Key & Peele

Key & Peele is an American sketch comedy television series created by Keegan-Michael Key and Jordan Peele that was aired on Comedy Central. Both Key and Peele previously worked on Mad TV,[4]

Each episode of the show consists mainly of several pre-taped skits starring the two actors. The sketches cover a variety of societal topics, often with a focus on American popular culture, ethnic stereotypes and race relations.[5] Key & Peele premiered on January 31, 2012[6] and ended on September 9, 2015, with a total of 53 episodes, over the course of five seasons. A special entitled "Key & Peele's Super Bowl Special" aired on January 30, 2015.

Key & Peele won a Peabody Award and two Primetime Emmy Awards and has been nominated for various other awards, including Writers Guild Award, NAACP Image Award and 16 additional Primetime Emmy Awards in various categories.

Key & Peele
Key & Peele
Created byKeegan-Michael Key
Jordan Peele
Directed byPeter Atencio
StarringKeegan-Michael Key
Jordan Peele[1]
Theme music composerReggie Watts
Country of originUnited States
Original language(s)English
No. of seasons5
No. of episodes53 (and 1 special) (list of episodes)
Executive producer(s)Keegan-Michael Key
Jordan Peele
Ian Roberts
Jay Martel
Producer(s)Keith Raskin
CinematographyCharles Papert
Editor(s)Justin Donaldson
Richard LaBrie
Camera setupSingle-camera[2]
Multi-camera (stage segments)
Running time21–22 minutes[3]
Production company(s)Cindylou
Monkeypaw Productions
Comedy Central
Martel & Roberts Productions
DistributorComedy Central
Original networkComedy Central
Picture format1080i (HDTV)
Original releaseJanuary 31, 2012 –
September 9, 2015
Related showsMad TV
External links
Official website


In the first three seasons, an episode would consist of a cold opening, with a short sketch. After the intro plays, the two hosts would introduce themselves to a studio audience and explain a possible situation, with the following sketch having a similar situation. The show then follows this pattern, with a number of sketches, each varying in time. Not all the segments are introduced by a studio segment.

In the last two seasons, the show eschewed a studio audience in favor of a pre-shot narrative, featuring the duo discussing a concept during a car ride, as the introduction to their sketches.


The series was first announced in June 2011 by Comedy Central.[1] In anticipation of the show, Key and Peele launched a web series in support of the program.[7] The series premiered in January 2012 on Comedy Central in the U.S. and on The Comedy Network in Canada.[8][9] The first episode drew 2.1 million viewers, making it the most-watched Comedy Central launch since 2009.[10]

The series was renewed for four more seasons, beginning in September 2012,[11] September 2013,[12] September 2014,[13] and July 2015.[14] The last episode aired in September 2015.[15]


SeasonEpisodesOriginally aired
First airedLast aired
18January 31, 2012March 20, 2012
210September 26, 2012November 28, 2012
313September 18, 2013December 18, 2013
411September 24, 2014December 10, 2014
SpecialJanuary 30, 2015
511July 8, 2015September 9, 2015

