Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin (Urdu: خواجہ ناظِمُ الدّین; Bengali: খাজা নাজিমুদ্দীন; 19 July 1894 – 22 October 1964), KCIE, CIE, was a Bengali politician, conservative figure, and one of the leading founding fathers of Pakistan. He is noted as being the first Bengali leader of Pakistan who led the country as Prime Minister (1951–53), as well as the second Governor-General (1948–51).
Born into an aristocrat Nawab family in Bengal in 1894, he was educated at the Aligarh Muslim University before pursuing his education at the Cambridge University to secure his graduation. Upon returning, he started his political career on a Muslim League platform where he primary focused on education causes in Bengal before leading the cause for separate Muslim homeland, Pakistan, under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah. From 1943–45, he served as the Prime Minister of Bengal and later becoming the Chief Minister in 1947 until 1948 when he ascended as Governor-General after Jinnah's passing.
In 1951, he took over the control of the government as Prime Minister of Pakistan upon the assassination of Liaquat Ali Khan, and relinquished the post of Governor-General to Sir Malik Ghulam. As Prime Minister, he struggled to run the government effectively on the internal and foreign fronts, and thus he tenured for only two years. On the home front, he struggled to maintain law and order in the country and instructed the military to impose martial law in Lahore due to religious riots and stagnation. He also faced a populist language movement in his native Bengal that eventually led to the shutdown of Government of East Pakistan. Foreign relations with the United States, Soviet Union, Afghanistan, and India soured as republicanism and socialism gained popularity at home.
Eventually, he was forced to step down in favor of diplomat Mohammad Ali Bogra by his own appointed Governor-General Sir Malik Ghulam and conceded defeat in elections held in 1954. Upon retiring from national politics, he suffered a brief illness and died in 1964. He was buried at a Mausoleum in Dhaka.
Sir Khwaja Nazimuddin
خواجہ ناظِمُ الدّین
Khawaja Nazimuddin (1894–1964)
|2nd Prime Minister of Pakistan|
17 October 1951 – 17 April 1953
|Governor General||Sir Malik Ghulam Muhammad|
|Preceded by||Liaquat Ali Khan|
|Succeeded by||Mohammad Ali Bogra|
|2nd Governor-General of Pakistan|
14 September 1948 – 17 October 1951
|Prime Minister||Liaquat Ali Khan|
|Preceded by||Muhammad Ali Jinnah|
|Succeeded by||Sir Malik Ghulam Muhammad|
|Chief Minister of East Bengal|
15 August 1947 – 14 September 1948
|Governor General||Muhammad Ali Jinnah|
|Prime Minister||Liaquat Ali Khan|
|Governor||Sir Fredrick Chalmers Bourne|
|Preceded by||Huseyn Suhrawardy (as Prime minister of Bengal)|
|Succeeded by||Nurul Amin|
|Prime Minister of Bengal|
29 April 1943 – 31 March 1945
|Governor General||Lord Mountbatten|
|Governor||Richard Casey, Baron Casey|
|Preceded by||Fazlul Haq|
|Succeeded by||Huseyn Suhrawardy|
|President of Pakistan Muslim League|
17 October 1951 – 17 April 1953
|Preceded by||Liaquat Ali Khan|
|Succeeded by||Mohammad Ali of Bogra|
19 July 1894
Dacca, Bengal, British India
(now Dhaka, Bangladesh)
|Died||22 October 1964 (aged 70)|
(now Dhaka, Bangladesh)
|Resting place||Mausoleum of three leaders|
|Political party||Pakistan Muslim League|
|All-India Muslim League|
|Spouse(s)||Shah Bano Ashraf, daughter of Khwaja Ashraf|
|Alma mater||Cambridge University|
(MA in Eng.)
