Khaan

Khaan (/ˈkɑːn/; Mongol [χaːŋ] 'lord') was an oviraptorid dinosaur that was found in the Djadochta Formation of Mongolia and lived in the Late Cretaceous Period (Campanian), 75 million years ago.

Khaan
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 84–75 Ma
Khaan
Holotype IGM 100/1127
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Saurischia
Suborder: Theropoda
Family: Oviraptoridae
Genus: Khaan
Clark, Norell & Barsbold, 2001
Species:
K. mckennai
Binomial name
Khaan mckennai
Clark, Norell, & Barsbold, 2001

Description

Khaan mckennai profile1
Artist's impression

Khaan did not differ much from other oviraptorids. At first, its remains were assigned to "Ingenia", but the Khaan manual structure, lacking the expansion of the upper third metacarpal, was considered to differ sufficiently from that of "Ingenia" for it to be assigned to its own genus.

The oviraptorid diet is disputed, with plants and molluscs having been suggested. Like other oviraptorids, Khaan was probably at least partially a meat eater, feeding on small vertebrates like mammals, lizards and possibly other small dinosaurs. It was also probably feathered.

Discovery

The type species Khaan mckennai was in 2001 named by James M. Clark e.a. The genus name is derived from Mongol khaan, "lord" or "ruler". The specific name honours the paleontologist Malcolm Carnegie McKenna.

The holotype IGM 100/1127, consists of an almost complete skeleton found together with another specimen, IGM 100/1002. Together they were informally referred to as "Romeo and Juliet". These individuals are about four feet long. A third, considerably larger, specimen, IGM 100/973, was referred to the species.

Paleobiology

Khaan mckennai AMNH 29051 cast
Skull of referred specimen IGM 100/973

According to a 2014 study published in Nature, Khaan was possibly sexually dimorphic. Two specimens, the holotype MPC-D 100/1127 and referred specimen MPC-D 100/1002, were analyzed, the dimorphic feature being in the anterior chevrons. Both specimens were of the same size and build, and thus were likely the same age, ruling out ontogeny. In MPC-D 100/1127, the anterior chevrons showed great similarity to those of other theropods, with no great expansion on the distal end. However, in the other individual, the chevrons had a "heel"-like expansion above the distal end, which increased in size along the sequence. The study ruled out a possibly pathologic explanation, finding sexual dimorphism to have more support. It was thought that the reduced spines were a female characteristic, because they would increase space for laying eggs. Also, the larger spines could be for male muscle attachments, which would support a tail fan.[1]

Classification

Khaan skeletal Headden
Skeletal restoration

Khaan was by Clark assigned to the Oviraptoridae. Among oviraptorids, it was probably more closely related to Conchoraptor.

The cladogram below follows an analysis by Fanti et al., 2012.[2]

Oviraptoridae

Oviraptor

unnamed

Rinchenia

Citipati

unnamed

Khaan

unnamed

Conchoraptor

unnamed

Machairasaurus

unnamed

"Ingenia" (=Ajancingenia)

unnamed

Nemegtomaia

Heyuannia

See also

References

  1. ^ Iv, W. S. P.; Funston, G. F.; Currie, P. J.; Norell, M. A. (2015). "A possible instance of sexual dimorphism in the tails of two oviraptorosaur dinosaurs". Scientific Reports. 5: 9472. doi:10.1038/srep09472. PMC 4379468. PMID 25824625.
  2. ^ Fanti, F; Currie, PJ; Badamgarav, D (2012). "New Specimens of Nemegtomaia from the Baruungoyot and Nemegt Formations (Late Cretaceous) of Mongolia". PLoS ONE. 7 (2): e31330. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031330. PMC 3275628. PMID 22347465.
  • Clark, J. M.; Norell, M. A.; Barsbold, R. (2001). "Two new oviraptorids (Theropoda: Oviraptorosauria), Upper Cretaceous Djadokhta Formation, Ukhaa Tolgod, Mongolia". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 21 (2): 209. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2001)021[0209:TNOTOU]2.0.CO;2.
Aero Mongolia

Aero Mongolia is one of the two national airlines of Mongolia. Its head office is on the third floor of Chinggis Khaan International Airport in Ulaanbaatar. It operates domestic flights to eleven local destinations and operates international scheduled services to Irkutsk, Russia and Hohhot and Urumqi in China. Its main base is Chinggis Khaan Airport.