Recurring characters and sketches

Barack Obama and Keegan-Michael Key at White House Correspondents' Association Dinner 2015
Key performing as Luther, President Obama's "anger translator", at the 2015 White House Correspondents Dinner.
  • Barack Obama – The 44th President of the United States, played by Peele, who often has difficulty expressing his true feelings.
  • Luther – President Obama's "anger translator," played by Key, who works to interpret the President's low-key statements into raging tirades. One sketch reveals that Obama's wife and daughters each have their own anger translators as well, whom they request help from to speak with each other. Key appeared briefly in-character as Luther at the Annual White House Correspondents Dinner as an anger translator for the real Barack Obama in early 2015. On January 5, 2017, Key debuted an "Obama-Luther" sketch on The Daily Show with Trevor Noah.[16]
  • Wendell Sanders – Played by Peele, Wendell is a nerdy, extremely overweight, friendless man who loves sci-fi and fantasy. He often comes up with elaborate stories to convince others (especially over the phone) that he is not a stereotypical nerd, and that he is calling on the behalf of people other than himself. This includes a very attractive woman named "Claire", with whom he claims to have a relationship, and a 15-year-old son named "Stimpy" they have. (He was put on the spot when questioned about his nonexistent son, and he was close to a plush doll of the character from The Ren & Stimpy Show.) Though his stories are obvious lies, they are elaborate enough that he usually manages to convince the person on the other end of the phone line (usually a gullible man played by Key) that the people in his stories exist. When asked to speak with his fabricated friends and family, Wendell makes up an abrupt event on the spot (usually involving the fabricated person in question being killed) to prevent the person he is talking to from piecing together that his stories are lies, and to end the conversation.
  • Mr. Garvey – Played by Key, Mr. Garvey is an angry and intimidating substitute teacher and 20-year veteran of urban education. He distrusts (he refuses to allow students to leave for club photos, as he believes that it is a made-up excuse to leave class, even after a schoolwide announcement over the intercom, which he also believes to be fake) and has trouble pronouncing the common names of his mild-mannered and generally white suburban students, though he vehemently believes his pronunciations are correct, such as pronouncing the name Jacqueline as "Jay-Quill-Inn" or Blake as "Balakay" or Denise as "Dee-Nice" and his most known Aaron as "A. A. Ron". Any corrections from the students are seen as highly disrespectful lies meant to make him look foolish. Mr. Garvey forces his students to acknowledge themselves by his incorrect pronunciations, often at the very real threat of being sent to Principal O'Shaughnessy (pronounced "O-Shag-Hennessy" by Garvey) for disrespect. The only student Mr. Garvey seems to trust is an African American boy at the back of the class named Timothy (accent on the "o") (played by Peele), who is implied to be from the inner city and claims to have a daughter. In March 2015, it was announced that Key will reprise the role of Mr. Garvey in a feature-length film Substitute Teacher with Jordan portraying a rival teacher.[14]
  • Meegan – Played by Peele, Meegan is a young woman angry at her boyfriend, André, who always pursues her from a club, but she won't let him near enough to make up. The distance they cover in their pursuit becomes extreme. Meegan is shown to be extremely selfish and unintelligent, and does not seem to acknowledge social norms. She herself rarely ever receives any sort of comeuppance for the flagrant disrespect she shows to others. When not with André, Meegan is often seen with another woman who acts exactly like her (played by Key), and they often gossip between one other about being shocked by people doing normal acts, and calling them "crazy". They also take many selfies of themselves, but delete the majority of them because they don't like how they look in them, including a picture that had already just been classified as evidence in a crime that they witnessed.
  • André – Played by Key, André is Meegan's equally loud, but far more intelligent and polite boyfriend who tends to take the fall for the conflicts she starts with others.
  • DeVon – Played by Key, DeVon is the shady and weird landlord who's often suspicious of what goes on in his tenant's apartments,
  • Rafi Benitez – Played by Peele, Rafi is a baseball player who makes all his teammates uncomfortable in the locker room, because of his "slap-ass" addiction.
  • Brock Favors – Played by Key, Brock Favors is a news reporter who's always ill-prepared for his assignments such as helicopter traffic reports and reporting on police dog training. He always responds to unexpected and sudden events with loud, excited swearing.
  • Col. Hans Muller – A Nazi Colonel who is ignorant to the truth. He uses "very scientific" methods to find black people (offering them beets, measuring their heads, jingling cat toys). He is played by recurring guest star Ty Burrell.
  • Levi and Cedric – Two inner-city friends who often get in rifts because of Levi (Peele) constantly joining new trends such as going steam-punk or getting his own Ratatouille. Most sketches end with Cedric (Key) getting fed up with Levi and calling off their friendship.
  • Carlito – Played by Peele, Carlito is a Mexican gangster who believes that very normal or minor acts (including sitting in chairs) are "for pussies", and believes himself to be above doing such acts. He believes himself to be "the crazy one" of the gang, which he will go to embarrassing lengths to prove.
  • The Valets – Two valets (who always use unnecessary plurals in names of people, places, or things) who love discussing their favorite movie stars and characters – despite mangling their names and films – such as "Liam Neesons" from Tooken, "Peter Dinkels" (who plays "Taiwan Lannister"), "Bruce Willies," "Michelle Pa-feiffers," "Timothy Elephants" and "Racist-Ass Melly Gibsons". They end the sketch by saying that something related to the star in question is "MY SHIT!", then disappearing, by ways such as flying into the air like a rocket or exploding. In February 2014, a sponsored sketch with the valets titled "What About Non-Stop?" – in which "Liam Neesons" himself shows up to collect his car – was used to promote the film Non-Stop.[17][18] Key and Peele also appeared in a parody of "The Valets" in one of the teaser trailers for Toy Story 4.[19]
  • Karim and Jahar – Two lecherous Middle Eastern men on the lookout for beautiful women. Though they claim to dislike homosexuals, they often act in a vaguely exaggerated homosexual manner.
  • LaShawn and Samuel – A gay couple with very differing personalities and views on marriage. Samuel (Key) is very intelligent and well-mannered and exercises restraint when making important decisions. LaShawn (Peele) is very loud and extremely flamboyant and is constantly thinking up often nonsensical and impossible ideas for their future.
  • East/West Bowl Football Players – A series of college football players (most of them played by Key and Peele) whose names become increasingly ridiculous as the list progresses, such as "Donkey Teeth", "Hingle McCringleberry", "Huka'lakanaka Hakanakaheekalucka'hukahakafaka" and "Squeeeeeeeps". The West Team also features players from non-university organizations (such as "Nevada State – Penitentiary" and "Army – Navy Surplus Store"); the last player for the West Team is always a white player not played by Key nor Peele. In the third edition of this sketch, the fictional athletes were joined by actual players with unusual names (such as Ha Ha Clinton-Dix and Ishmaa'ily Kitchen); the last player for the West team was played by "A.A. Ron Rodgers", in reference to the Mr. Garvey sketches.[20]
  • Metta World News – NBA player Metta World Peace delivers the "news," which usually takes the form of presenting bizarre hypothetical scenarios to the audience and his imagined approach to them. This is the only recurring sketch that stars neither Key nor Peele.
  • The Black Republicans – A group of outside-of-the-box thinking black men (one member is played by recurring guest star Malcolm-Jamal Warner) who try to convert other black voters to join the Republican party. They are all shown to be similarly dressed in outdated fashion styles such as leather jackets, braided belts, dad jeans, and wire-rimmed glasses. Their catchphrase is "I am pissed, ROYALLY pissed!"
  • Joseph – Played by Key, Joseph is a crude con man who attempts to deceive others into helping him financially by making up facetious hardships. He is misunderstood.
  • Dr. Rajeev Gupta – Played by Key, Dr. Gupta is an Indian-American doctor who works at a large hospital.
  • The Continental – Played by Peele, a strange, eccentric man who opulently and hedonistically indulges in his hotel's free continental breakfast, and it is implied (in a reference to The Shining) that he supernaturally inhabits the hotel.



