Khawarij

The Khawarij (Arabic: الخوارج‎, al-Khawārij, singular خارجي, khāriji), Kharijites, or the ash-Shurah (Arabic: الشراة‎, romanizedash-Shurāh "the Exchangers") were members of a school of thought that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Fitna, the crisis of leadership after the death of Muhammad.[1] It broke into revolt against the authority of the Caliph Ali after he agreed to arbitration with his rival, Muawiyah I, to decide the succession to the Caliphate following the Battle of Siffin (657).[2] A Khariji later assassinated Ali, and for hundreds of years, the Khawarij were a source of insurrection against the Caliphate.[3]

The Khawarij opposed arbitration as a means to choose a new ruler on the grounds that "judgement belongs to God alone". They considered arbitration a means for people to make decisions[2] while the victor in a battle was determined by God.[2] They believed that any Muslim—even one who was not a Quraysh or even an Arab—could be the Imam, the leader of the community, if he was morally irreproachable. If the leader sinned, it was the duty of Muslims to oppose and depose him.[3][4]

Etymology

The term al-Khariji was used as an exonym by their opponents from the fact that they left Ali's army. The name comes from the Arabic root خ ر ج, which has the primary meaning "to leave" or "to get out",[5] as in the basic word خرج "to go out", "to walk out", "to come out", etc.[6]

However, these groups called themselves ash-Shurah "the Exchangers", which they understood within the context of Islamic scripture (Quran 2:207) and philosophy to mean "those who have traded the mortal life (al-Dunya) for the other life [with God] (al-Akhirah)".[3][7][8]

History

Origin

The origin of Kharijism lies in the First Fitna, the struggle for political supremacy over the Muslim community in the years following the death of Muhammad. After the death of the third Rashidun Caliph, Uthman, a struggle for succession ensued between Ali and Muawiyah I, the governor of Syria and cousin of Uthman, in league with a variety of other opponents. In 657, Ali's forces met Muawiyah's at the Battle of Siffin. Initially, the battle went against Muawiyah but on the brink of defeat, Muawiyah directed his army to hoist Qurans on their lances.[9] Mu'awiya proposed to Ali to settle their dispute through arbitration, with each side appointing referees who would pronounce judgment according to the Quran.[10] While most of Ali's army accepted the proposal, one group, mostly from the tribe of Tamim, vehemently objected to the arbitration and left the ranks of Ali's army.[10]

These dissenters, who initiated what would become known as the Kharijite movement, wished to secede from Ali's army in order to uphold their principles.[11] They held that the third caliph Uthman had deserved his death because of his faults, and that Ali was the legitimate caliph, while Mu'awiya was a rebel.[11] They believed that the Quran clearly stated that as a rebel Mu'awiya was not entitled to arbitration, but rather should be fought until he repented, pointing to the verse:[11][12]

If two parties of the faithful fight each other, then conciliate them. Yet if one is rebellious to the other, then fight the insolent one until it returns to God 's command. (Quran 49:9)

The dissenters held that in agreeing to arbitration Ali committed the grave sin of rejecting God's judgment (hukm) and attempted to substitute human judgment for God's clear injunction, which prompted their motto la hukma illa li-llah (judgement belongs to God alone).[12] From this expression, which they were the first to use as a motto, they became known as Muhakkima.[13] They also believed that Muslims owe allegiance only to the Quran and the sunna of Muhammad, Abu Bakr, and Umar, and denied that the right to the imamate should be based on close kinship with Muhammad.[11]