Aligarh Muslim University
(BA in Soci.)
|Awards||Order of the Indian Empire|
Nazimuddin was born into an aristocratic and wealthy family of the Nawabs of Dhaka, Dacca, Bengal, on 19 July 1894.:1895:xxx He was the maternal grandson of Nawab Sir Khwaja Ahsanullah and his mother, Bilquis Bano, was notable for her own statue. Nazimuddin had a younger brother, Khwaja Shahabuddin, who would later played a vital role in national politics onwards.:76:xxx Being of Kashmiri-Bengali descent, his family spoke both Urdu and Bengali. They were the first cousin of Nawab Khwaja Habibullah son of Nawab Sir Khwaja Salimullah Bahadur who helped laid foundation of Muslim League in 1906.
He was educated at the Dunstable Grammar School in England but returned to India following his matriculation where he enrolled to attend the MAO College of the Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) in Uttar Pradesh, India. Nazimuddin secured his graduation with a BA degree in sociology from AMU and was sent back to England to pursue higher education. During his time at AMU, he was known to be an avid tennis player and excelled in this sport when he represented his university in collegiate games.:76
After AMU, Nazimuddin went to England and attended Trinity College at Cambridge University. He was granted his MA degree in English by Cambridge University.:449–450 His training in England enabled him to practice law and become a Barrister-at-Law in England. He was knighted in 1934. In 1947–49, Nazimuddin was granted the degree of Doctor of Laws by the Vice-Chancellor of Dhaka University, Dr. Mahmud Hasan.:161
Nazimuddin returned to India to join his brother Khwaja Shahbuddin from England, taking interest in civil and public affairs that led him to join the Bengali politics. Both brother joined the Muslim League, and Nazimuddin successfully ran for the municipality election and elected as Chairman of Dhaka Municipality from 1922 until 1929. During this time, he was appointed as Education minister of Bengal. He remained minister of Education till 1934. Later he was appointmented in Viceroy's Executive Council in 1934 which he served until 1937.
He participated in regional elections held on 1937 on a Muslim League's platform but conceded his defeat in favor of Fazlul Haq of Krishak Praja Part (KPP) who was appointed as Prime Minister of Bengal, while assuming his personal role as member of the legislative assembly.:69
In the India Office Records, Political and Secret Department Records (1756–1950), Category L/P&S, Record 5/250, 3/79, one comes across the Fortnightly Report (February 1947) to the Viceroy by the then Governor of Punjab Sir Evan Jenkins. According to this report when inquired about the Pakistan project, Khawaja Nazimuddin candidly told him that ″he did not know what Pakistan means and that nobody in the Muslim League knew.″ This remark clearly shows that so few as six months before the creation of Pakistan, even senior Muslim League leaders had no clarity as to the basic features of the State they were asking for.[a]
Upon the formation of the coalition government in an agreement facilitated between Muslim League and the Krishak Praja Party, Nazimuddin was appointed as the home minister under Haq's premiership., which he continued until 1943.:331
Due to his conservative elite position, he became close associate of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, then-president of the Muslim League, who appointed him as a member of the executive committee to successfully promote Muslim League' party agenda and program that gained popularity in East Bengal.:332 In 1940–41, Nazimuddin broke away from the coalition led by Premier Fazlul Haq and decided to become a leader of the opposition, leading campaign against Haq's premiership and primarily focused on Bengali nationalism issues.:332 In 1943, Nazimuddin took over the government from Premier Haq when the latter was dismissed by the Governor John Herbert amid controversies surrounding in his political campaigns. During this time, Nazimuddin played a crucial political role for the cause for the separate Muslim homeland, Pakistan.:332 About his role, he was asked about the "Pakistan question" by British Governor Richard Casey in 1945 but he showed very little and no interests in discussing the existence of the movement and reportedly quoting: he did not know what Pakistan means and nobody in Muslim League knew."
His premiership lasted until 1945 when a motion of no confidence and faced with defeat in the assembly hall by 160 to 97 votes that effectively ended his premiership.:106 He relinquished the office to Nausher Ali, an Indian nationalist Muslim and a prominent member of Congress Party who the speaker of the assembly, but the administration was taken over by Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy.:106
From 1945–47, Sir Nazimuddin continued to be served as the chairman of the Muslim League in Bengal, ardently supporting the political cause for Pakistan against the Congress Party.:333 During this time, he had been in brief conflict with Premier Suhrawardy and strongly opposed the United Bengal Movement and led a strong parliamentary opposition in the assembly against Suhrawardy's administration in April 1947. The conflict between two men mainly existed because Suhrawardy had represented the middle class while Nazimuddin was representing the aristocracy in the assembly.
