Khan (title)

Khan[b] (/kɑːn/) is a title of unknown origin for a ruler or military leader. It first appears among the Göktürks as a variant of khagan (sovereign, emperor)[c] and implied a subordinate ruler. In the Seljuk Empire it was the highest noble title, ranking above malik (king) and emir. In the Mongol Empire it signified the ruler of a horde (ulus), while the ruler of all the Mongols was the khagan or great khan. The title subsequently declined in importance. In Safavid Persia it was the title of a provincial governor, and in Mughal India it was a high noble rank restricted to courtiers. After the downfall of the Mughals it was used promiscuously and became a surname.[2]

Etymology

The origin of the term is disputed and unknown; possibly a loanword from the Ruanruan language.[3][4] According to Vovin (2007, 2010) the term comes from qaγan (meaning emperor or supreme ruler) and was later used in several languages, especially in Turkic and Mongolic.

Turkic and Para-Mongolic origin has been suggested by a number of scholars including Ramstedt, Shiratori, Sinor and Doerfer, and was reportedly first used by the Xianbei.[5][6]

According to Vovin, the word *qa-qan "great-qan" (*qa- for "great" or "supreme") is of non-Altaic origin, but instead linked to Yeniseian *qε> "big" or "great". The origin of qan itself is harder according to Vovin. He says that the origin for the word qan is not found in any reconstructed proto-language and was used widely by Turkic, Mongolic, Chinese and Korean people with variations from kan, qan, han and hwan. A relation exists possibly to the Yeniseian words *qij or *qaj meaning "ruler". [4]

It maybe impossible to prove the ultimate origin of the title, but Vovin says: "Thus, it seems to be quite likely that the ultimate source of both qaγan and qan can be traced back to Xiong-nu and Yeniseian".[4]

History

"Khan" is first encountered as a title in the Xianbei confederation[7] for their chief between 283 and 289.[8] The Rourans may have been the first people who used the titles khagan and khan for their emperors.[9] However, Russian liguist Alexander Vovin (2007)[4] believes that the term qaγan originated among the Yeniseian-speaking Xiongnu people, and then diffused across language families. Subsequently, the Göktürks adopted the title and brought it to the rest of Asia. In the middle of the sixth century the Iranians knew of a "Kagan – King of the Turks".[7]

Various Mongolic and Turkic peoples from Central Asia gave the title new prominence after period of the Mongol Empire (1206–1368) in the Old World and later brought the title "khan" into Northern Asia, where locals later adopted it. Khagan is rendered as Khan of Khans. It was the title of Chinese Emperor Emperor Taizong of Tang (Heavenly Khagan, reigned 626 to 649)[10] and Genghis Khan's successors selected to rule the Mongol Empire starting from 1229. Genghis Khan himself was referred as qa'an (khagan) only posthumously[11]. For instance Möngke Khan (reigned 1251-1259) and Ogedei Khan (reigned 1229-1241) would be "Khagans" but not Chagatai Khan, who was not proclaimed ruler of the Mongol Empire by the kurultai.

Khanate rulers and dynasties

Ruling Khans

Originally khans headed only relatively minor tribal entities, generally in or near the vast Mongolian and North Chinese steppe, the scene of an almost endless procession of nomadic people riding out into the history of the neighbouring sedentary regions. Some managed to establish principalities of some importance for a while, as their military might repeatedly proved a serious threat to such empires as China and kingdoms in Central Asia.

One of the earliest notable examples of such principalities in Europe was Danube Bulgaria (presumably also Old Great Bulgaria), ruled by a khan or a kan at least from the 7th to the 9th century. It should be noted that the title "khan" is not attested directly in inscriptions and texts referring to Bulgar rulers – the only similar title found so far, Kanasubigi, has been found solely in the inscriptions of three consecutive Bulgarian rulers, namely Krum, Omurtag and Malamir (a grandfather, son and grandson). Starting from the compound, non-ruler titles that were attested among Bulgarian noble class such as kavkhan (vicekhan), tarkhan, and boritarkhan, scholars derive the title khan or kan for the early Bulgarian leader – if there was a vicekhan (kavkhan) there was probably a "full" khan, too. Compare also the rendition of the name of early Bulgarian ruler Pagan as Καμπαγάνος (Kampaganos), likely resulting from a misinterpretation of "Kan Pagan", in Patriarch Nicephorus's so-called Breviarium[12] In general, however, the inscriptions as well as other sources designate the supreme ruler of Danube Bulgaria with titles that exist in the language in which they are written – archontes, meaning 'commander or magistrate' in Greek, and knyaze, meaning "duke" or "prince" in Slavic. Among the best known Bulgar khans were: Khan Kubrat, founder of Great Bulgaria; Khan Asparukh, founder of Danubian Bulgaria (today's Bulgaria); Khan Tervel, who defeated the Arab invaders in 718 Siege of Constantinople (718), thus stopped the Arab invasion in Southeast Europe; Khan Krum, "the Terrible". "Khan" was the official title of the ruler until 864 AD, when Kniaz Boris (known also as Tsar Boris I) adopted the Eastern Orthodox faith.

