Kho kho

Kho kho is a popular tag and ancient sport from India. It is played by teams of 12 nominated players out of fifteen, of which nine enter the field who sit on their knees (chasing team), and 3 extra (defending team) who try to avoid being touched by members of the opposing team. It is one of the two most popular traditional tag games in the Indian subcontinent, the other being Kabaddi.[1] Apart from the Indian subcontinent, it is also played by the Indian community in South Africa.[2] Kho-kho, traditional Indian sport, a form of tag, that is one of the oldest forms of outdoor sport, dating back to prehistoric India.

Kho kho
Kho Kho game at a Government school in Haryana, India
First playedIndia
Team members12 players per side, 9 in the field and 3 extra


The word kho seems to be derived from the sanskrit verb root syu- meaning "get up go".

modified form of 'Run Chase', which in its simplest form involves chasing and touching a person. With its origin in Maharashtra, Kho-Kho in ancient times was played on 'raths' or chariots and was known as Rathera[3].

The present appearance of the game was an adoption about the time of World War I in 1914. But at that time, there were neither any dimensions of the playground nor the poles which demarcate the central line. The time factor was also missing.

The Deccan Gymkhana club of Pune, Maharashtra so named and baptized by the great Indian leader Lokmanya Tilak & Bhai Narorkar drafted the first-ever rules and regulations which symbolized the metamorphosis of the game soon to follow. This initial stage marked the limitation of the playground and yet sadly lacked the poles demarking the central line in the field. Instead, less experienced players were posted squatting at the ends of the latter and chasers ran around them to return to the midfield.

But, even then the game caught the imagination of the experts in the field. The experts took no time to realize that the game demands the highest degree of quick and brisk movements, very high grade of nerve reflexes and tremendous stamina which are characteristic of a supreme athlete. The game requires all motor qualities alike speed, endurance, flexibility, agility, strength and neuromuscular coordination. As per merit, it is appreciated by press, media and spectators.

The game with its fast pace, so fascinated the spectators that the Governor of Bombay Presidency H.E. Lord Willingdon also admired the merits and potentials of the game. The years 1923-24 saw the foundation of the Inter School Sports Organization, and Kho Kho was introduced to develop at the grassroots and consequently popularize the sport. The move certainly showed the results and the game of Kho Kho mainly owes it to the efforts taken by the Deccan Gymkhana and Hind Vijay Gymkhana.

In the year 1938, Kho Kho moved one step forward when Akhil Maharashtra Sharirik Shikshan Mandal organized zonal sports at Akola which attracted tremendous response from the budding enthusiasts as well as organizers. The players were restricted to 9 players per team and sport was played without the poles. At the beginning of the match, players used to take 3 rounds of the court from post to post and then started the match. This needed yet another few reforms which were adopted in 1943 as well as 1945.

In 1949, the game was exhibited in Sweden and Denmark but it didn’t leave any effect on the spectators (foreigner). After coming back in 1949, the poles were featured in the game. Also, the 3 rounds at the beginning of the game were reduced to one round from pole to pole. In 1951, even the one round was eliminated. In the year 1955, Akhil Bharatiya Kho Kho Mandal was established and the first ever All India Kho Kho Championship was organized at Vijay Wada, Andhra Pradesh in 1959-60 under the auspices of Kho Kho Federation of India. The years 1960-61 featured Women’s Championship for the first time in Kohlapur, Maharashtra.

Individual prizes were introduced in the year 1963. The first Man of the Tournament "Ekalavya Award" was won by Vishwanath Mayekar. The Woman of the Tournament "Rani Laxmibai Award" was claimed by Usha Anantham of Mysore.

The years 1969-70 featured the Junior age group competitions at Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. Youth under 18 Years and Boys under 16 Years of age were two new categories introduced where the best youth player of the tournament was honoured by "Abhimanyu Award". Junior Girls under 16 Years tournament was held in 1974 at Dewas, Madhya Pradesh, where two more categories Sub-Junior Boys under 14 Years and Girls under 12 Years also commenced. The best Sub-Juniors Boy & Girls was awarded "Bharat Award" and "Veer Bala Award" respectively. In 1970, Arjuna Award was awarded to Shri Sudhir Parab from Gujarat. In 1977, a diploma course in Kho Kho & Kabaddi was introduced in National Institute of Sports, Bangalore.

