Khachatur Abovian (or Abovyan; Armenian: Խաչատուր Աբովյան; October 15, 1809 is an Armenian writer and national public figure of the early 19th century who mysteriously vanished in 1848 and was eventually presumed dead. He is an educator, poet and an advocate of modernization. Reputed as the father of modern Armenian literature, he is best remembered for his novel Wounds of Armenia. Written in 1841 and published posthumously in 1858, it was the first novel published in the modern Armenian language using Eastern Armenian based on the Yerevan dialect instead of Classical Armenian.
Abovian was far ahead of his time and virtually none of his works was published during his lifetime. Only after the establishment of the Armenian SSR was Abovian accorded the recognition and stature he merited. Abovian is regarded as one of the foremost figures not just in Armenian literature but Armenian history at large. Abovian's influence on Western Armenian literature was not as strong as it was on Eastern Armenian, particularly in its formative years.
Portrait of Khachatur Abovian, by Ludwig von Maydell (1831)
|Born||Oct 15, 1809|
Kanaker, Erivan Khanate, Persian Empire
(modern-day Yerevan, Armenia)
|Occupation||novelist, playwright, teacher, poet|
|Spouse||Emilia Looze (German-Swedish) m. 1839|
Abovian was born in 1809 in the village of Kanaker, then part of the Qajar Persian Empire, and now a district of Yerevan, Armenia. Abovian's family were descendants of the Beglaryan melik family in Gulistan, one of five Armenian families who ruled around the current day region of Nagorno-Karabakh. The Abovian family held the position of tanuter (a hereditary lordship) in Kanaker; Abovian's uncle was the last tanuter of Kanaker. His aunt was the wife of Sahak Aghamalian, the last melik of Yerevan at the time of the Russian annexation in 1828. His social origins and descent imbued him at an early age with a sense of responsibility to his people. He was born six years after his parents, Avetik and Takuhi, married. He had a brother, Garabed, who died at the age of three.
At age 10, Abovian was taken by his father to Echmiadzin to study for the priesthood. He dropped out after five years and moved to Tiflis in 1822 to study Armenian studies and languages at the Nersisyan School under the guidance of Harutiun Alamdarian. Abovian graduated in 1826 and began preparing to move to Venice to further his education. However, the outbreak of the Russo-Persian War (1826–28) curtailed his plans. For the following three years he taught briefly at Sanahin and then worked for Catholicos Yeprem of Armenia as his clerk and translator. While working for the Catholicos, the twenty-year-old Abovian met many notable foreigners, including the diplomat and playwright Alexandr Griboyedov, who was stuck in Echmiadzin en route to Tabriz in September 1828. Griboyedov's weekly Tifliskiye Vedemosti became the first paper to publish an article on Abovian.
The turning point in Abovian's life was the arrival of Friedrich Parrot in Armenia in September 1829, a professor of natural philosophy from the University of Dorpat in Livonia (in present-day Tartu, Estonia). Parrot traveled to Armenia to climb Mount Ararat to conduct geological studies and required a local guide and a translator for the expedition. The Catholicos assigned Abovian to these tasks. With Abovian's assistance, Parrot became the first explorer in modern times to reach the summit of Mount Ararat. The project received full approval from the emperor Nicholas I, who provided the expedition with a military escort.
Abovian and Parrot crossed the Arax River into the district of Surmali and headed to the Armenian village of Akhuri situated on the northern slope of Ararat 4,000 feet (1,200 m) above sea level. Following the advice of Harutiun Alamdarian of Tiflis, they set up base camp at the Monastery of St. Hakob some 2,400 feet (730 m) higher, at an elevation of 6,375 feet (1,943 m). Abovian was one of the last travelers to visit Akhuri and the monastery before a disastrous earthquake completely buried both in May 1840. Their first attempt to climb the mountain, using the northeast slope, failed as a result of lack of warm clothing.