Keegan-Michael Key and Jordan Peele 2014
Key (left) and Peele (right) attending the Peabody Awards in 2014

The first two seasons of Key & Peele received positive reviews, maintaining a score 74 of 100 by the review aggregator site Metacritic.[21] The third season of Key & Peele received critical acclaim, receiving a score of 82 on Metacritic.[22] The series won a Peabody Award in 2013 "for its stars and their creative team's inspired satirical riffs on our racially divided and racially conjoined culture".[23] On April 24, 2012, during an interview on Late Night with Jimmy Fallon, President Barack Obama told the story of how he had watched the Key & Peele sketch on himself with 'Luther, his Anger Translator,' saying that "It's pretty good stuff – It's good stuff."[24] Additionally, on April 25, 2015, during the White House Correspondents Dinner, Key reprised the role of Luther, President Obama's anger translator during the event.[25] Dave Chappelle has accused the show of copying the format he established years prior for Chappelle's Show, but states that he is still a fan of the show.[26]

Awards and nominations

Year Association Category Nominee(s) Result
2013 Writers Guild of America Awards[27] Comedy/Variety (Including Talk) Series Rebbeca Drysdale, Colton Dunn, Keegan-Michael Key, Jay Martel, Jordan Peele, Ian Roberts, Alex Rubens, Charlie Sanders, and Rich Talarico Nominated
65th Primetime Emmy Awards[28] Outstanding Makeup for a Multi-Camera Series or Special (Non-Prosthetic) Scott Wheeler, Suzanne Diaz Nominated
2014 Peabody Award[29] Entertainment honoree Key & Peele Won
66th Primetime Emmy Awards[28] Outstanding Original Music and Lyrics Episode: "Substitute Teacher #3; Joshua Funk, Rebecca Drysdale for "Les Mis" Nominated
Outstanding Writing for a Variety Series Jay Martel, Ian Roberts, Jordan Peele, Keegan-Michael Key, Alex Rubens, Rebecca Drysdale, Colton Dunn, Rich Talarico, Charlie Sanders Nominated
Outstanding Makeup for a Multi-Camera Series or Special (Non-Prosthetic) Episode: "East/West Bowl Rap Nominated
Outstanding Hairstyling for a Multi-Camera Series or Special Episode: "Substitute Teacher #3" Nominated
2015 People's Choice Awards Favorite Sketch Comedy Series Comedy Central Nominated
67th Primetime Emmy Awards[28] Outstanding Variety Sketch Series Comedy Central Nominated
Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series Keegan-Michael Key Nominated
Outstanding Writing for a Variety Series Rebbeca Drysdale, Colton Dunn, Keegan-Michael Key, Jay Martel, Jordan Peele, Ian Roberts, Alex Rubens, Charlie Sanders, and Rich Talarico Nominated
Outstanding Writing for a Variety Special Brendan Hunt, Keegan-Michael Key, Jordan Peele, and Rich Talarico for Key & Peele's Super Bowl Special Nominated
Outstanding Picture Editing for Variety Programming Phil Davis, Christian Hoffman, and Rich LaBrie (Segment: "Scariest Movie Ever") Nominated
Outstanding Hairstyling for a Multi-Camera Series or Special Episode: "Aerobics Meltdown" Nominated
Outstanding Makeup for a Multi-Camera Series or Special (Non-Prosthetic) Episode: "Episode 406" Nominated
Outstanding Short-Format Live-Action Entertainment Program Key & Peele Presents Van and Mike: The Ascension Nominated
2016 68th Primetime Emmy Awards[28] Outstanding Variety Sketch Series Comedy Central Won
Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series Keegan-Michael Key Nominated
Outstanding Writing for a Variety Series Comedy Central Nominated
Outstanding Hairstyling for a Multi-Camera Series or Special Episode: "Y'all Ready for This?" Nominated
Outstanding Make-up for a Multi-Camera Series or Special (Non-Prosthetic) Episode: "Y'all Ready for This?" Won
Outstanding Picture Editing for Variety Programming Rich LaBrie, Neil Mahoney, Nicholas Monsour, and Stephen Waichulis for Episode: "The End" Nominated
Outstanding Production Design for a Variety, Nonfiction, Reality, or Reality-Competition Series Episodes: "Y'all Ready For This?"; "The End" Nominated


Vandaveon and Mike

Key & Peele have also created a YouTube commentary of their episodes under their alter-egos Vandaveon Huggins and Mike Taylor.[30] Vandaveon and Mike analyze an episode, and suggest that low brow humor would make it funnier. These videos were also added to On Demand offerings of Key & Peele episodes. On March 12, 2014, Comedy Central announced the network was developing an animated spinoff starring Vandaveon and Mike as 12-year-old hall monitors, in association with Key and Peele.[31]