In 1947, he again contested in the party elections in the Muslim League against Suhrawardy's platform and securing his nomination as the party chairman for the Muslim League's East Bengal chapter.:49–50 His success in the party election eventually led him to the appointed as the first Chief Minister of East Bengal after the Partition of India in 1947 and effectively gained controlled of the Muslim League in the province.:50
As the Chief Minister, he led the motion of confidence that ultimately voted in favor of joining the Federation of Pakistan and reorganized the Government of East Pakistan by delegating conservative members in his administration.:49–50
On 14 August of 1947, Governor-General Muhammad Ali Jinnah relinquished the party presidency of the Pakistan Muslim League (PML) to Khawaja Nazimuddin who took over the party of President of Pakistan Muslim League (PML), due to his party electoral performance.:50–51 On 1 November 1947, he was appointed as acting Governor-General in the absence of Governor-General Jinnah due to worsening health, and eventually appointed as Governor-General after passing of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, in a crucial support provided by Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan on 14 September 1948 to the President Nazimuddin. His oath of office was supervised by Chief Justice Sir Abdul Rashid of the Supreme Court of Pakistan, in attendance with Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan.
As Governor-General, Nazimuddin set a precedent of neutrality and non-interference in the government, and provided his political support to Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan's government, which was seen as essential to the working of the responsible government at that time.:102
I do not agree that religion is a private affair of the individual nor do I agree that in an Islamic state every citizen has identical rights, no matter what his caste, creed or faith be ...— Governor-General Khawaja Nazimuddin, 1948–49, 
In 1949, Governor-General Nazimuddin established the parliamentary committee, the Basic Principles Committee, on the advice of Prime Minister Ali Khan to underlying basic principles that would lay foundation of Constitution of Pakistan.
In 1950, Nazimuddin released an official policy statement and declared that: "Pakistan would remain incomplete until the whole of Kashmir is liberated."
After the assassination of Liaqat Ali Khan in 1951, the Muslim League leaders asked Governor-General Nazimuddin to take over the business of the government as well as the party's presidency as there was no other person found suitable for the post.:233 He appointed Finance Minister Sir Malik Ghulam as Governor-General's post. Nazimuddin's government focused towards promoting the political programs aimed towards conservative ideas. During his time in office, a framework was begun for a constitution that would allow Pakistan to become a republic, and end its Dominion status under the English monarchy.
Nazimuddin's administration took place during a poor economy and the rise of provincial nationalism in four provinces and East Bengal which made him unable to run the country's affairs effectively.:121–122 By 1951–52, the Muslim League had split into two different factions dominated by the Bengali chapter and Punjab-Sindh chapter, as those were the two largest ethnic demographics, but were separated by India.:235
In 1951, Prime Minister Nazimuddin's government conducted the country's first nationwide census where it was noted that 57% population of the country was Indian immigrants, mostly residing in Karachi that further complicated the situation in the country.:xxx In January 1952, Prime Minister Nazimuddin publicly announced in Dacca's meeting that: Jinnah had been right: for the sake of Pakistan's national unity, Urdu must be the official language of Pakistan–East and West.:153 On 21 February 1952, a demonstration in the Bengali Language movement demanding equal and official status to the Bengali language turned bloody, with many fatalities caused by police firings.:137 This demonstration was held when he declared Urdu the National Language of Pakistan, following the previous statement of Muhammad Ali Jinnah that Urdu shall be 'one and only' language of Pakistan.