Air Accident Investigation Bureau (Mongolia)

The Air Accident Investigation Bureau (AAIB, Mongolian: Нислэг техникийн осол, зөрчлийг шинжлэн шалгах алба) is an agency of the government of Mongolia. Its head office is on the grounds of Chinggis Khaan International Airport in Ulaanbaatar.

Bars Bolud Jinong

Barsbolad Jinong Khan (ᠪᠠᠷᠰᠪᠣᠯᠤᠳᠵᠢᠨᠦᠩᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ Mongolian: Барсболд жонон хаан, transliteration : Barsbold Jonon Khaan, aka : Steel-Tiger Jinong Khagan) or Barsbolad Khan (Mongolian: Барсболд хаан, translit. : Barsbold Khaan), 1490–1531) was a Mongol Khagan of the Northern Yuan dynasty based in Mongolia from 1517 to 1519, and Jinong, from 1519 to 1531.

Bogd Khan

The Bogd Khan (Mongolian: Богд хаан; 1869–1924) became de facto leader of Outer Mongolia in 1911, when Outer Mongolia declared independence from Qing dynasty of China after the Xinhai Revolution. He was born in Tibet. As the 8th Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, he was the third most important person in the Tibetan Buddhist hierarchy, below only the Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama, and therefore also known as the "Bogdo Lama". He was the spiritual leader of Outer Mongolia's Tibetan Buddhism. His wife Tsendiin Dondogdulam, the Ekh Dagina ("Dakini Mother"), was believed to be a manifestation of White Tara.

Bogd Khanate of Mongolia

The Bogd Khanate of Mongolia was the government of Mongolia (Outer Mongolia) between 1911 and 1919 and again from 1921 to 1924. By the spring of 1911, some prominent Mongolian nobles including Prince Tögs-Ochiryn Namnansüren persuaded the Jebstundamba Khutukhtu to convene a meeting of nobles and ecclesiastical officials to discuss independence from the Manchu-led Qing China. On November 30, 1911 the Mongols established the Temporary Government of Khalkha. On December 29, 1911 the Mongols declared their independence from the collapsing Qing Empire following the Xinhai Revolution. They installed as theocratic sovereign the 8th Bogd Gegeen, highest authority of Tibetan Buddhism in Mongolia, who took the title Bogd Khaan or "Holy Ruler". The Bogd Khaan was last khagan of Mongolia. This ushered in the period of "Theocratic Mongolia", also known as the Bogd Khanate.Three historical currents were at work during this period. The first was the efforts of the Mongolians to form an independent, theocratic state that embraced Inner Mongolia, Barga (also known as Hulunbuir), Upper Mongolia, Western Mongolia and Tannu Uriankhai ("pan-Mongolia"). The second was the Russian Empire's determination to achieve the twin goals of establishing its own preeminence in the country but at the same time ensuring Mongolia's autonomy within the newly independent Chinese state. The third was the ultimate success of China in eliminating Mongolian autonomy and creating its sovereignty over the country.

Boroldai

Boroldai (or Burulday, Borolday), also known as Burundai, (Cyrillic: Боролдай) (died 1262) was a notable Mongol general of the mid 13th century. He participated in the Mongol invasion of Russia and Europe in 1236-1242.The clan of Borolday is not clear. He was probably from one of four tribes that Chinggis Khaan (1162–1227) assigned to his eldest son, Jochi: the Sanchi'ud (or Salji'ud), Keniges, Uushin, and Je'ured clans.