In the year 1982, Kho Kho Federation of India organized Men’s and Women’s Yearly Championship as Federation Cup. Kho Kho was featured in the Asian Games, 1982 for the first time in New Delhi. It was appreciated by Asian countries. After looking at its grand success Sports Authority of India and Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, Govt. of India deputed their coaches all over the country to develop the sport of Kho Kho scientifically at grass root level.

Looking at its success, it was one of the main featured during 12th South Asian Games, 2016 held at Guwahati, Assam from 5 to 9 February 2016. It happened just because of the sincere efforts of Shri Rajeev Mehta, President, KKFI & Secretary General, IOA. The participating countries were Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal and host country India. This tournament was well organized under the leadership of Shri. M. S. Tyagi, Competition Director (Kho Kho). All the Asian countries appreciated and ensured of introducing the sport in their respective countries. 1st Asian Championship took place at Calcutta, West Bengal in 1996 followed by the 2nd Asian Championship in the year 2000 at Dhaka, Bangladesh. The 3rd Asian Championship was held in the month of April 2016 at Indore, Madhya Pradesh. The participating countries were Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Korea and host country India. The test series was played between India and England in January-February, 2017 at different venues in India namely Mumbai, Rajasthan and New Delhi. [4]

In 1999, The Asian Kho Kho Federation was established during the 3rd edition of the South Asian Games. Member countries included India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Maldives. The 1st Asian Championship was held at Kolkata in 1996 and the second championship at Dhaka, Bangladesh. India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Nepal, Japan, Thailand were participants of this championship.


Each team consists of twelve players, but only nine players take the field. A match consists of two innings with each inning consisting of chasing and running turns of 9 minutes each. One team sits on their knees in the middle of the court, 8 in a row, with adjacent members facing opposite directions. The runners play in the field, three at a time and the team that takes the shortest time to touch all the opponents in the field, wins. There is a pole on each end and the runner can go between two sitting players, but the chaser is not allowed to turn back while running or go between the players i.e. the chaser must run in the same direction unless he chooses to touch either endpole and run in the opposite direction. He may cross over to the other side when he is reversing directions by going around the pole.


A Kho kho playing field is rectangular. It is 29 by 16 metres (95 ft × 52 ft) in length nio. In the middle of these two rectangles, there are two wooden poles. The central lane's dimensions are 2,350 cm × 30 cm (925 in × 12 in). There are eight cross lanes which lie across the central lane, whose dimensions are 1,600 cm × 30 cm (630 in × 12 in). It makes the small rectangles and each of them are 16 m × 2.3 m (52.5 ft × 7.5 ft) (the two rectangles of near by the wooden poles are 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in) wide), at right angles to the central lane and divided equally into two parts of 7.85 m (25.8 ft) each by the central lane. At the end of the central lane, the free zone tangent to the post-line, two smooth wooden posts are fixed, 120 cm (47 in) high from the ground, and their circumference is no less than 30 cm (12 in) and no more than 40 cm (16 in). The equipment used in Kho kho are poles/post, strings, metallic measuring tape, lime powder, wire nails, two watches, types of rings having inner circumference of 30 cm (12 in) and 40 cm (16 in), score shots (like a whistle, for instance), and equipment to record the results. However, for unofficial games, only lime powder (or any substitute) may be used as long as the cross lanes, centre lane and field boundaries are clearly distinguished. The strings, as well as the rings, are for the sole purpose of properly demarcating the same.


There are usually two referees standing on the opposite sides of the rectangular field. Both carry a stopwatch and each of them is responsible for giving a decision on their opposite side of the field (because they can watch the game play in front of them more clearly than when it is on their same side).


  1. ^ Peter A Hastie (1 July 2010). Student-Designed Games: Strategies for Promoting Creativity, Cooperation, and Skill Development. Human Kinetics. pp. 52–. ISBN 978-0-7360-8590-8. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
  2. ^ A trip through SA's indigenous games. 14 March 2012.
  3. ^
  4. ^

External links

The rules of the game were framed in the beginning of the 20th century.