Six days later, on the advice of Stepan Khojiants, the village chief of Akhuri, the ascent was attempted from the northwest side. After reaching an elevation of 16,028 feet (4,885 m), they turned back because they did not reach the summit before sundown. They reached the summit on their third attempt at 3:15 p.m. on October 9, 1829. Abovian dug a hole in the ice and erected a wooden cross facing north. Abovian picked up a chunk of ice from the summit and carried it down with him in a bottle, considering the water holy. On November 8, Parrot and Abovian climbed up Lesser Ararat. Years later, in 1845, the German mineralogist Otto Wilhelm Hermann von Abich climbed Ararat with Abovian. Abovian's third and last ascent of Ararat was with the Englishman Henry Danby Seymour in 1846.
Impressed with Abovian's thirst for knowledge, Parrot arranged for a Russian state scholarship for Abovian to study at the University of Dorpat in 1830. He entered the university directly without additional preparation and studied in the Philosophy faculty of the Philological-Historical department from September 3, 1830 until January 18, 1836. The years in Dorpat were very fruitful for Abovian who studied social and natural sciences, European literature and philosophy, and mastered German, Russian, French and Latin. At this time Abovian fell under the influence of German Romanticism. In addition, Abovian established numerous contacts with European intellectuals of the time. At the university he became friends with the sons of Nikolay Karamzin who studied with him. In 1834 Abovian visited his cousin Maria (daughter of melik Sahak Aghamalian) in St. Petersburg, then married to the Georgian Prince Alexander. Prior to graduation, Abovian learned his mother Takuhi had died.
In 1836 he returned home anxious to embark on a mission of enlightenment. Abovian's efforts were thwarted as he faced a growing and hostile reaction from the Armenian clergy as well as Tsarist officials, largely stemming from his opposition to dogmatism and formalism in the school system. Abovian was appointed as the supervisor of the Tiflis uyezd school and married a German woman named Emilia Looze (d. 1870) in 1839. In 1840 he was approached by English traveler Anne Lister, who was visiting Tiflis. She hoped that Abovian would guide her on another expedition to Mount Ararat which ultimately did not occur. He was dismissed from the school in 1843 and was transferred to the uyezd school in Yerevan where he encountered apathy and antagonism from his colleagues and the clergy.
In the summer of the same year, Abovian was visited by two German travellers. A Bavarian professor, Moritz Wagner, from the University of Munich, arrived in May and toured the Lake Sevan region with Abovian and thereafter corresponded with him on a regular basis. In July Abovian also accompanied Wagner on the first recorded ascent of Mount Aragats in Armenia.
In August, Abovian escorted the German Baron August von Haxthausen around the province. They visited the Abovian family home in Kanaker and attended a service at the Blue Mosque. They also visited a Yazidi encampment where they met the chief Timur Aga and exchanged pleasantries with a rider from Count Paskevich's guard. He became a trusted friend of the Yazidi community in Armenia, and when the chief returned with lavish gifts from a banquet in Tiflis organized by the viceroy of the Caucasus Mikhail Semyonovich Vorontsov in 1844, he organized a tribal feast and Abovian was invited to attend. In 1845 he applied for a position at the Catholicate of Echmiadzin but was not accepted. The following year, he became a contributor to Vorontsov's weekly newspaper, Kavkaz, for which Abovian wrote three articles.
On April 14, 1848, Abovian left his home for an early morning walk, and was never seen again; his disappearance remains unresolved. His wife Emilia did not report him missing for a month. Their children, Vartan (1840–1896) and Zarmandukht (later known as Adelaide; 1843–1909), were ages eight and five, respectively, at the time of the disappearance.
Numerous theories have been proposed attempting to explain his disappearance: that he committed suicide, was murdered by his Persian or Turkish enemies, or arrested and exiled to Siberia by the Special Corps of Gendarmes, among others. Given his love for his children and their young age, it is generally disregarded that Abovian committed suicide. Writer Axel Bakunts put forward the theory that Abovian was in Western Europe engulfed in the Revolutions of 1848.
Abovian wrote novels, stories, descriptions, plays, scientific and artistic compositions, verses and fables. He was the first Armenian writer to compose literature for children.