East-Hem 1200ad
Eurasia on the eve of the Mongol invasions, c. AD 1200.

The title Khan rose to unprecedented prominence with the Mongol Temüjin's creation of the Mongol empire, the largest contiguous land empire in history, which he ruled as Genghis Khan. Before 1229 the title was used to designate leaders of important tribes as well as tribal confederations (the Mongol Empire considered the largest one), and rulers of non-Mongol countries.[11] Shortly before the death of the Genghis Khan, his sons became khans in different dominions (ulus) and the title apparently became unsuitable for the supreme ruler of the empire, needing a more exalted one. Being under Uighur cultural influence, Mongols adopted ancient Turkish title of khagan starting with Ögedei Khan in 1229.[11]

Ming Dynasty Chinese Emperors also used the term Xan to denote brave warriors and rulers. The title Khan was used to designate the greatest rulers of the Jurchens, who, later when known as the Manchus, founded the Manchu Qing dynasty.

Once more, there would be numerous khanates in the steppe in and around Central Asia, often more of a people than a territorial state, e.g.:

  • of the Kazakhs (founded 1465; since 1601 divided into three geographical Jüz or Hordes, each under a bey; in 1718 split into three different khanates; eliminated by the Russian Empire by 1847)
  • in present Uzbekistan, the main khanate, named after its capital Bukhara, was founded in 1500 and restyled emirate in 1753 (after three Persian governors since 1747); the Ferghana (valley's) khanate broke way from it by 1694 and became known as the Khanate of Kokand after its capital Kokand from its establishment in 1732; the khanate of Khwarezm, dating from c.1500, became the Khanate of Khiva in 1804 but fell soon under Russian protectorate; Karakalpakstan had its own rulers (khans?) since c. 1600.

While most Afghan principalities were styled emirate, there was a khanate of ethnic Uzbeks in Badakhshan since 1697.

Khan was also the title of the rulers of various break-away states and principalities later in Persia, e.g. 1747–1808 Khanate of Ardabil (in northwestern Iran east of Sarab and west of the southwest corner of the Caspian Sea), 1747–1813 Khanate of Khoy (northwestern Iran, north of Lake Urmia, between Tabriz and Lake Van), 1747–1829 Khanate of Maku (in extreme northwestern Iran, northwest of Khoy, and 60 miles south of Yerevan, Armenia), 1747–1790s Khanate of Sarab (northwestern Iran east of Tabriz), 1747 – c.1800 Khanate of Tabriz (capital of Iranian Azerbaijan).

There were various small khanates in and near Transcaucasia and Ciscaucasia established by the Safavids, or their successive Afsharid and Qajar dynasties outside their territories of Persia proper. For example, in present Armenia and nearby territories to the left and right, there was the khanate of Erivan (sole incumbent 1807–1827 Hosein Quli Khan Qajar). Diverse khanates existed in Dagestan (now part of Russia), Azerbaijan, including Baku (present capital), Ganja, Jawad, Quba (Kuba), Salyan, Shakki (Sheki, ruler style Bashchi since 1743) and Shirvan=Shamakha (1748–1786 temporarily split into Khoja Shamakha and Yeni Shamakha), Talysh (1747–1814); Nakhichevan and (Nagorno) Karabakh.