The initial group of dissenters went to the village of Harura' near Kufa, where they elected an obscure soldier named Ibn Wahb al-Rasibi as their leader.[10] This gave rise to their alternative name, al-Haruriyya.[10] Other defectors from Kufa, where Ali's army had returned awaiting the outcome of arbitration, gradually joined the dissenters,[10] while Ali persuaded some dissenters to return to Kufa.[12] However, when the arbitration ended in a verdict unfavorable to Ali, a large number of his followers left Kufa to join Ibn Wahb, who had meanwhile moved his camp to another location along the Nahrawan canal.[10][12] At this point, the Kharijites proclaimed Ali's caliphate to be null and void and began to denounce as infidels anyone who did not accept their point of view.[10] From Nahrawan they began to agitate against Ali and raid his territories.[12] When attempts at conciliation failed, Ali's forces attacked the Kharijites in their camp, inflicting a heavy defeat on them at the Battle of Nahrawan in 658, killing Ibn Wahb and most of his supporters.[10] This bloodshed sealed the split of Kharijites from Ali's followers, and Kharijite calls for revenge ultimately led to Ali's assassination in 661 by a Kharijite.[10][11]

Later history

For hundreds of years the Khawarij continued to be a source of insurrection against the Caliphate.[3] and they aroused condemnation by mainstream scholars such as 14th-century Muslim Ismail ibn Kathir who wrote, "If they ever gained strength, they would surely corrupt the whole of the Earth, Iraq and Shaam – they would not leave a baby, male or female, neither a man or a woman, because as far as they are concerned the people have caused corruption, a corruption that cannot be rectified except by mass killing."[14] In a similar vein, the 10th century Islamic scholar Abu Bakr al-Ajurri said, "None of the scholars, in either past or recent times, ever disagreed that the Khawarij are an evil group, disobedient to Allah Almighty and to His Messenger - Peace Be Upon Him. Even if they pray, fast, or strive in worship, it does not benefit them, and even if they openly enjoin good and forbid evil it does not benefit them, as they are a people who interpret the Quran according to their desire."[15] One modern historian describes Khawarij as "bedouin nomads who resented the centralization of power in the new Islamic state that curtailed the freedom of their tribal society."[4]

In hadith

Among the hadith that refer to the Khawarij (according to some sources) include:

A hadith attributed to Yusair bin Amr [16][17] reports:


A hadith attributed to Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri [18][19] reports:


A hadith attributed to Abu Dharr [17][20] reports:

Beliefs and practices

Assassination attempts

Among the surviving Kharijites, three of them gathered in Mecca to plot a tripartite assassination attempt on Muawiyah I, 'Amr ibn al-'As and Ali. The assassination attempts were to occur simultaneously as the three leaders came to lead the morning prayer (Fajr) in their respective cities of Damascus, Fustat and Kufa. The method was to come out of the prayer ranks and strike the targets with a sword dipped in poison.[21]

Muawiya escaped the assassination attempt with only minor injuries. Amr was sick and the deputy leading the prayers in his stead was martyred. However, the strike on Ali by the assassin, Abdur-Rahmaan ibn-Muljim, proved to be fatal. Ali was gravely injured with a head wound and succumbed to his injuries a few days later.[22]

The circumstances in which Ali was attacked is subject to debate; some scholars maintain that he was attacked outside the mosque, others state that he was attacked while initiating the prayer and still others reiterate that ibn-Muljim assaulted him midway through the prayer while Ali was prostrating.[21][23][24]

All the assassins were captured, tried and sentenced to death in accordance with Islamic laws.[22]

Modern times

Like-minded groups

In the modern era, some of Muslim theologians and observers have compared the beliefs and actions of the Islamic State (IS), al-Qaeda, and like-minded groups to the Khawarij.[25][26][27][28][29] In particular, the groups share the Kharijites' radical approach whereby self-described Muslims are declared unbelievers and therefore deemed them worthy of death and their disinterest in Quranic calls for moderation.[14][30][31] However, IS preachers strongly reject being compared to the Khawarij.[32]

The Ibadis, a fellow early sect with similar beliefs, form the majority of the population of Oman (where they first settled in 686),[33] and there are smaller concentrations of them in the M'zab of Algeria, Djerba in Tunisia, the Nafusa Mountains in Libya, and Zanzibar.