Home media

On September 25, 2012, Comedy Central and Paramount Home Entertainment released "Key and Peele – Season 1" on DVD and Blu-ray Disc. Both formats feature bloopers, outtakes, a "Poolside Interview," audio commentary with Keegan-Michael Key and Jordan Peele, "Backstage," "Split Their Pants," Key & Peele live at the South Beach Comedy Festival, and an easter egg of the show's theme song.[32]


Key & Peele generally airs on international localized versions of Comedy Central. It premiered in Australia on The Comedy Channel on August 9, 2012.[33]

"Key & Peele" character Wendell Sanders based on the music video "The Power of Wings". The film, titled Wendell Meets Middle-Earth, would follow Wendell's existence in the fantasy world that he likes to see his life in.[34]


  1. ^ a b "06.29.11 | Nick Kroll and Key and Peele Pickup | Comedy Central Press Release". June 28, 2011. Archived from the original on February 22, 2012. Retrieved February 24, 2012.
  2. ^ "Key & Peele Television show – Key & Peele TV Show – Yahoo! TV". Yahoo! TV. Archived from the original on January 20, 2012. Retrieved February 24, 2012.
  3. ^ "Watch Key & Peele Online Streaming at Hulu". Hulu. Archived from the original on May 11, 2016. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
  4. ^ Owen, Rob (January 14, 2012). "PRESS TOUR: 'Key & Peele' is sketch comedy done right". Archived from the original on January 24, 2012. Retrieved February 24, 2012.
  5. ^ Maus, Derek C.; Donahue, James J. (2014). Post-Soul Satire: Black Identity After Civil Rights. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-1-61-703997-3. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016.
  6. ^ Gorman, Bill (January 4, 2012). "Keegan-Michael Key And Jordan Peele Come To Comedy Central With New Series 'Key & Peele'". TV By the Numbers. Archived from the original on January 14, 2012. Retrieved February 24, 2012.
  7. ^ "Key & Peele Launch Obama Anger Translator". January 12, 2012. Archived from the original on January 18, 2012. Retrieved February 24, 2012.
  8. ^ "Key & Peele". Comedy Central. Archived from the original on February 26, 2012. Retrieved February 24, 2012.
  9. ^ "The Comedy Network Shows – Watch Full Episodes | Daily Show, Colbert & Skeet.0". Archived from the original on February 3, 2012. Retrieved February 24, 2012.
  10. ^ Gorman, Bill. ""Tosh.0" Season Premiere Pulls In 3.1 Million Total Viewers & New Series "Key & Peele" Debuts To 2.1 Million Total Viewers For The Biggest Comedy Central Launch Since 2009 – Ratings | TVbytheNumbers". TV by The Numbers. Archived from the original on August 21, 2013. Retrieved February 15, 2012.
  11. ^ Ng, Philiana (February 14, 2012). "Comedy Central Renews 'Key & Peele' for Season 2". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on February 19, 2016.
  12. ^ Seat42f. "Key & Peel Renewed For A Third Season". Archived from the original on November 29, 2012. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
  13. ^ Bibel, Sara. "'Brickleberry,' 'Key & Peele' and 'Drunk History' Renewed by Comedy Central". Archived from the original on November 11, 2013.
  14. ^ a b Fleming Jr, Mike. "Paramount To Turn Key & Peele's 'Substitute Teacher' Into Feature; Keegan-Michael Key And Jordan Peele To Star". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on April 29, 2015. Retrieved April 26, 2015.
  15. ^ "'Key & Peele' to End its Comedy Central Run After This Season (Exclusive)". The Wrap. Archived from the original on July 28, 2015. Retrieved July 25, 2015.
  16. ^ "Key & Peele bring back Obama's anger translator, roast Trump on 'The Daily Show'". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Archived from the original on January 24, 2017. Retrieved January 25, 2017.
  17. ^ Castillo, Michelle (July 28, 2014). "Key & Peele Look Back on What Made Their 'Liam Neesons' Spot a Promoted Clip Worth Watching". Adweek. Archived from the original on June 28, 2017. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
  18. ^ "The 7 Most Essential Key & Peele Sketches". February 10, 2015. Archived from the original on March 16, 2017. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
  19. ^ Neilan, Dan (November 13, 2018). "Key and Peele reprise one of their best bits in this new Toy Story 4 clip". The A.V. Club. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  20. ^ Saraf, Sid (January 28, 2015). "'Key and Peele' gives us 'East/West Bowl' sketch with NFL players". FOX Sports. Archived from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved July 25, 2015.
  21. ^ "Critic Reviews for Key & Peele Season 1 at Metacritic". Metacritic. Archived from the original on February 11, 2012. Retrieved February 10, 2012.
  22. ^ "Key & Peele : Season 3" Archived December 6, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Metacritic. January 31, 2012
  23. ^ "Key & Peele (Comedy Central)" Archived August 15, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Peabody Awards. May 2014. Retrieved September 22, 2014.
  24. ^ Obama on Fallon, April 24, 2012 on YouTube
  25. ^ Staff, Variety. "'Key and Peele' Star Acts as Obama's 'Anger Translator' at Correspondents Dinner (VIDEO)". Variety. Archived from the original on April 27, 2015. Retrieved April 26, 2015.
  26. ^ "Dave Chappelle on fame, leaving "Chappelle's Show" and Netflix special". CBS. March 21, 2017. Archived from the original on March 24, 2017. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
  27. ^ Mitchell, Gregg; Strell, Jay (December 6, 2012). "2013 Writers Guild Awards Television, News, Radio, Promotional Writing, and Graphic Animation Nominees Announced" Archived March 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Writers Guild of America
  28. ^ a b c d "Key & Peele". Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. Archived from the original on September 18, 2016. Retrieved September 12, 2016.
  29. ^ "Key & Peele (Comedy Central)". Henry W. Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved September 11, 2015.
  30. ^ Siek, Stephanie (February 24, 2012). "'Key & Peele': The color of funny". CNN. Archived from the original on March 2, 2012. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
  31. ^ Goldberg, Lesley. "Comedy Central Expands 'Key & Peele,' Develops Animated Spinoff". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on March 17, 2014. Retrieved March 20, 2014.
  32. ^ Lambert, David (June 25, 2012). "Key and Peele – 'Season 1' Coming on Blu-ray and DVD from Comedy Central **UPDATE: Artwork**". TVShowsOnDVD. Archived from the original on June 29, 2012. Retrieved June 28, 2012.
  33. ^ "Airdate: Key and Peele". TV Tonight. July 19, 2012. Archived from the original on November 9, 2013. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
  34. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 20, 2018. Retrieved December 4, 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)