ATN DD Sports

ATN DD Sports is a Canadian Category B English language digital cable specialty channel that is owned by Asian Television Network (ATN).

ATN Sports is an Asian sports service, featuring the best sports programming from India. It airs live and tape-delayed Cricket matches as well as other Asian sports such as Kabaddi, Kho-kho, Field hockey, Archery and Badminton. Programming is derived from DD Sports, India's only free-to-air national Sports channel.

Asian Championship

An Asian Championship is a top level international sports competition between Asian athletes or sports teams representing their respective countries or professional sports clubs.

Atya patya

Atya patya is a traditional India sport played nine to a side, between two sides. It is more popular in rural areas of India. It is more commonly played in Maharashtra a western Indian state. Atya patya is described as a "game of feints". The playing area comprises nine trenches, coming out of either side of a central trench, points are awarded for blocking progress across the trenches made by one side, other side blocks this progress. It has been described as a game of "militant chase". The sport is played in a relatively small area and requires almost no equipment like other games indigenous to India such as kabaddi, lagori, kho kho, viti-dandu, circle Kho kho and langdi.The national governed body of the sport is the "Atya Patya Federation of India". The federation was formed in 1982. The ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, government of India, lists the federation amongst its list of recognised federation for the year 2013. The federation is headquartered in Nagpur. Its president is H. B. Hallad.The first south Asian Atya patya Championship was held in Bhutan in June, 2013. It was won by India.

DD Sports

DD Sports is a state owned TV channel telecasting from Central Production Centre Delhi. DD Sports was launched on 18 March 1998. In the beginning, it broadcast sports programmes for six hours a day, which was increased to 12 hours in 1999. From 1 June 2000, DD Sports became a "round-the-clock" satellite channel. It was an encrypted pay channel between 2000 and 2003, and on 15 July 2003, it became the only free-to-air sports channel in the country.

Besides showing live sporting events like cricket, football, and tennis, DD Sports showcases Indian sports including kabaddi and kho-kho. In addition to international sporting events, important national tournaments of hockey, football, athletics, cricket, swimming, tennis, badminton, archery and wrestling are also telecast. The DD Sports channel also telecasts news based programmes, sports quiz and personality oriented shows.

Ghanauri Kalan

Ghanauri Kalan is a village in Sangrur District in the Indian State of Punjab. It is one of the biggest villages in Sangrur District by area. The total geographical area of village is 1696.4 hectares. Ghanauri Kalan is located on Dhuri-Sherpur road. It is situated 11km away from sub-district headquarter Dhuri and 26km away from district headquarter Sangrur. According to the Census 2011, Village has population of 5,799 of which 3,068 were males and 2,731 were females.

Gopal Purushottam Phadke

Gopal Purushottam Phadke was an Indian sports coach from Pune, in the Indian state of Maharashtra. He was a specialist coach of kho kho, a sports of Indian origin as well as of other sports disciplines such as swimming, Mallakhamb and Kabbaddi. After securing a diploma in engineering, he worked at the Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation (MSRTC), but left the company to take up sports coaching as a full-time job. He was reported to have provided coaching to physically handicapped children in swimming using a custom built tank constructed at his own expense and is credited with efforts in popularising the sport in other countries such as Australia. He was involved with Arya Krida Dharak Mandal, an organization which promoted kho kho and other sports and was a member of the advisory committees of All India Radio, Doordarshan and the selection committee of Dronacharya award. He died on 20 October 2009 at his residence in Pune, succumbing to liver cirrhosis. He received the Dronacharya Award, the highest Indian award for sports coaching, in 2000, the only coach from the sport of kho kho to receive the award. A former vice president of the All India Association of Dronacharya Awardees, Phadke was honoured by the Government of India in 2003 with Padma Shri, the fourth highest Indian civilian award.