In the 18th century, Hanafi scholar Ibn Abidin declared the Wahhabi movement of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab as modern Khawarij although he does not consider them non-Muslims.[34] [35]

According to some Muslims (such as Abu Amina Elias), Kharijites will "continue to cause strife" in the Muslim community until End Times,[19] and cite a hadith (# 7123)[19] from Sahih al-Bukhari in support of this.

Early Muslim governance

The Khawarij considered the caliphate of Abu Bakr and Umar to be rightly guided but believed that Uthman had deviated from the path of justice and truth in the last days of his caliphate and hence was liable to be killed or displaced. They also believed that Ali committed a grave sin when he agreed on the arbitration with Muawiyah.

The Kharijites thus deemed the arbitrators (Abu Musa Ashaari and 'Amr ibn al-'As), the leaders who appointed these arbitrators (Ali and Muawiyah I) and all those who agreed on the arbitration (all companions of Ali and Muawiyah]) as kuffar "disbelievers", as they had breached the rules of the Qur'an. They also believed that all participants in the Battle of the Camel, including Talhah, Zubayr ibn al-Awam and Aisha had committed a major sin.[36]

Doctrinal differences with other sects

Kharijites differ with both Sunni and/or Shiʿa on some points of doctrine:

  • Sunnis accept Ali as the fourth rightly-guided Caliph and also accept the three Caliphs before him, who were elected by their community. Shi'a believe that the imamate was the right of Ali, and the rule of the first three Rashidun caliphs was unlawful. Kharijites insist that the caliph need not be from the Quraysh tribe, but any pious Muslim nominated by other Muslims was eligible to be the caliph.[36][37]
  • Unlike Sunni and Shia, Kharijites believed that Muslims had the right and duty to revolt against any ruler who deviated from their interpretation of Islam,[37] or, according to other interpretations, failed to manage Muslim's affairs with justice and consultation[36] or committed a major sin.[3]
  • Kharijites reject the doctrine of infallibility for the leader of the Muslim community in contrast to Shi'a but in agreement with Sunnis.[38]
  • Unlike the more extreme Kharijites, the Ibadis reject the murder of Uthman as well as the Kharijite belief that all Muslims holding differing viewpoints were infidels.

Other doctrines

Many Khawarij groups believed that the act of sinning is analogous to kufr "disbelief" and that every grave sinner was regarded as a kafir unless they repent. They invoked the doctrine of free will, in opposition to that of predestination in their opposition to the Ummayad Caliphate, which held that Umayyad rule was ordained by God.[39]

According to Islamic scholar and Islamist pioneer Abul A'la Maududi, using the argument of "sinners are unbelievers", Kharijites denounced all the above Sahabah and even cursed and used abusive language against them. Other non-Khawarij Muslims were declared disbelievers because they were not free of sin but also because they regarded the above-mentioned Sahabah as believers and religious leaders, even inferring fiqh from the hadith narrated by them.[36]

The Khawarij considered the Qur'an as the source for fiqh but disagreed about the other two sources (hadith and ijma).[36]

Based on Kharijite poetry writings, scholar Ihsan Abbas finds three categories of focus among them:[40]

  • the strong desire of Kharijites for martyrdom and dying for the sake of God[40]
  • detailed descriptions of how Kharijites defined a just and pious ruler[40]
  • their universal tendency to blame the self for failing to establish the previous two categories.[40]

On the basis of women fighting alongside Muhammad, Khārijīs have viewed fighting jihad as a requirement for women. One famous example is the warrior and poet Laylā bint Ṭarīf.[41]