Chinggis Khaan International Airport

Chinggis Khaan International Airport (Mongolian: Чингис хаан олон улсын нисэх буудал, Çingis hán olon ulsîn niseh búdal, IPA: [t͡ʃʰiŋgis xaːn ɔɮɔŋ uɮsiːŋ nisex puːtaɮ]) (IATA: ULN, ICAO: ZMUB) is the international airport serving Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, situated 18 km (11 mi) southwest of the capital. It is the largest international air facility in the country.

Genghis Khan

Genghis Khan (born Temüjin, c. 1162 – August 18, 1227, Modern Mongolian pronunciation [ˈt͡ɕʰiŋɡɪs χaːɴ], Middle Mongol pronunciation [ˈt͡ɕʰiŋːɡɪs ˈkaχaːn] or [ˈt͡ʃʰiŋːɡɪs ˈqaχaːn]) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death. He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia. After founding the Empire and being proclaimed "Genghis Khan", he launched the Mongol invasions that conquered most of Eurasia. Campaigns initiated in his lifetime include those against the Qara Khitai, Caucasus, and Khwarazmian, Western Xia and Jin dynasties. These campaigns were often accompanied by large-scale massacres of the civilian populations – especially in the Khwarazmian and Western Xia controlled lands. By the end of his life, the Mongol Empire occupied a substantial portion of Central Asia and China.

Before Genghis Khan died he assigned Ögedei Khan as his successor. Later his grandsons split his empire into khanates. Genghis Khan died in 1227 after defeating the Western Xia. By his request, his body was buried in an unmarked grave somewhere in Mongolia. His descendants extended the Mongol Empire across most of Eurasia by conquering or creating vassal states in all of modern-day China, Korea, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and substantial portions of Eastern Europe and Southwest Asia. Many of these invasions repeated the earlier large-scale slaughters of local populations. As a result, Genghis Khan and his empire have a fearsome reputation in local histories.Beyond his military accomplishments, Genghis Khan also advanced the Mongol Empire in other ways. He decreed the adoption of the Uyghur script as the Mongol Empire's writing system. He also practiced meritocracy and encouraged religious tolerance in the Mongol Empire, and unified the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia. Present-day Mongolians regard him as the founding father of Mongolia.Genghis Khan was known for the brutality of his campaigns, and is considered by many to have been a genocidal ruler. However, he is also credited with bringing the Silk Road under one cohesive political environment. This brought relatively easy communication and trade between Northeast Asia, Muslim Southwest Asia, and Christian Europe, expanding the cultural horizons of all three areas.

Genghis Khan Equestrian Statue

The Genghis Khan Equestrian Statue, part of the Genghis Khan Statue Complex is a 131-foot (40 m) tall statue of Genghis Khan on horseback, on the bank of the Tuul River at Tsonjin Boldog (54 km (33.55 mi) east of the Mongolian capital Ulaanbaatar), where according to legend, he found a golden whip. The statue is symbolically pointed east towards his birthplace. It is on top of the Genghis Khan Statue Complex, a visitor centre, itself 10 metres (33 ft) tall, with 36 columns representing the 36 khans from Genghis to Ligdan Khan. It was designed by sculptor D. Erdenebileg and architect J. Enkhjargal and erected in 2008.Visitors walk to the head of the horse through its chest and neck, where they have a panoramic view. The main statue area will be surrounded by 200 ger (yurts), designed and arranged like the pattern of the horse brand marks that were used by the 13th century Mongol tribes. The cost of the complex is reported to be US$4.1 million, spent by The Genco Tour Bureau, a Mongolian company.The attached museum has exhibitions relating to the Bronze Age and Xiongnu archaeological cultures in Mongolia, which show everyday utensils, belt buckles, knives, sacred animals, etc. and a second exhibition on the Great Khan period in the 13 and 14th centuries which has ancient tools, goldsmith subjects and some Nestorian crosses and rosaries. Adjacent to the museum is a tourist and recreation centre, which covers 212 hectares (520 acres).

Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür

Jayaatu Khan (Mongolian: Заяат хаан, Jayaγatu qaγan, 1304–1332), born Tugh Temür, also known by the temple name Wenzong (Emperor Wenzong of Yuan, Chinese: 元文宗, 16 February 1304 – 2 September 1332), was an emperor of the Yuan dynasty. Apart from Emperor of China, he is regarded as the 12th Great Khan of the Mongol Empire or Mongols, although it was only nominal due to the division of the empire.

He first ruled from 16 October 1328 to 3 April 1329 before abdicating in favour of his brother Khutughtu Khan Kusala, and again ruled from 8 September 1329 to 2 September 1332 after Khutughtu Khan Kusala's death.

Thanks to his father's loyal partisans, Tugh Temür did restore the line of Khayishan to the throne; but persecuted his eldest brother Kusala's family, and later expressed remorse for what he had done to him. His name means "Blessed/lucky Khan" in the Mongolian language.

Tugh Temür sponsored many cultural activities, wrote poetry, painted, and read the classical texts. Examples of his quite competent poetry and calligraphy have survived. He mandated and closely monitored the compilation called "The Imperial Dynasty's grand institutions for managing the world"; through this textual production, he proclaimed his reign as new beginning, which took stock of the administrative practices and rules of the past and looked forward to a fresh chapter in Mongolian dynastic governance. But his reign was brief, and his administration was in the hands of powerful ministers, such as El Temür of the Qipchaq and Bayan of the Merkid who had helped him to win the succession struggle in 1328.

Khaan Dost

Khaan Dost is a 1976 Bollywood action film directed by Dulal Guha. The film was remade in Telugu as Mosagadu.

Khagan

Khagan or Qaghan (Old Turkic: 𐰴𐰍𐰣‬ kaɣan; Mongolian: хаан, khaan) is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a khaganate (empire). The female equivalent is Khatun.

It may also be translated as Khan of Khans, equivalent to King of Kings. In modern Turkic, the title became Khaan with the 'g' sound becoming almost silent or non-existent (i.e. a very light voiceless velar fricative); the ğ in modern Turkish Kağan is also silent. Since the division of the Mongol Empire, emperors of the Yuan dynasty held the title of Khagan and their successors in Mongolia continued to have the title. Kağan and Kaan are common Turkish names in Turkey.

The common western rendering as Great Khan (or Grand Khan), notably in the case of the Mongol Empire, is translation of Yekhe Khagan (Great Emperor or Их Хаан).

Kharchin Mongols

The Kharchin (Харчин, ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠴᠢᠨ, qaračin) is a subgroup of the Mongols residing mainly (and originally) in North-western Liaoning and Chifeng, Inner Mongolia. There are Khalkha-Kharchin Mongols in Dorno-Gobi Province (Kharchin Örtöö was part of the province during Qing rule) and in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

They are descended directly from the Kharchin tümen of the Northern Yuan dynasty. The Kharchin tümen consisted of:

Yünshebü tümen

Southern branch of Doyan Uriankhai

Eastern branch of Mongoljin-TümedThe eastern Tümed (Chaoyang county, Liaoning) and Mongoljin (Fuxin county, Liaoning) trıbes were also categorized as Kharchin traditionally.

Mongolian Revolution of 1921

The Mongolian Revolution of 1921 (Outer Mongolian Revolution of 1921, or People's Revolution of 1921) was a military and political event by which Mongolian revolutionaries, with the assistance of the Soviet Red Army, expelled Russian White Guards from the country, and founded the Mongolian People's Republic in 1924. Although nominally independent, the Mongolian People's Republic was a satellite state of the Soviet Union until a third Mongolian revolution in January 1990. The revolution also ended Chinese occupation over Mongolia, which had existed since 1919. The official Mongolian name of the revolution is "People's Revolution of 1921" or simply "People's Revolution" (Mongolian: Ардын хувьсгал).

