, in 9,417 families. The District has one city: Eshqabad. The District has three rural districts (dehestan): Belharat Rural District, Eshqabad Rural District, and Ghazali Rural District.

Nakhlestan Rural District (South Khorasan Province)

Nakhlestan Rural District (Persian: دهستان نخلستان‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in the Central District of Tabas County, South Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 3,122, in 873 families. The rural district has 3 villages.

North Khorasan Province

North Khorasan Province (Persian: استان خراسان شمالی‎, Ostān-e Khorāsān-e Shomālī) is a province located in northeastern Iran. Bojnord is the capital of the province. The counties of North Khorasan Province are Shirvan County, Esfarayen County, Maneh and Samalqan County, Raz and Jargalan County, Jajarm County, Faruj County, and Garmeh County. North Khorasan is one of the three provinces that were created after the division of Khorasan in 2004.

In 2014 it was placed in Region 5.

Raz and Jargalan County

Raz and Jargalan County (Persian: رازوجرگلان‎) is a county in North Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 55,418, in 12,968 families. The County has one city: Raz. The County has three districts: Gholaman Rural District, Jargalan Rural District, and Raz Rural District.

Razavi Khorasan Province

Razavi Khorasan Province (Persian: استان خراسان رضوی‎, Ostâne Xorâsâne Razavi) is a province located in northeastern Iran. Mashhad is the center and capital of the province. Other cities are Quchan, Dargaz, Chenaran, Sarakhs, Fariman, Torbat-e Heydarieh, Torbat-e Jam, Taybad, Khaf, Roshtkhar, Kashmar, Bardaskan, Nishapur, Sabzevar, Gonabad, Kalat. The counties of Razavi Khorasan Province are Khalilabad County, Mahvelat County, Chenaran County, Dargaz County, Kalat County, Quchan County, Mashhad County, Sarakhs County, Nishapur County, Firuzeh County, Khoshab County, Jowayin County, Joghatai County, Davarzan County, Sabzevar County, Bardaskan County, Bajestan County, Kashmar County, Gonabad County, Khaf County, Roshtkhar County, Taybad County, Bakharz County, Zaveh County, Fariman County, Torbat-e Jam County, Torbat-e Heydarieh County & Torqabeh and Shandiz County. Razavi Khorasan is one of the three provinces that were created after the division of Khorasan Province in 2004. In 2014 it was placed in Region 5 with Mashhad as the location of the region's secretariat.

The Greater Khorasan has witnessed the rise and fall of many dynasties and governments in its territory throughout history. Various tribes of the Arabs, Turks, Kurds, Turkemen and Mongols brought changes to the region time and time again.

Ancient geographers of Iran divided Iran ("Ēranshahr") into eight segments of which the most flourishing and largest was the territory of Greater Khorasan. Esfarayen, among other cities of the province, was one of the focal points for residence of the Aryan tribes after entering Iran.

The Parthian empire was based near Merv in Khorasan for many years. During the Sassanid dynasty the province was governed by a Spahbod (Lieutenant General) called "Padgošban" and four margraves, each commander of one of the four parts of the province.

Khorasan was divided into four parts during the Muslim conquest of Persia, each section being named after the four largest cities, Nishapur, Merv, Herat, and Balkh.

In the year 651, the army of Islamic Arabs invaded Khorasan. The territory remained in the hands of the Abbasid clan until 820, followed by the rule of the Iranian Taherid clan in the year 896 and the Samanid dynasty in 900.

Mahmud of Ghazni conquered Khorasan in 994, and Tuğrul in the year 1037.

In 1507, Khorasan was occupied by Uzbek tribes. After the death of Nader Shah in 1747, it was occupied by the Afghan Durrani Empire centered in Qandahar.

During the Qajar period, Britain supported the Afghans to protect their East India Company. Herat was thus separated from Persia, and Nasser-al-Din Shah was unable to defeat the British to take back Herat. Finally, the Paris Treaty was concluded in 1903 and Iran was compelled not to challenge the British for Herat and other parts of what is today Afghanistan.

Finally Khorasan was divided into two parts: the eastern part, which was the most densely populated region came under British occupation, and the other western section remained part of Iran.Khorasan was the largest province of Iran until it was divided into three provinces on September 29, 2004. The provinces approved by the parliament of Iran (on May 18, 2004) and the Council of Guardians (on May 29, 2004) were Razavi Khorasan, North Khorasan, and South Khorasan.

Razaviyeh District

Razaviyeh District (Persian: بخش رضویه‎) is a district (bakhsh) in Mashhad County, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 67,093, in 15,527 families. The District has one city: Razaviyeh. The District has three rural districts (dehestan): Abravan Rural District, Meyami Rural District, and Pain Velayat Rural District.

Salehabad District (Razavi Khorasan Province)

Salehabad District (Persian: بخش صالح‌آباد‎) is a district (bakhsh) in Torbat-e Jam County, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 43,212, in 9,496 families. The District has one city: Salehabad. The District has four rural districts (dehestan): Bagh-e Keshmir Rural District, Jannatabad Rural District, Qaleh Hamam Rural District, and Salehabad Rural District.

Salehabad Rural District (Razavi Khorasan Province)

Salehabad Rural District (Persian: دهستان صالح آباد‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in Salehabad District, Torbat-e Jam County, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 7,147, in 1,614 families. The rural district has 23 villages.

Sarvelayat District

Sarvelayat District (Persian: بخش سرولایت‎) is a district (bakhsh) in Nishapur County, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 17,962, in 4,805 families. The District has one city: Chekneh. The District has two rural districts (dehestan): Barzanun Rural District and Sarvelayat Rural District.

Sarvelayat Rural District

Sarvelayat Rural District (Persian: دهستان سرولايت‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in Sarvelayat District, Nishapur County, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 10,567, in 2,947 families. The rural district has 35 villages.

Shusef District

Shusef District (Persian: بخش شوسف‎) is a district (bakhsh) in Nehbandan County, South Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 14,183, in 3,769 families. The District has one city: Shusef. The District has two rural districts (dehestan): Arabkhaneh Rural District and Shusef Rural District.

South Khorasan Province

South Khorasan Province (Persian: استان خراسان جنوبی‎ Ostān-e Khorāsān-e Jonūbī ) is a province located in eastern Iran. Birjand is the centre of the province. The other major cities are Ferdows, Tabas and Qaen. In 2014, it was placed in Region 5.This new province, is but the old Quhistan which was included into greater Khorasan in the Iranian administrative planning. However, historically Qohistan forms a separate entity, with a distinct culture, history, environment and ecology.

South Khorasan is one of the three provinces that were created after the division of Khorasan in 2004. While at the beginning, the newly created "South Khorasan" included only Birjand County and some new counties detached from that county (i.e. Nehbandan, Darmian and Sarbisheh), in subsequent years, all northern and western cities and territories of the old Quhistan (such as Qaen, Ferdows and Tabas) have been annexed into the South Khorasan.

South Khorasan Province consists of 11 counties: Birjand County, Ferdows County, Tabas County, Qaen County, Nehbandan County, Darmian County, Sarbisheh County, Boshruyeh County, Sarayan County, Zirkuh County and Khusf County.

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