As hinted above, the title Khan was also common in some of the polities of the various – generally Islamic – peoples in the territories of the Mongol Golden Horde and its successor states, which, like the Mongols in general, were commonly called Ta(r)tars[d] by Europeans and Russians, and were all eventually subdued by Muscovia which became the Russian Empire. The most important of these states were:

Navaanneren
Navaanneren, Minister of the Interior, who along with the 23rd Tushiyetu Khan Dorjsurenkhoroljav (1908-1937) was the last Khan in Mongolia. He was executed during the great purges of 1937.

Further east, in Xinjiang (East Turkestan) flank:

  • Khanate of Kashgaria founded in 1514; 17th century divided into several minor khanates without importance, real power going to the so-called Khwaja, Arabic Islamic religious leaders; title changed to Amir Khan in 1873, annexed by China in 1877.

Compound and derived princely titles

Mongol dominions1
Mongol Empire's largest extent outlined in red; the Timurid Empire is shaded

The higher, rather imperial title Khaqan ("Khan of Khans") applies to probably the most famous rulers known as Khan: the Mongol imperial dynasty of Genghis Khan (his name was Temüjin, Genghis Khan a never fully understood unique title), and his successors, especially grandson Kublai Khan: the former founded the Mongol Empire and the latter founded the Yuan Dynasty in China. The ruling descendants of the main branch of Genghis Khan's dynasty are referred to as the Great Khans.

The title Khan of Khans was among numerous titles used by the Sultans of the Ottoman empire as well as the rulers of the Golden Horde and its descendant states. The title Khan was also used in the Seljuk Turk dynasties of the near-east to designate a head of multiple tribes, clans or nations, who was below an Atabeg in rank. Jurchen and Manchu rulers also used the title Khan (Han in Manchu); for example, Nurhaci was called Genggiyen Han. Rulers of the Göktürks, Avars and Khazars used the higher title Kaghan, as rulers of distinct nations.

  • Gur Khan, meaning supreme or universal Khan, was the ruler of the Khitan Kara-Kitai, and has occasionally been used by the Mongols as well
  • Ilkhan, both a generic term for a 'provincial Khan' and traditional royal style for one of the four khanates in Genghis's succession, based in Persia. See the main article for more details.
  • Khan-i-Khanan (Persian: خان خانان‎, "Lord of Lords") was a title given to the commander-in-chief of the army of the Mughals, an example being Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana of the great Mughal emperor, Akbar's (and later his son Jahangir's) army.
  • Khan Sahib Shri Babi was the complex title of the ruler of the South Asia princely state of Bantva-Manavadar (state founded 1760; September 1947 acceded to Pakistan, but 15 February 1948 forced to rescind accession to Pakistan, to accede to India after Khan Sahib's arrest).
  • In southern Korean states, the word Han or Gan, meaning "leader", could be origin of word khan according to turkic history textbook. Geoseogan or Geoseulhan, the title of Hyeokgeose of Silla means "leader of leader" and "king" in language of Jinhan confederacy. He was leader of saro state, one of chiefdom of in Jinhan confederacy in 37 BC. After Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, totally united them under a now hereditary king, titled Maripgan, meaning the 'head of kings' (e.g. King Naemul Maripgan).
  • Khatun, or Khatan (Persian: خاتون‎) – a title of European Sogdian origin[13][14][15] – is roughly equal to a King's queen in Mongolic and Turkic languages, as by this title a ruling Khan's Queen-consort (wife) is designated with similar respect after their proclamation as Khan and Khatun. Also used in Hazari (instead of Khanum). Famous Khatuns include:
  • Khanum (Turkish: Hanım; Azerbaijani: Xanım; Persian: خانم‎) is another female derivation of Khan, notably in Turkic languages, for a Khan's Queen-consort, or in some traditions extended as a courtesy title (a bit like Lady for women not married to a Lord, which is the situation modern Turkish) to the wives of holders of various other (lower) titles; in Afghanistan, for example, it ended up as the common term for 'Miss', any unmarried woman. In the modern Kazakh language, Khatun is a derogatory term for women, while Khanum has a respectful meaning.
  • Khan Bahadur (title) - a compound of khan (leader) and Bahadur (Brave) - was a formal title of respect and honour, which was conferred exclusively on Muslim subjects of the British Indian Empire.[1] It was a title one degree higher than the title of Khan Sahib.
    • The compound Galin Khanum – literally, "lady bride" – was the title accorded to the principal noble wife of a Qajar
  • Khanzada (Urdu: خانزاده ‎) is a title conferred to princes of the dynasties of certain princely states of India.
    • Sardargarh-Bantva (Muslim Babi dynasty, fifth class state in Kathiawar, Gujarat) in front of the personal name, Shri in between; the ruler replaces Khanzada by khan.
  • Khaqan or Khakhan (Old Turkic: 𐰴𐰍𐰣, kaɣan)[16] (Urdu: خاقان‎) is used as a title in Pakistan.
  • Khandan ('Khan holder') means "Family" in (Urdu: خاندان‎).
  • Kanasubigi or Kana subigi, as it is written in Bulgarian Greek inscriptions, was a title of the Bulgars. Among the proposed translations for the phrase kanasubigi as a whole are lord of the army, from the reconstructed Turkic phrase *sü begi, paralleling the attested Old Turkic sü baši,[17] and, more recently, "(ruler) from God", from the Indo-European *su- and baga-, i.e. *su-baga (an equivallent of the Greek phrase ὁ ἐκ Θεοῦ ἄρχων, ho ek Theou archon, which is common in Bulgar inscriptions)
  • Kavhan[18] or Kaukhan was one of the most important officials in the First Bulgarian Empire. According to the generally accepted opinion, he was the second most important person in the state after the Bulgarian ruler. Owais Khan was also believed a Great Khan but no evidences about him are founded.
  • Beg Khan (a concatenation of Baig and Khan) is a title used by some Mughals and Mongols.