External links

Advanced Encryption Standard

The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known by its original name Rijndael (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈrɛindaːl]), is a specification for the encryption of electronic data established by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2001.AES is a subset of the Rijndael block cipher developed by two Belgian cryptographers, Vincent Rijmen and Joan Daemen, who submitted a proposal to NIST during the AES selection process. Rijndael is a family of ciphers with different key and block sizes.

For AES, NIST selected three members of the Rijndael family, each with a block size of 128 bits, but three different key lengths: 128, 192 and 256 bits.

AES has been adopted by the U.S. government and is now used worldwide. It supersedes the Data Encryption Standard (DES), which was published in 1977. The algorithm described by AES is a symmetric-key algorithm, meaning the same key is used for both encrypting and decrypting the data.

In the United States, AES was announced by the NIST as U.S. FIPS PUB 197 (FIPS 197) on November 26, 2001. This announcement followed a five-year standardization process in which fifteen competing designs were presented and evaluated, before the Rijndael cipher was selected as the most suitable (see Advanced Encryption Standard process for more details).

AES became effective as a federal government standard on May 26, 2002, after approval by the Secretary of Commerce. AES is included in the ISO/IEC 18033-3 standard. AES is available in many different encryption packages, and is the first (and only) publicly accessible cipher approved by the National Security Agency (NSA) for top secret information when used in an NSA approved cryptographic module (see Security of AES, below).


An electronic calculator is typically a portable electronic device used to perform calculations, ranging from basic arithmetic to complex mathematics.

The first solid-state electronic calculator was created in the early 1960s. Pocket-sized devices became available in the 1970s, especially after the Intel 4004, the first microprocessor, was developed by Intel for the Japanese calculator company Busicom. They later became used commonly within the petroleum industry (oil and gas).

Modern electronic calculators vary from cheap, give-away, credit-card-sized models to sturdy desktop models with built-in printers. They became popular in the mid-1970s as the incorporation of integrated circuits reduced their size and cost. By the end of that decade, prices had dropped to the point where a basic calculator was affordable to most and they became common in schools.

Computer operating systems as far back as early Unix have included interactive calculator programs such as dc and hoc, and calculator functions are included in almost all personal digital assistant (PDA) type devices, the exceptions being a few dedicated address book and dictionary devices.

In addition to general purpose calculators, there are those designed for specific markets. For example, there are scientific calculators which include trigonometric and statistical calculations. Some calculators even have the ability to do computer algebra. Graphing calculators can be used to graph functions defined on the real line, or higher-dimensional Euclidean space. As of 2016, basic calculators cost little, but scientific and graphing models tend to cost more.

In 1986, calculators still represented an estimated 41% of the world's general-purpose hardware capacity to compute information. By 2007, this had diminished to less than 0.05%.


Cartography (; from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps. Combining science, aesthetics, and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively.

The fundamental problems of traditional cartography are to:

Set the map's agenda and select traits of the object to be mapped. This is the concern of map editing. Traits may be physical, such as roads or land masses, or may be abstract, such as toponyms or political boundaries.

Represent the terrain of the mapped object on flat media. This is the concern of map projections.

Eliminate characteristics of the mapped object that are not relevant to the map's purpose. This is the concern of generalization.

Reduce the complexity of the characteristics that will be mapped. This is also the concern of generalization.

Orchestrate the elements of the map to best convey its message to its audience. This is the concern of map design.Modern cartography constitutes many theoretical and practical foundations of geographic information systems.