In 1953, a violent religious movement led by far-right Jamaat-e-Islami began to agitate for the removal of the Ahmadi religious minority from power positions, and demanded a declaration of this minority as non-Muslims.:60
Nazimuddin was held morally responsible for riots being spread and resisted such pressures;:60 but mass rioting broke out in Punjab against both the government and followers of this religious minority.:60–61 Prime Minister Nazimuddin responded to the violence by dismissing the Chief Minister of Punjab, Mumtaz Daultana, to Feroze Khan, but the decision came late.:17 He declared martial law, with approval coming from Governor-General Malik Ghulam, and enforced through Lieutenant General Azam Khan who successfully quelled the agitation.:17–18:158
The agitations and violence spread through the successful Bengali language movement and the riots in Lahore proved the inability of Prime Minister Nazimuddin's government as he was widely seen as weak in running the government administration.:288
In a view of attempting to improve the economy and internal security, Governor-General Malik Ghulam asked Prime Minister Nazimuddin to step down in the wider interest of the country.:289 Prime Minister Nazimuddin refused to oblige and Governor-General Malik Ghulam used reserve powers granted in the Government of India Act, 1935, dismissed Prime Minister Nazimuddin.:289
Nazimuddin then requested the Supreme Court of Pakistan's intervention against this action but the Chief Justice, Moh'd Munir did not rule on the legality of the dismissal, but instead forced new elections to be held in 1954. Governor-General Malik Ghulam appointed another Bengali politician, Muhammad Ali Bogra who was then tenuring as the Pakistan ambassador to the United States, as the new Prime Minister until the new elections to be held in 1954.:289 The dismissal of Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin's administration, the Prime Minister, by the Governor-General Malik Ghulam, signalled a troubling trend in political history of the country.:289:132
Even after his dismissal, he and his family remained active in parliamentary politics; his nephew, Khwaja Wasiuddin, an army general serving as GOC-in-C II Corps and later repatriated to Bangladesh in 1974.
His younger brother, Shahabuddin, remained active in the politics and eventually ascended as Information minister in the President Ayub Khan's administration.:559 Sir Khawaja died in 1964, aged 70. He was buried at Mausoleum of three leaders in his hometown of Dhaka. He is considered a betrayer by Bengalis as he called the language movement protesters Communists.
Nazimuddin and his brother, Shahabuddin, belonged to an aristocrat wealthy family who were known for their wealth. In thesis written by Joya Chatterji, Nazimuddin was described for unquestionable loyalty to British administration in India:
Short statured with a bulging pear-like figure, he was known for his insatiable appetite and his unfailing submission to the ... Britishers ... Dressed in British-styled Sherwani and breechers-like Churidar pajamas with a Fez cap and wearing little shoes, he carried a... cane of knob and represented an age and tradition.— Joya Chatterji, Bengal Divided: Hindu Communalism and Partition, Reference :80
By 1934, the family had estates that covered almost 200,000 acres and was well spread over different districts of Eastern Bengal, together with properties in Shillong,Assam and kolkata had an yearly rent of ₤120,000 ($2,736,497.94 in 2017).:80 By 1960s, the majority of estate was relocated from East Pakistan to the different areas of Pakistan, leaving very little of his estate in East.:80
He was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE) in 1926, and was knighted in 1934 by the King-Emperor, George V, when he was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (KCIE).
By the Government of Pakistan, Nazimuddin has been honored from time to time after his death. In Karachi, the residential areas, Nazimabad and North Nazimabad in suburbs of Karachi, had been named after his name. In Islamabad, there is a road intersection, Nazimuddin Road, that has been named in his honor; while in Dacca, there is also a road after his namesake.