The historical novel Wounds of Armenia (written in 1841, first published in 1858) was the first Armenian secular novel dedicated to the fate of the Armenian people and its struggle for liberation in the period of Russo-Persian war of 1826–1828. The novel dealt with the suffering of Armenians under Persian occupation. The basic concept of the novel was the assertion of feelings of national merit, patriotism and hatred of oppressors. These themes had a profound influence over wide layers of Armenian society. The hero, Agassi, personifies the freedom-loving national spirit and its will to fight against the foreign conquerors. "Give away your life, but never give away your native lands", is his motto. The story begins with an abduction of an Armenian girl by a band of thugs sent by the Persian sardar that triggers an uprising led by Agassi.
Abovian saw in strengthening of the friendship of Russian and Armenian peoples a guarantee of the national, political and cultural revival of his native lands. However; when Abovian wrote the novel he was already disillusioned with Tsarist policies in Armenia, particularly with the implementation of Polozhenie (Statute) in 1836 which greatly reduced the political power of the Armenian Catholicos and the abolishment of the Armenian Oblast in 1840. In the novel, elements of romanticism and realism are interlaced while the narration is supplanted by lyrical retreats.
Abovian's poetry was filled with satire best expressed in The wine jug, in which he criticized Russian bureaucracy. Leisure entertainment was adapted by Abovian from notes he took in public gatherings. The work is a collection of fables in verse that chastise vice, injustice and moral degeneration. He wrote scientific and artistic non-fiction works such as the Discovery of America and Book of Stories. Abovian translated to the Armenian language the works of Homer, Goethe, Friedrich Schiller, Nikolay Karamzin, I. A. Krylov and others. He continued promoting secular and comprehensive (mental, moral, working, physical) training, school accessibility, free education for the indigent and equal education of boys and girls. Pedagogical compositions of Abovian include the book for reading Introduction to education (1838), a textbook of Russian grammar and an Armenian-language novel History of Tigran, or a moral manual for the Armenian children (printed in 1941). He was the first Armenian to study scientific ethnography: the way of life and customs of the peasants of the native settlements around Kanaker, inhabitants of Yerevan, and gathered and studied Armenian and Kurdish folklore.
Abovian's life is well remembered in Armenia. During the years in which Armenia was under Soviet rule, his pro-Russia stance was emphasized. Schools, streets, boulevards and parks were named after him. The village of Elar, located 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) northeast of Yerevan, was named after him in 1961. Two years later, as the village's population grew larger, Abovyan was accorded with city status. His home in Kanaker was turned into a house-museum in 1939, and many of his original writings are preserved there.
The work Abovian accomplished in the field of education was remembered. Yerevan's State Pedagogic Institute was named after him. On February 28, 1964, a medal was named in his honour (Աբովյանի Անվան Մեդալ) and which was awarded to school teachers who showed exceptional abilities in teaching and education. Between 1948–84, five documentary films were produced in the Armenian SSR about the life and work of Abovian.
The 2011 documentary film Journey to Ararat on Parrot and Abovian's expedition to Mount Ararat was produced in Estonia by filmmaker Riho Västrik. It was screened at the Golden Apricot International Film Festival in Yerevan in 2013.
Two prominent statues of Abovian stand in Yerevan. The concept of the first statue dates back to 1908 when a number of Armenian intellectuals in Russian Armenia decided to commemorate the 60th anniversary of Abovian's disappearance and raise funds for a statue. These included Alexander Shirvanzade, Hovhannes Tumanyan and Gevorg Bashinjagyan. By 1910 they had collected enough funds to order the statue. It was designed by M. Grigoryan and sculpted by Andreas Ter-Manukyan in Paris between 1910–13. The statue is 4.5 metres (15 ft) high and made of bronze on a granite pedestal. As a result of a misunderstanding the statue was only delivered to Yerevan in 1925 and first erected on Abovian street by the cinema Moscow in 1933 and then moved to the children's park on the banks of the Hrazdan river. In 1964, it found its permanent home by the Abovian house-museum in Kanaker. The second statue of Abovian in Yerevan was erected in Abovian square in 1950. The 9-metre (30 ft) high bronze statue was designed by Gevork Tamanian (son of Alexander Tamanian) and sculpted by Suren Stepanyan.