Chroma key

Chroma key compositing, or chroma keying, is a visual effects/post-production technique for compositing (layering) two images or video streams together based on color hues (chroma range). The technique has been used in many fields to remove a background from the subject of a photo or video – particularly the newscasting, motion picture, and video game industries. A color range in the foreground footage is made transparent, allowing separately filmed background footage or a static image to be inserted into the scene. The chroma keying technique is commonly used in video production and post-production. This technique is also referred to as color keying, colour-separation overlay (CSO; primarily by the BBC), or by various terms for specific color-related variants such as green screen, and blue screen – chroma keying can be done with backgrounds of any color that are uniform and distinct, but green and blue backgrounds are more commonly used because they differ most distinctly in hue from most human skin colors. No part of the subject being filmed or photographed may duplicate the color used as the backing.It is commonly used for weather forecast broadcasts, wherein a news presenter is usually seen standing in front of a large CGI map during live television newscasts, though in actuality it is a large blue or green background. When using a blue screen, different weather maps are added on the parts of the image where the color is blue. If the news presenter wears blue clothes, his or her clothes will also be replaced with the background video. Chroma keying is also common in the entertainment industry for visual effects in movies and video games.

Computer keyboard

In computing, a computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches. Following the decline of punch cards and paper tape, interaction via teleprinter-style keyboards became the main input method for computers.

Keyboard keys (buttons) typically have characters engraved or printed on them, and each press of a key typically corresponds to a single written symbol. However, producing some symbols may require pressing and holding several keys simultaneously or in sequence. While most keyboard keys produce letters, numbers or signs (characters), other keys or simultaneous key presses can produce actions or execute computer commands.

In normal usage, the keyboard is used as a text entry interface for typing text and numbers into a word processor, text editor or any other program. In a modern computer, the interpretation of key presses is generally left to the software. A computer keyboard distinguishes each physical key from every other key and reports all key presses to the controlling software. Keyboards are also used for computer gaming — either regular keyboards or keyboards with special gaming features, which can expedite frequently used keystroke combinations.

A keyboard is also used to give commands to the operating system of a computer, such as Windows' Control-Alt-Delete combination. Although on Pre-Windows 95 Microsoft operating systems this forced a re-boot, now it brings up a system security options screen.A command-line interface is a type of user interface navigated entirely using a keyboard, or some other similar device that does the job of one.


Cryptography or cryptology (from Ancient Greek: κρυπτός, translit. kryptós "hidden, secret"; and γράφειν graphein, "to write", or -λογία -logia, "study", respectively) is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties called adversaries. More generally, cryptography is about constructing and analyzing protocols that prevent third parties or the public from reading private messages; various aspects in information security such as data confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation are central to modern cryptography. Modern cryptography exists at the intersection of the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, electrical engineering, communication science, and physics. Applications of cryptography include electronic commerce, chip-based payment cards, digital currencies, computer passwords, and military communications.

Cryptography prior to the modern age was effectively synonymous with encryption, the conversion of information from a readable state to apparent nonsense. The originator of an encrypted message shares the decoding technique only with intended recipients to preclude access from adversaries. The cryptography literature often uses the names Alice ("A") for the sender, Bob ("B") for the intended recipient, and Eve ("eavesdropper") for the adversary. Since the development of rotor cipher machines in World War I and the advent of computers in World War II, the methods used to carry out cryptology have become increasingly complex and its application more widespread.

Modern cryptography is heavily based on mathematical theory and computer science practice; cryptographic algorithms are designed around computational hardness assumptions, making such algorithms hard to break in practice by any adversary. It is theoretically possible to break such a system, but it is infeasible to do so by any known practical means. These schemes are therefore termed computationally secure; theoretical advances, e.g., improvements in integer factorization algorithms, and faster computing technology require these solutions to be continually adapted. There exist information-theoretically secure schemes that provably cannot be broken even with unlimited computing power—an example is the one-time pad—but these schemes are more difficult to use in practice than the best theoretically breakable but computationally secure mechanisms.

The growth of cryptographic technology has raised a number of legal issues in the information age. Cryptography's potential for use as a tool for espionage and sedition has led many governments to classify it as a weapon and to limit or even prohibit its use and export. In some jurisdictions where the use of cryptography is legal, laws permit investigators to compel the disclosure of encryption keys for documents relevant to an investigation. Cryptography also plays a major role in digital rights management and copyright infringement of digital media.


In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot. Encryption does not itself prevent interference, but denies the intelligible content to a would-be interceptor. In an encryption scheme, the intended information or message, referred to as plaintext, is encrypted using an encryption algorithm – a cipher – generating ciphertext that can be read only if decrypted. For technical reasons, an encryption scheme usually uses a pseudo-random encryption key generated by an algorithm. It is in principle possible to decrypt the message without possessing the key, but, for a well-designed encryption scheme, considerable computational resources and skills are required. An authorized recipient can easily decrypt the message with the key provided by the originator to recipients but not to unauthorized users.


Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts. Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrates and the enzyme converts the substrates into different molecules known as products. Almost all metabolic processes in the cell need enzyme catalysis in order to occur at rates fast enough to sustain life. Metabolic pathways depend upon enzymes to catalyze individual steps. The study of enzymes is called enzymology and a new field of pseudoenzyme analysis has recently grown up, recognising that during evolution, some enzymes have lost the ability to carry out biological catalysis, which is often reflected in their amino acid sequences and unusual 'pseudocatalytic' properties.Enzymes are known to catalyze more than 5,000 biochemical reaction types. Most enzymes are proteins, although a few are catalytic RNA molecules. The latter are called ribozymes. Enzymes' specificity comes from their unique three-dimensional structures.