Kho may refer to:

Kho, the Hokkien romanization of the Chinese surname Xǔ (許)

Kho (costume) (or Bakhu), a traditional outfit worn by Bhutia, ethnic Tibetans of Sikkim

Kho (cooking technique), a cooking technique in Vietnamese cuisine through listed cooking recipes

Kara Harp Okulu (KHO), a Turkish military academy

Kho kho, an Indian and Pakistani sport played by teams

Kho-Bwa languages, also known as Bugunish and Kamengic

Kho people, a people of Pakistan and Afghanistan

Kho Mu people, known as Khmu people, Khmu (also referred to as Khamu, Kammu or Kemu), indigenous inhabitants of Laos

Kho-Kho at the 2016 South Asian Games

Kho-Kho at the 2016 South Asian Games were held in Guwahati, India from February 10 to February 15 2016.

Kho Kho Federation of England

The Kho Kho Federation of England (KKFE) is the governing body for the sport of Kho Kho in the United Kingdom. Established in 2014, the sport has seen a rise in popularity especially amongst the South Asian communities that reside in the UK. With the vision to take Kho Kho to the international platform.

KKFE held the first National Kho Kho Championship in 2015, where the Finchley Shakha Kho Kho Team were crowned champions.

Wembley Kho Kho

Leicester Kho Kho

Sangh United Kho Kho

North London Nighthawks

North London Shakha

NHSF Kingston University

Woolwich Kho Kho

Ashton All Stars

East London Shakha

Shishukunj Kho KhoKingston University became the first University Kho Kho team to be recognised by KKFE.

Maharaja's College Stadium

Maharaja's College Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Kochi, India. It is the home ground of the Maharajas College. The stadium has a capacity of 15,000. It hosted some of the 1960 AFC Asian Cup qualifying matches as well as the 2009 National Schools Athletics Championship.

The facilities available for sports activities include a 400-meter synthetic track, a football field-cum-cricket ground, a stadium pavilion and courts for games like hockey, volleyball, basketball, kho-kho, kabady, and ball badminton. Facilities are available for indoor games like table-tennis, carom, chess, wrestling, weightlifting and power lifting.

Maharana Pratap Khel Gaon

Maharana Pratap Khel Gaon is a sports stadium in Udaipur, Rajasthan, India. It is committed to 12 sports, including Basketball, Volleyball, Tennis, Kho-Kho, Kabaddi, Handball, Archery, Rifle shooting, Judo – Karate, Boxing, Swimming, Squash.

Murud, Latur

Murud is the largest village in Latur District in Maharashtra, India.

Murud is well known for its school, Janta Vidya Mandir, where not only in academics, students have made their mark in extracurricular activities too. A lot of students have featured in the merit list published by its divisional board affiliated to Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education (some in top 5). Kho Kho, football (soccer), volleyball are some of the spots where lot of athletes have done well. Sheela Nade was the captain of the Kho-Kho team at the nationals.

Murud is an important center of trade and commerce as it is well connected by Highway networks to Latur and Solapur as well. Its Aathawadi bazar (weekly fair) of cottage animals (especially bulls) is well known.

Murud is also known as biggest "Gram Panchayat" in "Marathwada" region. Here is one ancient temple of "Shree lord Datta" whose "pujari Kashinath Maharaj" was one of the great personality.

There is only one government D.ed college in latur dis. Which is placed in murud.


Nehru Stadium, Indore

Nehru Stadium located in Indore, India, is a cricket, football, Kho Kho and basketball stadium with a capacity for 26,000 people.

However, all the international as well as national cricket matches take place at the "Holkar Stadium which is situated at Race Course Road, Indore and a plethora of different sports activities take place at the Nehru Stadium which also partly serves as the Headquarters of the Air-Force wing of the Western Command of the National Cadet Corps (India).

Nehru Stadium sports a statue of Col. C.K. Nayudu, Indore's favourite son of that era, outside its main entrance as a concession to tradition.

As of 19 August 2017, it has hosted 9 One Day Internationals (ODIs).

Shobhana Desai

Shobhna Desai is an Indian television and motion picture producer. In the nineties, came Jeevan Mrityu, Alpviram and Ek Mahal Ho Sapno Ka (TV series) and in 2000s - Hum Pardesi Ho Gaye (2001), aired on Sony TV all of which met with huge success and catapulted her. Gujarathi play "Aandhlo paato" into Hindi Aankhen Blockbuster movie starring Amitabh Bachchan, Akshay Kumar, Arjun Rampal, Sushmita under same production house. Shobhna Desai produced first Marathi movie Kho Kho directed by Kedar Shinde.