Abovian's portrait is one of the most exceptional exhibits of the Museum of Literature and Arts after Charents. It is an oil painting with a size of 20.5 centimetres (8.1 in) by 27.5 centimetres (10.8 in). In 1938 Abovian's grandsons brought it to the museum. When Abovian's son Vardan returned to the Caucasus, he found the painting in a badly deteriorated condition. But by Vardan's request Armenian painter Gevorg Bashinjagyan restored the portrait. He cut worn-out edges, glued it to a hard paper and then filled the cracks with corresponding colors. The painter of the portrait was Ludwig von Maydell, from Dorpat University. He painted it in the fall of 1830, when Abovian was only 20 or 21 years old. This portrait is the only painting of Abovian made during his lifetime.
Abovyan or Abovian (Armenian: Աբովյան), is a town and urban municipal community in Armenia within the Kotayk Province. It is located 16 kilometres (10 miles) northeast of Yerevan and 32 kilometres (20 miles) southeast of the province centre Hrazdan. As of the 2011 census, the population of the town is 43,495, down from 59,000 reported at the 1989 census. Currently, the town has an approximate population of 35,400 as per the 2016 official estimate.
With a motorway and railway running through the city connecting Yerevan with the areas of the northeast, Abovyan is considered a satellite city of the Armenian capital. Therefore, Abovyan is generally known as the "northern gate of Yerevan".
Abovyan covers an area of around 11 square kilometres (4.2 square miles).Abovyan Street
Abovyan Street (Armenian: Աբովյան Փողոց), is a street at the central Kentron district of the Armenian capital Yerevan. It was known as Astafyan Street between 1868 and 1920.
The street runs from the central Republic Square to the statue of prominent Armenian writer Khachatur Abovian (1809–1848), who the street is named after. Abovyan Street is the first planned street of the Armenian capital.
Located at downtown Yerevan, Abovyan Street is mainly home to cultural and educational institutions, luxurious residential buildings, elite brand shops, commercial offices, coffee shops, hotels, restaurants and night clubs.Ara H. Hakobyan
Ara H. Hakobyan (Armenian: Արա Հակոբյան; born April 2, 1973 in Yerevan), is an Armenian artist, art critic. Doctor of Sciences (Arts) (2017), Professor (2018). Member of Artist Union of the Republic of Armenian (1999).Armenian State Pedagogical University
Armenian State Pedagogical University named after Khachatur Abovian (ASPU) (Armenian: Խաչատուր Աբովյանի անվան Հայկական պետական մանկավարժական համալսարան, ՀՊՄՀ), is a state university and higher education institution based in Yerevan, the capital of Armenia. Founded in 1922, the university is specialized in pedagogy and the preparation of teaching staff.
Named after the 19th-century Armenian writer Khachatur Abovian, the current rector of the university rector is professor Ruben Mirzakhanyan.Arsen Terteryan
Arsen Harutyuni Terteryan (Armenian: Արսեն Տերտերյան; 1882, Shusha – 1953, Yerevan) was a Soviet Armenian literary critic, academic of Science Academy of Armenia, awarded by Renowned scientist title (1940).
Graduated from the Saint-Petersburg psycho-neurological institute in 1909. Since 1930 a Professor of Yerevan State University. He is an author of critical researches dedicated to Mikael Nalbandian, Nar-Dos, Khachatur Abovian, Valeri Bryusov and Alexander Shirvanzade.Hayk Ordyan
Hayk Ordyan (Armenian: Հայկ Օրդյան, December 3, 1978, Yerevan), Armenian director, producer.Journey to Ararat
Journey to Ararat (Estonian: Teekond Araratile) is a 2011 Estonian documentary film directed, written, and produced by Riho Västrik. In the film, Västrik travels to Armenia and Turkey with Estonian scholar Erki Tammiksaar to retrace the footsteps of Baltic German explorer Friedrich Parrot and Armenian writer Khachatur Abovian on their historic ascent of Mount Ararat in 1829. The film derives its name from Parrot's account of his expedition, Journey to Ararat (German: Reise zum Ararat). It was screened at the Golden Apricot International Film Festival in Yerevan in 2013.Kanaker
Kanaker (Armenian: Քանաքեռ; also Romanized as K’anak’err, Kenaker, Kanaker, and Qanaqer) was a town in Armenia to the north-east of the capital Yerevan. With the urban development, the village was gradually absorbed by the capital Yerevan thus becoming part of the Kanaker-Zeytun district.Many prominent Armenians are natives of Kanaker such as the writer and educator Khachatur Abovian and the composer Djivan Gasparyan.