Like all catalysts, enzymes increase the reaction rate by lowering its activation energy. Some enzymes can make their conversion of substrate to product occur many millions of times faster. An extreme example is orotidine 5'-phosphate decarboxylase, which allows a reaction that would otherwise take millions of years to occur in milliseconds. Chemically, enzymes are like any catalyst and are not consumed in chemical reactions, nor do they alter the equilibrium of a reaction. Enzymes differ from most other catalysts by being much more specific. Enzyme activity can be affected by other molecules: inhibitors are molecules that decrease enzyme activity, and activators are molecules that increase activity. Many therapeutic drugs and poisons are enzyme inhibitors. An enzyme's activity decreases markedly outside its optimal temperature and pH, and many enzymes are (permanently) denatured when exposed to excessive heat, losing their structure and catalytic properties.

Some enzymes are used commercially, for example, in the synthesis of antibiotics. Some household products use enzymes to speed up chemical reactions: enzymes in biological washing powders break down protein, starch or fat stains on clothes, and enzymes in meat tenderizer break down proteins into smaller molecules, making the meat easier to chew.

Florida Keys

The Florida Keys are a coral cay archipelago located off the southern coast of Florida, forming the southernmost portion of the continental United States. They begin at the southeastern coast of the Florida peninsula, about 15 miles (24 km) south of Miami, and extend in a gentle arc south-southwest and then westward to Key West, the westernmost of the inhabited islands, and on to the uninhabited Dry Tortugas. The islands lie along the Florida Straits, dividing the Atlantic Ocean to the east from the Gulf of Mexico to the northwest, and defining one edge of Florida Bay. At the nearest point, the southern part of Key West is just 90 miles (140 km) from Cuba. The Florida Keys are between about 23.5 and 25.5 degrees North latitude.

More than 95 percent of the land area lies in Monroe County, but a small portion extends northeast into Miami-Dade County, such as Totten Key. The total land area is 137.3 square miles (356 km2). As of the 2010 census the population was 73,090 with an average density of 532.34 per square mile (205.54/km2), although much of the population is concentrated in a few areas of much higher density, such as the city of Key West, which has 32% of the entire population of the Keys. The US Census population estimate for 2014 is 77,136.

The city of Key West is the county seat of Monroe County. The county consists of a section on the mainland which is almost entirely in Everglades National Park, and the Keys islands from Key Largo to the Dry Tortugas.

Jordan Peele

Jordan Haworth Peele (born February 21, 1979) is an American actor, comedian, writer, producer, and director.After appearing for five seasons as a cast member on the sketch series Mad TV (2003–08), Peele co-created and co-starred with Keegan-Michael Key in the Comedy Central sketch comedy series Key & Peele (2012–15). In 2014, he had a recurring role in the FX anthology series Fargo. Peele also co-created the TBS comedy series The Last O.G. (2018–present) and the YouTube Premium comedy series Weird City (2019–present). He will host, narrate and produce the CBS All Access anthology series The Twilight Zone (2019–present).

In film, Peele has starred in the comedy films Wanderlust (2012), Keanu (2016), Storks (2016), and Toy Story 4 (2019). Peele's 2017 directorial debut, the horror film Get Out, earned critical acclaim and was a box office success. He received numerous accolades, including the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay, along with nominations for Best Picture and Best Director. Peele received his second nomination for the Academy Award for Best Picture for producing Spike Lee's BlacKkKlansman (2018). He then wrote, produced and directed the horror film Us (2019).

Key West

Key West (Spanish: Cayo Hueso) is an island and city in the Straits of Florida on the North American continent. The city lies at the southernmost end of U.S. Route 1, the longest north-south road in the United States. Key West is the southernmost city in the contiguous United States and the westernmost island connected by highway in the Florida Keys. The island is about 4 miles (6.4 km) long and 1 mile (1.6 km) wide, with a total land mass of 4.2 square miles (11 km2). Duval Street, its main street, is 1.1 miles (1.8 km) in length in its 14-block-long crossing from the Gulf of Mexico to the Straits of Florida and the Atlantic Ocean. Key West is about 95 miles (153 km) north of Cuba at their closest points.The city is the county seat of Monroe County. The city boundaries include the island of Key West and all or part of several nearby islands: Sigsbee Park, Fleming Key, Sunset Key, and the northern part of Stock Island. The total land area of the city is 5.6 square miles (14.5 km2). Key West is the southern terminus of U.S. Route 1, State Road A1A, the East Coast Greenway and, before 1935, the Florida East Coast Railway.

Key West is 129 miles (208 km) southwest of Miami by air, about 160 miles (260 km) by car, and 106 miles (171 km) north-northeast of Havana. Key West is a port of call for many passenger cruise ships. The Key West International Airport provides airline service. Naval Air Station Key West is an important year round training site for naval aviation due to the tropical weather, which is also the reason Key West was chosen as the Winter White House of President Harry S. Truman. The central business district is located along Duval Street and includes much of the northwestern corner of the island. The official city motto is "One Human Family."