Current Events Biography, 1949
A.K. Fazlul Haque
| Prime Minister of Bengal
Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy
Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy
| Chief Minister of East Bengal
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
| Governor-General of Pakistan
Malik Ghulam Muhammad
Liaquat Ali Khan
| Prime Minister of Pakistan
Muhammad Ali Bogra
| Minister of Defence|
Events from the year 1948 in Pakistan.1949 in Pakistan
Events from the year 1949 in Pakistan.1950 in Pakistan
Events from the year 1950 in Pakistan.1951 in Pakistan
Events from the year 1951 in Pakistan.1952 in Pakistan
Events from the year 1952 in Pakistan.1953 in Pakistan
Events from the year 1953 in Pakistan.Abdur Rab Nishtar
Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar (13 June 1899 – 14 February 1958; Pashto: سردار عبد الرب نښتر) was a Muslim League stalwart, a Pakistan movement activist and later on a Pakistani politician.Basic Principles Committee
The Basic Principles Committee (BPC) was a specialised committee set up on March 1949 by Khawaja Nazimuddin on the advice of prime minister Liaquat Ali Khan. The committee’s sole purpose was to determine the basic underlying principles that would determine future constitutions and legislature in Pakistan.Initial recommendations and proposals suggested by the BPC were highly criticised in the local media and public. Much of the criticism came from East Pakistan where the committee proposals were said to be subversive of the ideology of Pakistan, under-representing the majority province and neglecting the Bengali language thoroughly in the constitutional and legislative process. The suggestion of the formation of a religious oversight board was also seen as "undemocratic [and] an insult to Islam".Bengal Provincial Muslim League
The Bengal Provincial Muslim League (BPML) was the branch of the All India Muslim League in the British Indian province of Bengal. It was established in Dacca on 2 March 1912. Its official language was Bengali. The party played an important role in the Bengal Legislative Council and in the Bengal Legislative Assembly, where two of the Prime Ministers of Bengal were from the party. It was vital to the creation of the Dominion of Pakistan, particularly after its election victory in 1946.
In 1929, a faction of the party broke away as the Praja Party. Members of the BPML later became prominent statesmen of Pakistan and Bangladesh, including holding offices such as the Prime Minister of Pakistan (Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin, Mohammad Ali of Bogra, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy and Nurul Amin), Governor General of Pakistan (Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin), Chief Minister of East Bengal (Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin, Nurul Amin, A. K. Fazlul Huq and Ataur Rahman Khan), President of Bangladesh (Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Mohammad Mohammadullah and Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad), Vice President of Bangladesh (Syed Nazrul Islam) and Prime Minister of Bangladesh (Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Tajuddin Ahmad, Muhammad Mansur Ali and Ataur Rahman Khan).East Bengal
East Bengal (Bengali: পূর্ব বাংলা Purbô Bangla) was a geographically noncontiguous province of the Dominion of Pakistan covering Bangladesh. With its coastline on the Bay of Bengal, it bordered India and Burma. It was located very near to, but did not share a border with, Nepal, China, the Kingdom of Sikkim and the Kingdom of Bhutan. Its capital was Dacca.
The Partition of British India, which divided Bengal along religious lines, established the borders of Muslim majority East Bengal. The province existed during the reign of two monarchs, including George VI and Elizabeth II; and three Governors-General, including Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Khawaja Nazimuddin and Ghulam Muhammad. Its provincial governors included a British administrator and several Pakistani statesmen. Its chief ministership was held by leading Bengali politicians.
East Bengal was the most populous and cosmopolitan province in the dominion. East Bengal was a hub of political movements, including the Bengali Language Movement and pro-democracy groups. It was dissolved and replaced by East Pakistan during the One Unit scheme implemented by Prime Minister Mohammad Ali of Bogra.
The provincial legislature was the East Bengal Legislative Assembly.East Pakistan Provincial Assembly
The East Pakistan Provincial Assembly, known as the East Bengal Legislative Assembly between 1947 and 1955, was the legislature of Bangladesh when the country was a province of Pakistan as East Bengal (1947-1955) and East Pakistan (1955-1971). The legislature was a successor to the British Raj-era parliament of Bengal, which was divided between East Bengal and West Bengal during the partition of Bengal in 1947. It was the largest provincial legislature in Pakistan.
During the Bangladesh War of Independence in 1971, most Bengali members elected to the Pakistani National Assembly and the East Pakistani provincial assembly became members of the Constituent Assembly of Bangladesh.Freedom of religion in Pakistan
Freedom of religion in Pakistan is guaranteed by the Constitution of Pakistan for individuals of various religions and religious sects.