Principal groups

See also

References

  1. ^ Al-Yaqoubi, Muhammad (2015). Refuting ISIS: A Rebuttal Of Its Religious And Ideological Foundations. Sacred Knowledge. pp. xvii–xviii. ISBN 978-1908224125.
  2. ^ a b c Higgins, Annie C. (2004). "Kharijites, Khawarij". In Martin, Richard C. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World v.1. Macmillan. p. 390.
  3. ^ a b c d e Glasse, Cyril (2001). The New Encyclopedia of Islam. California: Altamira Press. pp. 255–56. ISBN 978-0759101890.
  4. ^ a b Schultz, Joseph P. (1981). Judaism and the Gentile Faiths: Comparative Studies in Religion. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. p. 175. ISBN 9780838617076. bedouin nomads who resented the centralization of power in the new Islamic state that curtailed the freedom of their tribal society.
  5. ^ Hassanein, Ahmed Taher; Abdou, Kamar; Abo El Seoud, Dalal. The Concise Arabic-English Lexicon of Verbs in Context (New revised and expanded ed.). New York: The American University in Cairo Press (2011). p105.
  6. ^ Wehr, Hans; and Cowen JM (Ed). The Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic (Arabic-English), 4th Ed.n. Urbana, IL: Spoken Language Services. ISBN 978-0-87950-003-0. p 269
  7. ^ Bhala, Raj (2011). Understanding Islamic Law: Sharīʻa. LexisNexis. ISBN 978-1-4224-1748-5.
  8. ^ Martin, Richard C. (2004). Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World. Macmillan Reference USA. p. 390. ISBN 978-0028656038.
  9. ^ Ali, Ameer. A Short History of the Saracens (13th ed.). London 1961: Macmillan and Company. p. 51. He (Muawiyah) made his mercenaries tie copies of the Koran to their lances and flags, and shout for quarter.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Levi Della Vida, G. (2012). "K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ites". In P. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W.P. Heinrichs (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.). Brill. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0497.
  11. ^ a b c d e Francesca, Ersilia (2006). "Khārijīs". In Jane Dammen McAuliffe (ed.). Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān. Brill. doi:10.1163/1875-3922_q3_EQCOM_00103.
  12. ^ a b c d e John Alden Williams, Justin Corfield (2009). "Khawārij". In John L. Esposito (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195305135.001.0001. ISBN 9780195305135. (Subscription required (help)). Cite uses deprecated parameter |subscription= (help)CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  13. ^ Djebli, Moktar (2012). "Taḥkīm". In P. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W.P. Heinrichs (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.). Brill. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_7311.
  14. ^ a b KHAN, SHEEMA (29 September 2014). "Another battle with Islam's 'true believers'". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
  15. ^ Al-Yaqoubi, Muhammad (2015). Refuting ISIS: A Rebuttal Of Its Religious And Ideological Foundations. Sacred Knowledge. p. 20. ISBN 978-1908224125.
  16. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 9:84:68 (Bukhari Book 9 Volume 84 Hadith 68)
  17. ^ a b "Question & Answers. Sects in Islam. Who are the kharijites". islamhelpline.net. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
  18. ^ Sahih Bukhari 7123
  19. ^ a b c Abu Amina Elias (June 24, 2014). "Dangers of the Khawarij ideology of violence". abuaminaelias.com. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
  20. ^ Sahih Muslim Hadith 2335
  21. ^ a b Cook, David (January 15, 2007). Martyrdom in Islam. Cambridge University Press. pp. 54–55. ISBN 978-0521615518.
  22. ^ a b "Hadrat Ali's (r.a.) Murder". Islam Helpline. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
  23. ^ Hitti, Phillip (2002). History of the Arabs. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 182. ISBN 978-0333631423.
  24. ^ Tabatabaei, Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn (1979). Shi'ite Islam. Suny Press. p. 192. ISBN 978-0873952729.
  25. ^ Al-Yaqoubi, Muhammad (2015). Refuting ISIS: A Rebuttal Of Its Religious And Ideological Foundations. Sacred Knowledge. pp. xvii–xviii. ISBN 978-1908224125. See also p.8.
  26. ^ "Prominent Islamic Scholar Refutes Claims of ISIS's Links to Islam". Think Progress. March 2015.
  27. ^ "Shaykh Saalih Al-Suhaymee: It Is Obligatory to Name, Expose and Refute the Instigators of Extremist Ideologies and Activities". Islam Against Extremism. 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-01-10.
  28. ^ "It Is Criminal and Unjust to Ascribe the Actions of the Kharijite Renegades (Al-Qaidah, ISIS) to Islam and the Muslims". Islam Against Extremism. 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-02-27.
  29. ^ "Imam Al-Albani: The Prophetic Description of 'Dogs of Hellfire' and Contemporary Takfiri Kharijites". Islam Against Extremism. 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-02-27.
  30. ^ Mohamad Jebara More Mohamad Jebara. "Imam Mohamad Jebara: Fruits of the tree of extremism". Ottawa Citizen.
  31. ^ The Balance of Islam in Challenging Extremism Archived 2014-08-02 at the Wayback Machine| Dr. Usama Hasan| 2012| quilliam foundation
  32. ^ "Counter-radicalisation (3): A disarming approach: Can the beliefs that feed terrorism be changed?". The Economist. 2 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  33. ^ "CIA - The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. June 5, 2013. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
  34. ^ Ahmad, Ahmad Atif (2009). Islam, Modernity, Violence, and Everyday Life. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 164. ISBN 9780230619562. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
  35. ^ Khaled Abou El Fadl, "9/11 and the Muslim Transformation." Taken from September 11 in History: A Watershed Moment?, pg. 87. Ed. Mary L. Dudziak. Durham: Duke University Press 2003. ISBN 9780822332428
  36. ^ a b c d e Abul A'la Maududi, Khilafat-o-Malookeyat (Caliphate and kingship), (Urdu), p 214.
  37. ^ a b Goldhizer, Ignaz. "Muslim Studies"(Transaction Publishers, 1971) Vol.1 p.130 (Downloadable from https://www.scribd.com/doc/94082191/Goldziher-Muslim-Studies-1)
  38. ^ Baydawi, Abdullah. "Tawali' al- Anwar min Matali' al-Anzar", circa 1300. Translated alongside other texts in the 2001 "Nature, Man and God in Medieval Islam" by Edwin Elliott Calverley and James Wilson Pollock. pp. 1001-1009
  39. ^ Campo, Juan Eduardo (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 417. ISBN 9781438126968. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  40. ^ a b c d Hussam S. Timani, Modern Intellectual Readings of the Kharijites, pgs. 84-85. Volume 262 of American University Studies, Series VII: Theology and Religion. Bern: Peter Lang, 2008.ISBN 9780820497013
  41. ^ Lori A. Allen, 'Jihad: Arab States', in Encyclopedia of Women and Islamic Cultures: Family, Law and Politics, ed. by Suad Joseph and Afsāna Naǧmābādī 319-21 (p. 319).