Other khans

Brooklyn Museum - Two Khans in Turkoman Tribal Costume One of 274 Vintage Photographs
Two Khans in Turkoman Tribal Costume, One of 274 Vintage Photographs. Brooklyn Museum.

Noble and honorary titles

In imperial Persia, Khan (female form Khanum in Persia) was the title of a nobleman, higher than Beg (or bey) and usually used after the given name. At the Qajar court, precedence for those not belonging to the dynasty was mainly structured in eight classes, each being granted an honorary rank title, the fourth of which was Khan, or in this context synonymously Amir, granted to commanders of armed forces, provincial tribal leaders; in descending order. In neighboring Ottoman Turkey and subsequently the Republic of Turkey, the term Khanum was and is still written as Hanım in Turkish/Ottoman Turkish language. The Ottoman title of Hanımefendi (lit translated; lady of the master), is also a derivative of this.

The titles Khan and Khan Bahadur (from the Altaic root baghatur), related to the Turkic batyr or batur and Mongolian baatar ("brave, hero"); were also bestowed in feudal India by the Mughals, who although Muslims were of Turkic origin upon Muslims and sometimes Hindus, and later by the British Raj, as an honor akin to the ranks of nobility, often for loyalty to the crown. Khan Sahib was another title of honour.

In the major South Asian Muslim state of Hyderabad, Khan was the lowest of the aristocratic titles bestowed by the ruling Nizam upon Muslim retainers, ranking under Khan Bahadur, Nawab (homonymous with a high Muslim ruler's title), Jang, Daula, Mulk, Umara, Jah. The equivalent for the courts Hindu retainers was Rai. In Swat, a Pakistani Frontier State, it was the title of the secular elite, who together with the Mullahs (Muslim clerics), proceeded to elect a new Amir-i-Shariyat in 1914. It seems unclear whether the series of titles known from the Bengal sultanate are merely honorific or perhaps relate to a military hierarchy.

Other uses

Khan is a surname as well as an honorific title. Some of the Hindu Brahmins worked for the great Mughal Emperor Akbar (AD 1556) who honored them as a Khan. Because of this they used the last name Khan, but they were still Hindu Brahmins.

Like many titles, the meaning of the term has also extended southwards, such as in Afghanistan,[19] Pakistan, and Central Asian nations, where it has become a common surname.

Khan and its female forms occur in many personal names, generally without any nobiliary of political relevance, although it remains a common part of noble names as well. Notably in South Asia it has become a part of many South Asian Muslim names,[19] especially when Pashtun (also known as Pathan) descent is claimed; it is now the most common Muslim family name in South Asia. It is also used by many Muslim Rajputs[20] of India and Pakistan who were awarded this surname by Turkic Mughals for their bravery.[21] Similarly it was awarded to Pashtuns by Turkic and Mongol kings. Also the name is claimed to be related to the Hebrew name Cohen or Kohen.