Pakistan gained independence in 1947 and was founded upon the concept of Two-nation theory. At the time of Pakistan's creation the 'hostage theory' had been espoused. According to this theory the Hindu minority in Pakistan was to be given a fair deal in Pakistan in order to ensure the protection of the Muslim minority in India. However, Khawaja Nazimuddin, the 2nd Prime Minister of Pakistan, stated: "I do not agree that religion is a private affair of the individual nor do I agree that in an Islamic state every citizen has identical rights, no matter what his caste, creed or faith be".It is estimated that 95% of Pakistanis are Muslims (75-95% Sunni, 5-20% Shia and 0.22-2.2% Ahmadi, who are not permitted to call themselves Muslims—see Religious discrimination in Pakistan), while the remaining 5% includes Hindus, Christians, Sikhs, Zoroastrians, members of other faiths and atheists.Progress on religious freedom is being made gradually as Pakistan transitions to democracy from Zia's legacy, in 2016 Sindh with Pakistan's largest Hindu minority passed a bill that outlawed forced conversions. The bill was tabled by a faction of the Pakistan Muslim League which in Sindh is led by Sufi leader Pir Pagara, called PML-F, Pakistan Muslim League functional. Pakistan is 96% Muslim, and most provinces are overwhelmingly Muslim, Pakistan's most religiously diverse province is Sindh with an 8% religious minority population (predominantly Hindus and also Christians) and there is significant protection within Sindh province against forced conversions against one's will.Governor-General of Pakistan
The Governor-General of Pakistan (Urdu: گورنر جنرل پاکستان), was the representative in Pakistan of the British monarch, from the country's independence in 1947. When Pakistan was proclaimed a republic in 1956, the office of governor-general was abolished.Mausoleum of three leaders
The Mausoleum of three leaders (Bengali: তিন নেতার মাজার), located at Shahbag, Dhaka in Bangladesh, contains the graves of three pre-liberation politicians from Bengal in the 20th century: A.K. Fazlul Huq (1873–1962), Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy (1892–1963) and Khwaja Nazimuddin (1894–1964). All three men served as the Prime Minister of Bengal in British India.
The monument was designed by architect Masood Ahmed and S.A. Zahiruddin and was established in 1963. The style of architecture of the monuments is an interpretation of Islamic Arcs.Nazimuddin
Nazimuddin (Arabic: ناظم الدین) is a male Muslim given name formed from the elements Nazim and ad-Din. it may refer to:
Khawaja Nazimuddin (1894–1964) Governor-General of Pakistan, later Prime Minister of Pakistan
Nazimuddin (cricketer), that is, Mohammed Nazimuddin Ahmed (born 1985), Bangladeshi cricketerNurul Amin
Nurul Amin (Bengali: নূরুল আমীন, Urdu: نورالامین; 15 July 1893 – 2 October 1974), referred to as the Patriot of Pakistan, was a prominent Pakistani leader, and a jurist. He is noted as being the last Bengali leader of Pakistan.
Starting his statesmanship in 1948 as Chief Minister of East Bengal, he headed the Ministry of Supply. After participating in parliamentary elections in 1970, Amin was appointed and served as Prime Minister of Pakistan. He was the first and the only Vice President of Pakistan from 1970 till 1972, leading Pakistan in the Indo-Pakistani war of 1971.
An anti-war and principal Pakistan movement activist, Amin is considered a patriot who worked to keep Pakistan united. He initially opposed the creation of Bangladesh during the Bangladesh Liberation War – but after the 25 March massacre, devoted his position to reopening communication channels between the warring sides, curbing wartime crimes and repatriating Bengalis stranded in West Pakistan after Bangladeshi liberation.Prime Minister of Bengal
The Prime Minister of Bengal was the head of government of Bengal Province and the Leader of the House in the Bengal Legislative Assembly in British India. The position was dissolved upon the Partition of Bengal in 1947.Syed Khalil-ur-Rehman
Syed Khalil-ur-Rehman, خلیل الرحمان, was the 1st Minister of State for Defence Pakistan during the premiership of Khawaja Nazimuddin. He was also a close companion of Mr. Muhammad Ali Jinnah and a senior member of Pakistan Muslim League.The Morning News (Bangladeshi newspaper)
The Morning News was a right wing English language newspaper published from Dhaka.
Italics indicate acting Prime Ministers