The town was home to many churches that were severely damaged during the earthquake of 1679. The oldest church of Kanaker is Saint Jacob Church (Surp Hakop) rebuilt in 1679 after the earthquake. Holy Mother of God Church (Surp Astvatsatsin) on a hilltop to the northwest was built in 1695. The Russian Orthodox Church of the Intercession of the Holy Mother of God was built in Kanaker in 1912.
Kanaker played a key role in the Russian siege of Yerevan in 1827.Kanaker-Zeytun District
Kanaker-Zeytun (Armenian: Քանաքեռ-Զեյթուն վարչական շրջան, romanized: -Zeytun varčakan šrĵan), is one of the 12 districts of Yerevan, the capital of Armenia, located in the northeastern part of the city. As of the 2011 census, the population of the district is 73,886.
Located on a hill overlooking the central part of Yerevan, the administrative district of Kanaker-Zeytun has common borders with the districts of Avan, Arabkir, Kentron and Nor Nork. By the outer border it is adjacent to the provinces of Armavir, Aragatsotn and Kotayk.The district is unofficially divided into smaller neighborhoods such as Kanaker, Nor Zeytun and Monument.Khachatur
Khachatur (Armenian: Խաչատուր from խաչ (xačʿ, "cross") + տուր (tur, "something given" = "given by cross". It may refer to:
Khachatur Abovian (1809–1848), Armenian writer and national public figure who mysteriously vanished in 1848 and was presumed dead
Khachatur Avetisyan (1926–1996), influential Armenian-Soviet composer
Khachatur Kesaratsi (1590–1646), archbishop, credited with the founding of the first printing press in Iran
Khachatur Maloumian (1865), Dashnak; editor of Mushak and Droshak
Khachatur Malumian, a.k.a. Aknuni (1863–1915), Armenian journalist and political activist
Khachatur of Taron, Armenian poet and musician who occupies a special place among the writers of Sharakans
Khachatur-Bek of Mush, Armenian Bek in the first half of the 19th centuryKhachatur Abovyan Park
Khachatur Abovyan Park (Armenian: Խաչատուր Աբովյանի Պուրակ Khachatur Abovyani Purak), is a park located in the Kentron district of Yerevan, Armenia, at the north of Abovyan Street. It forms the starting point of the Abovyan Street. The Yerevan State Medical University is located at the southern edge of the park.
The park is named after the noted Armenian writer of the 19th century, Khachatur Abovian.
It has a round-shaped garden centered with the statue of Khachatur Abovyan. The park was opened in 1950.In 2018, the Hrant Matevosyan Cultural Center and Museum was built within the park.List of Armenian writers
This is a list of Armenian authors, arranged chronologically.List of statues in Yerevan
List of the statues and memorials in Yerevan, the capital of Armenia.List of universities in Yerevan
This is a list of universities in Yerevan, the capital of Armenia.Little Ararat
Little Ararat, also known as Mount Sis or Lesser Ararat (Armenian: Փոքր Արարատ, romanized: Pok’r Ararat or Սիս, Sis, Azerbaijani: Küçük Ağrı, Turkish: Küçük Ağrı, Kurdish: Agiriyê biçûk), is the sixth tallest peak in Turkey. It is a large satellite cone located on the eastern flank of the massive Mount Ararat, less than five miles west of Turkey's border with Iran. Despite being dwarfed by its higher and far more famous neighbor, Little Ararat is a significant volcano of its own with an almost perfectly symmetrical, conical form and smooth constructional slopes. It rises about 1,200 m (4,000 ft) above the saddle connecting it with the main peak.