During the Russian Civil War following the Bolshevik takeover of 1917, White general Roman von Ungern-Sternberg, who, admittedly was trying to reconstitute the empire of Genghis Khan, was often styled as "Ungern Khan" between 1919 and his death in 1921.

In popular culture, Khan (Khan Noonien Singh) is a villain in the Star Trek universe, typically used as a plot counterweight to Captain James Tiberius Kirk. While not a ruler or nobleman, 'Khan' does have several followers who are, like himself, genetically engineered super soldiers.

Khan-related terms

See also

Notes

  1. ^ bg:Хан Аспарух (пояснение)
  2. ^ Mongolian: хан/ᠬᠠᠨ khan/qan; Turkish: han; Azerbaijani: xan; Ottoman: han; Old Turkic: 𐰴𐰍𐰣 kaɣan; Chinese: 可汗 kèhán; Goguryeo: 皆 key; buyeo: 加 ka; Silla: 干 kan; Gaya: 旱 kan; Baekje: 瑕 ke; Manchu: ᡥᠠᠨ; Persian: خان; Punjabi: ਖ਼ਾਨ; Hindi-Urdu: ख़ान (Devanagari), خان (Nastaleeq); Balochi: خان; Bulgarian: хан, khan;[a] Chuvash: хун, hun; Bengali: খান or খাঁন)
  3. ^ Khagan itself was borrowed by the Turks from the unclassified Ruanruan language.[1]
  4. ^ The spelling with 'r' is due to a confusion with tartaros, the classical Greek hell. Genghis Khan's conquering, ransacking Mongol hordes terrorized Islam and Christianity without precedent, as if the apocalypse had started.

References

Citations

  1. ^ J. A. Boyle (1978). "Khāḳān". In van Donzel, E.; Lewis, B.; Pellat, Ch.; Bosworth, C. E. The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume IV: Iran–Kha. Leiden: E. J. Brill. p. 915.
  2. ^ J. A. Boyle (1978). "Khān". In van Donzel, E.; Lewis, B.; Pellat, Ch.; Bosworth, C. E. The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume IV: Iran–Kha. Leiden: E. J. Brill. p. 1010.
  3. ^ Vovin, Alexander. 2010. Once Again on the Ruan-ruan Language. Ötüken’den İstanbul’a Türkçenin 1290 Yılı (720–2010) Sempozyumu From Ötüken to Istanbul, 1290 Years of Turkish (720–2010). 3–5 Aralık 2010, İstanbul / 3–5 December 2010, İstanbul: 1–10.
  4. ^ a b c d "ONCE AGAIN ON THE ETYMOLOGY OF THE TITLE qaγan" Alexander Vovin, Studia Etymologica Cracoviensia vol. 12 Kraków 2007 (http://ejournals.eu/sj/index.php/SEC/article/viewFile/1100/1096)
  5. ^ Shiratori, Kurakichi (1926). "On the Titles KHAN and KAGHAN". Proceedings of the Imperial Academy. 2 (6): 241–244. doi:10.2183/pjab1912.2.241. ISSN 0369-9846.
  6. ^ KRADER, LAWRENCE (1955). "QAN-QAγAN AND THE BEGINNINGS OF MONGOL KINGSHIP". Central Asiatic Journal. 1 (1): 17–35. ISSN 0008-9192.
  7. ^ a b Henning, W. B., 'A Farewell to the Khagan of the Aq-Aqataran',"Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African studies – University of London", Vol 14, No 3, pp. 501–522
  8. ^ Zhou 1985, pp. 3–6
  9. ^ René Grousset (1988). The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia now. Rutgers University Press. pp. 61, 585, n. 92. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.
  10. ^ Fairbank, John King. The Cambridge History of China. Cambridge University Press, 1978. p. 367
  11. ^ a b c http://altaica.ru/LIBRARY/rachewiltz/Rachewiltz_Qan.pdf
  12. ^ Източници за българската история – Fontes historiae bulgaricae. VI. Fontes graeci historiae Bulgaricae. БАН, София. p.305 (in Byzantine Greek and Bulgarian). Also available online
  13. ^ Carter Vaughn Findley, "Turks in World History", Oxford University Press, 2005, p. 45: "... Many elements of non-Turkic origin also became part of Türk statecraft [...] for example, as in the case of khatun [...] and beg [...] both terms being of Sogdian origin and ever since in common use in Turkish. ..."
  14. ^ Fatima Mernissi, "The Forgotten Queens of Islam", University of Minnesota Press, 1993. pg 21: "... Khatun 'is a title of Sogdian origin borne by the wives and female relatives of the Tu-chueh and subsequent Turkish Rulers ..."
  15. ^ Leslie P. Peirce, "The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire", Oxford University Press, 1993. pg 312: "... On the title Khatun, see Boyle, 'Khatun', 1933, according to whom it was of Soghdian origin and was borne by wives and female relations of various Turkish Rulers. ..."
  16. ^ Fairbank 1978, p. 367
  17. ^ Veselin Beševliev, Prabylgarski epigrafski pametnici - 5
  18. ^ Moravcsik, G. Byzantinoturcica II. Sprachreste der Türkvölker in den byzantinischen Quellen. Leiden 1983, ISBN 978-90-04-07132-2, c. 156
  19. ^ a b Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Khan" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 771.
  20. ^ http://www.werajput.com/about
  21. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 May 2008. Retrieved 2007-06-07.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)