Further reading

  • Al-Yaqoubi, Muhammad (2015). Refuting ISIS: A Rebuttal Of Its Religious And Ideological Foundations. Sacred Knowledge. ISBN 978-1908224125.
  • J. J. Saunders, A History of Medieval Islam, Routledge (UK), 1 October 1972 ISBN 0-415-05914-3

External links

Azariqa

Azariqa (Arabic الأزارقة, al-azāriqa), The strongest and the most extremist branch of Khawarij, who follow the leadership of Nafi ibn al-Azraq al-Hanafī al-Handhalī.

Flag of the Arab Revolt

The Flag of the Arab Revolt also known as the Flag of Hejaz was a flag used by the Arab nationalists during the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire during World War I.

Ghulat

Ghulāt (Arabic: غلاة‎, lit. 'exaggerators', singular ghālī) is a term used in the theology of orthodox Shia Islam to describe some minority Muslim groups who either ascribe divine characteristics to figures of Islamic history (usually some members of the Ahl al-Bayt) or hold beliefs deemed deviant by mainstream, orthodox Shi'i theology. In later periods, this term was used to describe any Shia group not accepted by the Zaydis, orthodox Twelvers, and sometimes the Isma'ilis.The usage derives from the idea that the importance or the veneration of such a religious figure has been "exaggerated".