On 8 November [O.S. 27 October] 1829, Baltic German explorer Friedrich Parrot and Armenian writer Khachatur Abovian climbed Little Ararat. Its peak and eastern flank were on the Iranian side of the border until the 1930s. During the Kurdish Ararat rebellion, the Kurdish rebels used the area "as a haven against the state in their uprising." Turkey crossed the border and militarily occupied the region, which Iran eventually agreed to cede to Ankara in a territorial exchange.Saint Hakob of Akori monastery
Saint Hakob of Akori Monastery (Armenian: Ակոռիի Սուրբ Հակոբ վանք; pronounced Akori Surb Hakob Vank; also sometimes referred to as Saint James), was an Armenian monastery located in the southeastern part of the historic region of Surmali (today the Iğdır Province of modern Turkey). The monastery was located 4.7 kilometers southwest of Akori, a village at the northeastern slope of Mount Ararat. Destroyed by an earthquake and avalanche in 1840, Akori was later rebuilt. It is known today as Yenidoğan and remains a small Kurdish village.In 1829, Baltic German explorer Friedrich Parrot, Armenian writer Khachatur Abovian, and four others reached the top of Mount Ararat in the first recorded ascent in history. They used St. Hakob as their base.Wounds of Armenia
Wounds of Armenia (Armenian: Վերք Հայաստանի Verk Hayastani) is an 1841 historical novel by Khachatur Abovian. Written in the Araratian (Yerevan) dialect, Wounds of Armenia is considered Abovian's chef d'œuvre. It is Abovian's debut novel, the first Armenian novel and the first modern Eastern Armenian literary work. Thanks to Wounds of Armenia, Khachatur Abovian is acknowledged as the founder of the modern Eastern Armenian language.It was first published in 1858 in Tiflis, which was the cultural center of Russian Armenians before the Russian Civil War, ten years after Abovian disappeared.Yerevan dialect
The Yerevan dialect (Armenian: Երևանի բարբառ Yerevani barbař) is an Eastern Armenian dialect spoken in and around Yerevan. Classical Armenian (Grabar) words compose significant part of the Yerevan dialect vocabulary. Throughout the history, the dialect was influenced by several languages, especially Russian and Persian and loan words have significant presence in it today. It is the most widespread Armenian dialect today.Historically, it was known as Araratian dialect (Արարատյան բարբառ), referring to the Ararat plain where it is mainly spoken. In the 19th century efforts were made to create a modern literary Armenian language. In 1841, the prominent Armenian writer Khachatur Abovian completed his Wounds of Armenia novel that was written in Yerevan dialect. The importance of its dialect grew in 1918, when Yerevan became the capital of the First Republic of Armenia. During the Soviet period (1920-1991), the Eastern Armenian language and the Yerevan dialect were heavily influenced by the predominant Russian language and by the late 1980s the Russification was considered harmful to the future of Armenian.Today, the Yerevan dialect, which is the basis of colloquial Armenian is spoken by at least 1 million people who live in Yerevan. In addition, virtually all dialectics in the Republic of Armenia, Nagorno-Karabakh Republic and Georgia's Samtskhe-Javakheti region are influenced by the Yerevan dialect through the educational system. Most of the recent Armenian immigrants, who have migrated to foreign countries since the late 1980s, speak the Yerevan dialect.Zartonk (Istanbul daily)
Zartonk (in Armenian Զարթօնք) was a short-lived Armenian Turkish publication founded by P. Shamlian in 1932. It stopped publication in 1933. It covered the Armenian Turkish political, cultural and literary activities in Turkey and worldwide. It published Axel Bakunts' work Khachatur Abovian (In Armenian «Խաչատուր Աբովյան») and Yervant Odian's Twelve Years Outside Bolis (In Armenian «Տասերկու տարի Պոլսեն դուրս») as well as translations from important European literature.