Sources

Akhtar Raza Khan

Muhammed Akhtar Raza Khan Azhari (2 February 1941 – 20 July 2018) was an Indian Barelvi Muslim scholar and mufti. He was a descendant (great-grandson) of Mujaddid Ahmed Raza Khan, founder of the Barelvi movement. He was considered by Barelvi Muslims in India to function as the Grand Mufti of India. He had been ranked 22nd on the list of The 500 Most Influential Muslims in the world (2014–15 edition), compiled by the Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. He had crores of followers across the country and outside. On 20 July 2018, he died from a long illness.

Azmatkhan

Azmatkhan (Arabic: عظمات خان‎, translit. Aẓamāt Khān) al-Husayni, also spelled Azmat Khan, al-Azhamatkhan or al-Azhamat Chan (Urdu: عظمت خان‎) are a family originating in Hadhramaut. They trace their lineage to Sayyid Abd al-Malik Azmatkhan ibn Alawi Ammul Faqih, a descendant of Husayn ibn Ali. Sayyid Abd al-Malik emigrated from Hadhramaut to India in 14th century AD, earlier than other emigrations from Hadhramaut.al-Husayni later married a daughter of Nasirabad nobility and acquired "Azmat Khan" title. "Khan" title was given in order to consider him as the local nobility. In addition, they put "Azmat" which means "noble" because Abd al-Malik was originated from sayyid lineage. His descendants still retain this name as their patronymic until today.His descendants spread to Pattani, Cambodia, Malay, and Indonesia. Malaysian Asyraf Union records that Sunan Gresik, the foremost Sufi saint of Wali Sanga, was a descendant of Abd al-Malik al-Azmatkhan. Since he was father of Sunan Ampel and grandfather of Sunan Bonang, then most of Wali Sanga were of Azmatkhan's descent.According to Al-Habib Salim bin Abdullah al-Shatiri Al-Husaini, Grand sheikh of Tarim, Yemen, Azmatkhan family (particularly Wali Sanga) were ahl al-bayt from the first wave of Ba 'Alawi sada migration to Indonesia for preaching Islam.Due to the long history of extensive intermarriage, notably with local nobility, most of them are physically and culturally indistinguishable from the local population. In Indonesia, it is not uncommon for an Azmatkhan family member to have hereditary royal title such as Raden, Tubagus, Masagus, Masayu, Kemas, or Nyimas. They maintain their Indonesian identity and Azmatkhan ancestry at the same time. Some of them, however, cannot trace their ancestry anymore.In order to record and keep genealogy of Azmatkhan family, Rabithah Azmatkhan was founded. Rabithah Azmatkhan eventually prompted the formation of Rabithah Fatimiyah in 2010, a similar organization which aims to record genealogy of every descendant of Fatimah Az-Zahra, Muhammad's daughter and the mother of all sayyids.

Garabed Pashayan Khan

Karapet Pashayan (1864, Constantinople – 1915) was an Armenian physician, doctor and public activist.