Ibadi

The Ibadi Movement, Ibadism or Ibāḍiyya, also known as the Ibadis (Arabic: الإباضية‎, al-Ibāḍiyyah), is a school of Islam dominant in Oman. It is also found in parts of Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and East Africa. The movement is said to have been founded around the year 650 CE or about 20 years after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, predating both the Sunni and Shia denominations. Modern historians trace back the origins of the denomination to a moderate current of the Khawarij movement; contemporary Ibāḍīs strongly object to being classified as Kharijites, although they recognize that their movement originated with the Kharijite secession of 657 CE.

Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab

Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab (Arabic: إبراهيم بن الأغلب‎; 756-812) was the first Emir of the Aghlabids in Ifriqiya (800-812)

He was the son of al-Aghlab, who successfully quelled the revolt of the Khawarij in Ifriqiya at the end of the 8th century. In 800 Ibrahim became Emir of Ifriqiya and founded the Aghlabid dynasty, and was recognised as the hereditary ruler by Caliph Harun al-Rashid.

After the pacification of the country he established a residence at al-Abbasiyya to keep his distance from the restless Maliki jurists of Kairouan, who were always ready to incite the people into revolt. Specially since, Ibrahim was a Mu'tazili Muslim, he named at the higher religious authority, Qadi Qayrawan (cadi of Kairouan), Abu Muhriz, a Mu'tazili imam in 806. A guard of 5000 Zanji slaves was set up to avoid total dependence on Arab troops, the necessity of which measure was proven by the revolts of Arab soldiers in 802, 805 and 810. Ibrahim built up a strong administrative framework for the state which lay the foundations for the prosperity of Ifriqiya in the following century.

He was succeeded by his son Abdallah I (812-817).

Ideology of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

The ideology of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, also known as Daesh), which controls territory primarily in Iraq and Syria, has been described as being based on Salafism, Salafi Jihadism, and Wahhabism.Important doctrines of ISIL include its belief that it represents the restoration of the caliphate of early Islam, and that all Muslims are required to pledge allegiance to it; that a "defiled" Islam must be purged of apostasy, often with bloody sectarian killings, that the final Day of Judgment by God is near and will follow the defeat of the army of "Rome" by ISIL; that a strict adherence to following the precepts "established by the Prophet Muhammad and his earliest followers" is necessary, surpassing even that of other Salafi groups.

Islam in Qatar

Qatar is a Muslim-majority country with Islam as the state religion. Salafi version of Islam is the state sponsored brand of Islam in the country, making Qatar one of the two Salafi states in the Muslim world, along with Saudi Arabia.The local population, made up of Qataris, are all Muslims although there are high numbers of foreign workers in Qatar which varies the Muslim population. According to the CIA World Factbook, as of 2010 an estimated 67.7% of the population is Muslim, while 13.8% is Christian, another 13.8% Hindu, and 3.1% Buddhist. Foreign workers are well noted in the country, mainly from South Asia and Americans which constitute most of the population of Qatar. At the end of 2013, there were a total of 1,848 mosques recorded in the country.

Islamic schools

Islamic school or Islamic schools may refer to:

Madhhab, a school of thought within fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence)

Madrasa (plural madaris), any educational institution, but in the West referring those with an emphasis on religious instruction

Muslim denominations, religious denominations within Islam, such as Sunni, Khawarij and Shia

Jābir ibn Zayd

Abu al-Sha'tha Jābir ibn Zayd al-Zahrani al-Azdi was a Muslim theologian and one of the founding figures of the Ibadis, the third major denomination of Islam. He was from the Tabi‘un, or second generation of Islam, and took leadership of the denomination after the death of Abd-Allah ibn Ibadh.