Mongolian nobility

The Mongolian nobility (Mongolian: язгууртан сурвалжтан; yazgurtan survaljtan) arose between the 10th and 12th centuries, became prominent in the 13th century, and essentially governed Mongolia until the early 20th century.

The Mongolian word for nobility, Yazgurtan, derives from the Mongol word yazgur, meaning "root".

No Right to Die – Chinggis Khaan

No Right to Die – Chinggis Khaan (Mongolian: Үхэж үл болно, Чингис Хаан) is a 2008 film directed by L Erdenebulgan based on the life of Temüjin, the young Genghis Khan and his unification of Mongolia, previously consisting of warring and minor kingdoms. The film is one of the largest budgeted films produced in Mongolia.

Sana Khan

Sana Khan (also known as Sana Khaan) is an Indian actress, model and dancer. Khan began her career in modelling and went on to appear in advertisements and feature films. She has appeared in south Indian films, TV commercials, dance performances in films in special appearance, and for a reality television show. She has acted in 14 films across 5 languages and has appeared in over 50 ad films. She was a contestant on the reality show Bigg Boss in 2012 and became a finalist.

Skytel (Mongolia)

Skytel Group (Mongolian: Скайтел Групп) is one of Mongolia’s leading mobile phone operators that currently holds a quarter of the mobile market. With over 500,000 active subscribers and 400 employees of which 90% have a bachelor's degree or higher education. The company's network functions on an HSPA+ network in Ulaanbaatar and [CDMA2000 1x] & [EVDO] network technology in the rest of the country.

Skytel has 43 branches and over 4000 retail shops across Mongolia, and their network covers another 250 counties worldwide.

Skytel Group was founded in 1999 and was a joint venture between private Mongolian and Korean firms until December 2010 when it became a 100% national enterprise with equal shareholders of Altai Holding and Shunkhlai Group. In 2011, Skytel has expanded into a group of companies through the full acquisition of Sky C&C, a well established internet, IDD, SI service provider, as well as major shares of Telemax Communications, a mobile WiMax operator, and Tengis Movie Theatre, the first modern cinema in Mongolia. The company also owns 50% of Skynetworks, a nationwide fiber optic infrastructure operator, and a minor share of Sky Resort, a modern ski, golf resort in Ulaanbaatar.

The company offers a variety of services including SkyMarket an e-market of cellular phones to its post-paid OPEN and Nice subscribers, as well as to its pre-paid d20, SkyPhone and SkyCall subscribers. Its headquarters are located in the center of Ulaanbaatar city, on Chinggis Khaan Avenue - 9.

Toghon Temür

Toghon Temür (Mongolian: Тогоонтөмөр, Togoontömör; 25 May 1320 – 23 May 1370), also known by the temple name Emperor Huizong (Chinese: 惠宗) bestowed by the Northern Yuan dynasty in Mongolia and by the posthumous name Shundi (Chinese: 順帝; Wade–Giles: Shun-ti) bestowed by the Hongwu Emperor of the Ming dynasty China, was a son of Khutughtu Khan Kusala who ruled as emperor of the Yuan dynasty. Apart from Emperor of China, he is also considered the last Khagan of the Mongol Empire, although it was only nominal due to the division of the empire at the start of the Yuan dynasty.During the last years of his reign, the Yuan was overthrown by the Red Turban Rebellion, which established the Ming dynasty, although the Mongols remained in control of Mongolia.

Emperor Huizong was a Buddhist student of the Karmapas (heads of the Karma Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism) and is considered a previous incarnation of the Tai Situpas. He also notably invited the Jonang savant Dölpopa Shérab Gyeltsen to teach him, but was rebuffed.

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