He finished the Medical College of Constantinople in 1888, then worked as a doctor in Balu and Malatia provinces. In 1890 he was arrested for the support of Armenian fedayee groups, was sentenced to death but then released after the mediation of British consul's family. In 1895 he moved to Iran and became the Persian shah's doctor. For his efforts he was awarded by the khan title. In 1903-1906 Pashayan lived in Alexandria, Egypt, where he founded an Armenian school and a printing house. In 1908 after the Young Turk revolution he returned to Constantinople and was elected as a member of Ottoman parliament. In 1915 he was arrested among the other Armenian intellectuals and was sent to Ayash, where he was tortured and killed.

Pashayan is an author of literary and scientific works ("The Friends of the People", 1909).

Gurkhan

Gurkhan was a Mongol title meaning "Universal Ruler" and roughly equivalent to the older word khagan. It was held by the rulers of the Kara-Khitai in the 13th century. The title was first recorderd in the history after Yelü Dashi founded Kara-Khitan Khanate. It comes from the Mongol Gür / Kür, meaning "wide" or "general". Christopher I. Beckwith claims that the title has the meaning "the ruler of the earth" in his book Empires of Silk Road.

Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna

Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna (25 April 1919 – 17 March 1989) was a Congress Party leader and former Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh; he later joined Bharatiya Lok Dal and worked with Charan Singh.

Jang

Jang may refer to:

Jang (Marshall Islands), part of Maloelap Atoll, in the Marshall Islands

Jang, Nepal, a village development committee in the Rapti Zone of western Nepal

Jang, the Tibetan name for Naxi, a county-level district of Luzhou city, Sichuan Province, China

Jang, the Tibetan name for the Naxi people living in the region of Lijiang, Yunnan

Jang (Korean name), a common Korean family name

Jang Group of Newspapers, a Pakistani newspaper publishing company

Daily Jang, an Urdu-language newspaper published by the Jang Group

A rank bestowed by the Nizam of Hyderabad to ennobled Muslim retainers - see Khan (title)

A variety of Korean condiments, such as ganjang, doenjang, and gochujang.

Kangar union

Kangar union, Kazakh: Қaңғар Oдағy (Qanghar Odaghu) was a Turkic state in the territory of the entire modern Kazakhstan without Zhetysu. The ethnic name Kangar is a medieval name for the Kangly people, who are now part of the Kazakh, Uzbek, and Karakalpak nations. The capital of the Kangar union was located in the Ulytau mountains. The Pechenegs, three of whose tribes were known as Kangar (Greek: Καγγαρ), after being defeated by the Oghuzes, Karluks, and Kimek-Kypchaks, attacked the Bulgars and established the Pecheneg state in Eastern Europe (840-990 CE).

Khagan

Khagan or Qaghan (Old Turkic: 𐰴𐰍𐰣 kaɣan; Mongolian: хаан, khaan) is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic, Mongolic and some other languages, equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a khaganate (empire). The female equivalent is Khatun.

It may also be translated as Khan of Khans, equivalent to King of Kings. In modern Turkic, the title became Khaan with the 'g' sound becoming almost silent or non-existent (i.e. a very light voiceless velar fricative); the ğ in modern Turkish Kağan is also silent. Since the division of the Mongol Empire, emperors of the Yuan dynasty held the title of Khagan and their successors in Mongolia continued to have the title. Kağan and Kaan are common Turkish names in Turkey.

The common western rendering as Great Khan (or Grand Khan), notably in the case of the Mongol Empire, is translation of Yekhe Khagan (Great Emperor or Их Хаан).

Khan

Khan or KHAN may refer to:

Khan (title), a title for a ruler in Turkic and Mongolian languages and used by various ethnicities

Khagan, the royal title of the ruler of the Mongol Empire

Khan (surname), a surname of Mongolian origin common in Central and South Asia particularly among Muslims

Khan (inn), from Persian, a caravanserai; a resting-place for a travelling caravan

Mohmand

Mohmand (Pashto:مومند) is a Pashtun tribe son of Daulatyar tribe grandson of Ghoryakhel mainly live in Nangarhar, Afghanistan and Mohmand Agency, FATA.

Nawab Khwaja Abid Siddiqi

Nawab Khwaja Abid Siddiqi / Kwaja Abid (Qalich Khan title given by Shahjahan) (became Nawab under Aurangzeb and was a Siddiqi by lineage) a loyal general for the Mughal Empire. He is most famous through his grandson who was Mir Qamar-ud-din Siddiqi, Asaf Jah I, son of Ghazi ud-Din Khan Siddiqi Feroze Jung I.