Kharijite Rebellion

Khawarij or Kharijite Rebellion may refer to:

The Berber Revolt in the Maghreb and al-Andalus (739–743)

The rebellion of al-Dahhak ibn Qays al-Shaybani in Iraq (745–746)

The Ibadi revolt in Arabia (747–748)

The rebellion of al-Walid ibn Tarif al-Shaybani in al-Jazira (794–795)

The Zanj Rebellion in Iraq and al-Ahwaz (869–883)

The Kharijite Rebellion in al-Jazira (866–896)

Laylā bint Ṭarīf

Laylā bint Ṭarīf (Arabic: لَيلْى بنت طريف, d. 815 CE) was a female warrior and poet and one of the Khawarij, a group known for its members' fanaticism and violent opposition to the established Caliphate, believing that leadership of the Muslim community was not limited to male Arabs of the Quraysh tribe. On the basis of women fighting alongside Muhammad, the Khawarij have viewed combat as a requirement for women, and Laylā bint Ṭarīf is a prominent example of this custom. Laylā was the sister of the Kharijite leader al-Walid ibn Tarif al-Shaybani (d. 795). After al-Walīd's death, Laylā took on the leadership of his army and fought two battles before her clan forced her to step down.

List of religions and spiritual traditions

While religion is hard to define, one standard model of religion, used in religious studies courses, was proposed by Clifford Geertz, who defined it as a

[…] system of symbols which acts to establish powerful, pervasive, and long-lasting moods and motivations in men by formulating conceptions of a general order of existence and clothing these conceptions with such an aura of factuality that the moods and motivations seem uniquely realistic." A critique of Geertz's model by Talal Asad categorized religion as "an anthropological category." Many religions have narratives, symbols, traditions and sacred histories that are intended to give meaning to life or to explain the origin of life or the universe. They tend to derive morality, ethics, religious laws, or a preferred lifestyle from their ideas about the cosmos and human nature. According to some estimates, there are roughly 4,200 religions in the world.The word religion is sometimes used interchangeably with "faith" or "belief system", but religion differs from private belief in that it has a public aspect. Most religions have organized behaviours, including clerical hierarchies, a definition of what constitutes adherence or membership, congregations of laity, regular meetings or services for the purposes of veneration of a deity or for prayer, holy places (either natural or architectural) or religious texts. Certain religions also have a sacred language often used in liturgical services. The practice of a religion may also include sermons, commemoration of the activities of a god or gods, sacrifices, festivals, feasts, trance, rituals, rites, ceremonies, worship, initiations, funerals, marriages, meditation, invocation, mediumship, music, art, dance, public service or other aspects of human culture. Religious beliefs have also been used to explain parapsychological phenomena such as out-of-body experiences, near-death experiences and reincarnation, along with many other paranormal and supernatural experiences.Some academics studying the subject have divided religions into three broad categories: world religions, a term which refers to transcultural, international faiths; indigenous religions, which refers to smaller, culture-specific or nation-specific religious groups; and new religious movements, which refers to recently developed faiths. One modern academic theory of religion, social constructionism, says that religion is a modern concept that suggests all spiritual practice and worship follows a model similar to the Abrahamic religions as an orientation system that helps to interpret reality and define human beings, and thus religion, as a concept, has been applied inappropriately to non-Western cultures that are not based upon such systems, or in which these systems are a substantially simpler construct.

Mo'mean al-Tagh

Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Numan al-Ahval known as Mo'mean al-tagh (Arabic: مومن الطاق‎) was a prominent theologian among Kufa theologians who unify the pontificate to other theological issues. He was the follower of Muḥammad al-Bāqir (the fifth Shiite imam) and then, the ardent supporters of Ja'far ibn Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq (the sixth Shia Imam) and Musa al-Kadhim (the seventh Shiite Imam) finally reunited. He has numerous different debates with religious groups such as the Kharijites, Mu'tazilah, Hanafi and free thinkers (Zindiqs) at the time, and was a prolific writer. Some of his works include: "Imamate Book", "Book of Reply to the Mu'tazilah in front of him take priority" and several other treatises, probably the nature of the dispute and has been controversial. From titles that are attributed to him, this issue comes to mind that one of the main issues between the Shiite scholars and Mo'tazeli was the pontification on that era. The debates, was considered the most prominent of his activities. There is several listed debates that referred to Mo'mean al-Tagh, For example, a debate with Khawarij and with Ibn abi al-O'ja'e that known as stubborn freethinkers.