Sports in Andhra Pradesh

Sports in Andhra Pradesh has its own importance, where many sporting personalities were into limelight. The Sports Authority of Andhra Pradesh (SAAP) undertakes the sports development activities such as construction of stadiums, establishment of sports academies and other sporting related activities. The sports infrastructure have increased tremendously by improving infrastructure in outdoor and Indoor stadiums, play fields, sports academies, sports equipments etc. Sports such as kho kho, kabaddi are played mostly in Andhra Pradesh.

Sports in Tamil Nadu

Many sports are played by the people of Tamil Nadu including both traditional sports and sports from other countries.

Sri Lanka at the 2016 South Asian Games

Sri Lanka will in the 2016 South Asian Games in Guwahati and Shillong, India from 5 February to 16 February 2016. The team will consist of 484 athletes (257 men and 227 women) in all 23 sports. Athlete Manjula Kumara will be the country's flagbearer during the opening ceremony.


Thoubal is a town, a municipal council with 18 municipal wards and district Headquarters in Thoubal district in the Indian state of Manipur. It is one of the larger towns of Manipur. it is a idyllic place with lots of lakes and rivers, paddy fields, gardens, and fun loving, simple people. It is also the window to South-East Asia as the Trans-Asian highway (AH1) passes through it. It is well connected with Imphal, Kakching, Moreh, Yairipok, etc.

Main places of attraction are Chinga Lairembi temple, Tomjing ching, Panthoibee temple, Thoubal bazar, Khangabok Menjor garden, etc. Main shopping centres are Thoubal Keithel, Ningombam Luxmi Bazar, Athokpam Bazar, Babu Bazar etc. Thoubal College and Waikhom Mani Girls College are the colleges within the town. Notable schools are K M Blooming Higher Secondary School, The Somorendra Sana Royal Higher Secondary School, Vision Creative School of Science, The Fancier Abhiram Higher School, The Chaoyaima Higher Secondary School, Evergreen Flower School, Step Foundation, Ananda Purna High School, Ruda Academy, Paradise English School, MS Global Academy, New Era Higher Secondary School, The Tangjeng Ningthou Flowers School, etc. State Bank of India (SBI), United Bank of India (UBI) , Manipur State Cooperative Bank Ltd (MSCB Ltd), ICICI Bank , Axis Bank, HDFC , Bank of India , Canara Bank , Indian Overseas Bank , Central Bank of India and Punjab National Bank are banks operated in the area. A brand new district hospital was inaugurated and is now functional. Healthcare services are being provided by Kshetri Sanglen, Rapha Hospital, etc. Thoubal also has the distinction of having the first and only subway in the whole of Manipur. ;-) Many industrial as well as commercial start ups are booming in Thoubal town since early 21st century. Notable eateries are Sas Restaurant, Nono hotel, Delight etc. Bokajan is one of the foremost and most successful self employed tycoon. one can find customers queueing up in front of his mansion 24x7, waiting for his service in peak season from late September to early March. One can get any brand of you-know-what-i-mean from Bokajan anytime of the year. Thoubal was also the venue for Singju festival 2017 which was hels at Khangabok Menjor Garden. The 37th Junior National Kho Kho Championship under the aegis of Kho Kho Federation of India was held at Basu Ground, Khangabok from 26-30 March 2018.

Vivekananda Educational Society

Vivekananda Educational Society (VES) is a registered non profit, service organization which owns and operates several schools located in the vicinity of Chennai. It has 20 schools in and around Chennai and one residential school, which are affiliated to Vidya Bharati Akhil Bharatiya Shiksha Sansthan. It was registered as a society in 1972 by a group of persons associated with the Vivekananda Rock Memorial. The society has 20,000 students attending its schools everyday across the city. This society is currently headed by Shri N. Gopalaswami who was a former Chief Election Commissioner of India known to be a person sticking to principles.

Gym, outdoor and playground games

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