Nouman Ali Khan

Nouman Ali Khan is an American Muslim speaker and Arabic instructor who founded the Bayyinah Institute for Arabic and Qur’anic Studies, after serving as an instructor of Arabic at Nassau Community College. He has been named one of the 500 most influential Muslims in the world by the Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre of Jordan.

Persian name

A Persian name consists of a given name, sometimes more than one, and a surname.

Sabarna Roy Choudhury

The Sabarna Ray Chaudhury (Bengali: সাবর্ণ রায় চৌধুরী) family were the Zamindars of the Kolkata (earlier known as Calcutta) area, prior to the arrival of the British.

Present descendants are scattered throughout West Bengal – mainly Halisahar, Barisha, Uttarpara, Nimta, Birati, Kheput and even parts of Bangladesh.

Shunyo Awnko

Shunyo Awnko (English: The Zero Act) is a 2013 Bengali film directed by Goutam Ghose. The film stars Soumitra Chatterjee, Konkona Sen Sharma and Priyanshu Chatterjee in lead roles. In the film, Konkona Sen Sharma reportedly plays the role of a journalist and Priyanshu Chatterjee as a corporate officer.

Sultan

Sultan (; Arabic: سلطان‎ sulṭān, pronounced [sʊlˈtˤɑːn, solˈtˤɑːn]) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun سلطة sulṭah, meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms (i.e., the lack of dependence on any higher ruler), albeit without claiming the overall caliphate, or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate. The adjective form of the word is "sultanic", and the dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a sultanate (سلطنة salṭanah).

The term is distinct from king (ملك malik), despite both referring to a sovereign ruler. The use of "sultan" is restricted to Muslim countries, where the title carries religious significance, contrasting the more secular king, which is used in both Muslim and non-Muslim countries.

A feminine form of sultan, used by Westerners, is Sultana or Sultanah and this title has been used legally for some (not all) Muslim women monarchs and sultan's mothers and chief consorts. However, Turkish and Ottoman Turkish also uses sultan for imperial lady, as Turkish grammar—which is influenced by Persian grammar—uses the same words for both women and men. However, this styling misconstrues the roles of wives of sultans. In a similar usage, the wife of a German field marshal might be styled Frau Feldmarschall (similarly, in French, constructions of the type madame la maréchale are quite common). The female leaders in Muslim history are correctly known as "sultanas". However, the wife of the sultan in the Sultanate of Sulu is styled as the "panguian" while the sultan's chief wife in many sultanates of Indonesia and Malaysia are known as "permaisuri", "Tunku Ampuan", "Raja Perempuan", or "Tengku Ampuan". The queen consort in Brunei especially is known as Raja Isteri with the title of Pengiran Anak suffixed, should the queen consort also be a royal princess.

In recent years, "sultan" has been gradually replaced by "king" by contemporary hereditary rulers who wish to emphasize their secular authority under the rule of law. A notable example is Morocco, whose monarch changed his title from sultan to king in 1957.

Xan

Xan may refer to:

A diminutive name derived from Alexander, Alexandra or Alexandria, or Galician for John

Xan (vodka), produced by the Azerbaijani company Vinagro

Xan (Baldur's Gate) is a non-player character from the Baldur's Gate series of computer game

The final boss from computer game Unreal Tournament and sequels

A book by Patrick Tilley on alien invasion

A monster from the NetHack computer game, based on the mythical Mayan insect

A mythical or fantastic insect in the book Popul Vuh

Slang for the drug Xanax

The rap artist Lil Xan

An alternate spelling of Khan (title)

A character from the novel The Children of Men by P.D. James

An electronic dance music producer from Vancouver Canada featured on CBC Radio 3 a.k.a. Amadou Isaacs a.k.a. Teyshan

A legendary and ancient race in the popular MMORPG Anarchy Online

Zia Inayat Khan

Pir Zia Inayat-Khan (born 1971) is a scholar and teacher of Sufism in the lineage of his grandfather, Inayat Khan. He is president of the Inayati Order and founder of Suluk Academy, a school of contemplative study with branches in the United States and Europe.

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