Muhakkima

Muhakkima (Arabic: محكمة‎) and al-Haruriyya (Arabic: الحرورية‎) refer to the Muslims who rejected arbitration between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Mu'awiya at the Battle of Siffin in 657 CE. The name Muḥakkima derives from their slogan la hukma illa li-llah, meaning "judgment (hukm) belongs to God alone". The name al-Haruriyya refers to their withdrawal from Ali's army to the village of Harura' near Kufa. This episode marked the start of the Kharijite movement, and the term muḥakkima is often also applied by extension to later Kharijites.

In recent times, some adherents of Ibadism, which is commonly identified as a moderate offshoot of the Kharijite movement, have argued that the precursors of both Ibadism and extremist Kharijite sects should be properly called Muḥakkima and al-Haruriyya rather than Kharijites.

Nasibi

Nasibi (Collective Plural Arabic: الناصبة‎, romanized: an-Nāṣibiyyah; Multiple Plural Arabic: نواصب‎, romanized: Nawāṣib; Singular Arabic: ناصبي‎, romanized: Nāṣibi) is an Arabic term meaning "those who have hatred".

Oman–Saudi Arabia relations

Oman–Saudi Arabia relations refers to the current and historical relations between Sultanate of Oman and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Oman has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate in Jeddah, whilst Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Muscat.

Two nations have a long historical relationship between two states. Both are members of the Gulf Cooperation Council and mainly adhere to Islam, Oman follows Ibadi Islam while Saudi Arabia follows sunni Islam. Both being gulf states, make them strong allies, however, Oman has a more lenient approach when it comes to Iran.

The two countries share a long border, second in length only to the Saudi-Yemen border.

Organized religion

Organized religion (or organised religion—see spelling differences), also known as institutional religion, is religion in which belief systems and rituals are systematically arranged and formally established. Organized religion is typically characterized by an official doctrine (or dogma), a hierarchical or bureaucratic leadership structure, and a codification of rules and practices.

Sufri

The Sufris (Arabic: الصفرية‎ aṣ-Ṣufriyya) were Khariji Muslims in the seventh and eighth centuries. They established the Midrarid state at Sijilmassa, now in Morocco.

In Tlemcen, Algeria, the Banu Ifran were Sufri Berbers who opposed rule by the Umayyad, Abbasid and Fatimid Caliphates, most notably under resistance movements led by Abu Qurra (8th century) and Abu Yazid.The Khawarij were divided into separate groups such as the Sufri, Azariqa, Bayhasiyya, Ajardi, Najdat, and Ibadi. Only the Ibadi continue to exist today.

Takfir

Takfir or takfeer (Arabic: تكفير‎ takfīr) is a controversial concept in Islamist discourse, denoting excommunication, as one Muslim declaring another Muslim as a non-believer (kafir). The act which precipitates takfir is termed mukaffir. Contemporary formulation and usage of the term have their roots in the 20th-century Islamist theorist Sayyid Qutb's advocacy of takfirism (doctrine of excommunication) against the state or society deemed jahiliyah (state of ignorance and disbelief). According to Qutb, violence is required to be sanctioned against corrupt state leaders, on the premise that quietism is not the Islamic prescription against those deemed apostates. This position is widely held and applied by jihadist organizations to varying degrees. At the same time, the concept is opposed by religious establishment as an ostensible reason for violence. They hold that excommunication against those who profess their Islamic faith is not sanctioned by Islam, or an ill-founded takfir accusation is a major forbidden act (haram).

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