NATO phonetic alphabet

The NATO phonetic alphabet, officially denoted as the International Radiotelephony Spelling Alphabet, and also commonly known as the ICAO phonetic alphabet, and in a variation also known officially as the ITU phonetic alphabet and figure code, is the most widely used radiotelephone spelling alphabet. Although often called "phonetic alphabets", spelling alphabets are unrelated to phonetic transcription systems such as the International Phonetic Alphabet. Instead, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) alphabet assigned codewords acrophonically to the letters of the English alphabet, so that critical combinations of letters and numbers are most likely to be pronounced and understood by those who exchange voice messages by radio or telephone, regardless of language differences or the quality of the communication channel.The 26 code words in the NATO phonetic alphabet are assigned to the 26 letters of the English alphabet in alphabetical order as follows: Alfa, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Foxtrot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliett, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whiskey, X-ray, Yankee, Zulu.Strict adherence to the prescribed spelling words is required in order to avoid the problems of confusion that the spelling alphabet is designed to overcome. As noted in a 1955 NATO memo:

It is known that [the ICAO spelling alphabet] has been prepared only after the most exhaustive tests on a scientific basis by several nations. One of the firmest conclusions reached was that it was not practical to make an isolated change to clear confusion between one pair of letters. To change one word involves reconsideration of the whole alphabet to ensure that the change proposed to clear one confusion does not itself introduce others.

The same memo notes a potential confusion between ZERO and SIERRA is overcome when following the procedures in ACP 125, which specify the use of the procedure word FIGURES in many instances in which digits need to be read.

Public-key cryptography

Public-key cryptography, or asymmetric cryptography, is a cryptographic system that uses pairs of keys: public keys which may be disseminated widely, and private keys which are known only to the owner. The generation of such keys depends on cryptographic algorithms based on mathematical problems to produce one-way functions. Effective security only requires keeping the private key private; the public key can be openly distributed without compromising security.In such a system, any person can encrypt a message using the receiver's public key, but that encrypted message can only be decrypted with the receiver's private key.

Robust authentication is also possible. A sender can combine a message with a private key to create a short digital signature on the message. Anyone with the corresponding public key can combine a message, a putative digital signature on it, and the known public key to verify whether the signature was valid, i.e. made by the owner of the corresponding private key.Public key algorithms are fundamental security ingredients in modern cryptosystems, applications and protocols assuring the confidentiality, authenticity and non-repudiability of electronic communications and data storage. They underpin various Internet standards, such as Transport Layer Security (TLS), S/MIME, PGP, and GPG. Some public key algorithms provide key distribution and secrecy (e.g., Diffie–Hellman key exchange), some provide digital signatures (e.g., Digital Signature Algorithm), and some provide both (e.g., RSA).


QWERTY (, ) is a keyboard design for Latin-script alphabets. The name comes from the order of the first six keys on the top left letter row of the keyboard (Q W E R T Y). The QWERTY design is based on a layout created for the Sholes and Glidden typewriter and sold to E. Remington and Sons in 1873. It became popular with the success of the Remington No. 2 of 1878, and remains in widespread use.

Scientific notation

Scientific notation (also referred to as scientific form or standard index form, or standard form in the UK) is a way of expressing numbers that are too big or too small to be conveniently written in decimal form. It is commonly used by scientists, mathematicians and engineers, in part because it can simplify certain arithmetic operations. On scientific calculators it is usually known as "SCI" display mode.

In scientific notation all numbers are written in the form

m × 10n(m times ten raised to the power of n), where the exponent n is an integer, and the coefficient m is any real number. The integer n is called the

order of magnitude and the real number m is called the significand or mantissa. However, the term "mantissa" may cause confusion because it is the name of the fractional part of the common logarithm. If the number is negative then a minus sign precedes m (as in ordinary decimal notation). In normalized notation, the exponent is chosen so that the absolute value of the coefficient is at least one but less than ten.

Decimal floating point is a computer arithmetic system closely related to scientific notation.

Secure Shell

Secure Shell (SSH) is a cryptographic network protocol for operating network services securely over an unsecured network. Typical applications include remote command-line login and remote command execution, but any network service can be secured with SSH.

SSH provides a secure channel over an unsecured network in a client–server architecture, connecting an SSH client application with an SSH server. The protocol specification distinguishes between two major versions, referred to as SSH-1 and SSH-2. The standard TCP port for SSH is 22. SSH is generally used to access Unix-like operating systems, but it can also be used on Windows. Windows 10 uses OpenSSH as its default SSH client.SSH was designed as a replacement for Telnet and for unsecured remote shell protocols such as the Berkeley rlogin, rsh, and rexec protocols. Those protocols send information, notably passwords, in plaintext, rendering them susceptible to interception and disclosure using packet analysis. The encryption used by SSH is intended to provide confidentiality and integrity of data over an unsecured network, such as the Internet, although files leaked by Edward Snowden indicate that the National Security Agency can sometimes decrypt SSH, allowing them to read the contents of SSH sessions.


The tilde ( or ; ˜ or ~) is a grapheme with several uses. The name of the character came into English from Spanish and from Portuguese, which in turn came from the Latin titulus, meaning "title" or "superscription".The reason for the name was that it was originally written over a letter as a scribal abbreviation, as a "mark of suspension", shown as a straight line when used with capitals. Thus the commonly used words Anno Domini were frequently abbreviated to Ao Dñi, an elevated terminal with a suspension mark placed over the "n". Such a mark could denote the omission of one letter or several letters. This saved on the expense of the scribe's labour and the cost of vellum and ink. Medieval European charters written in Latin are largely made up of such abbreviated words with suspension marks and other abbreviations; only uncommon words were given in full. The tilde has since been applied to a number of other uses as a diacritic mark or a character in its own right. These are encoded in Unicode at U+0303 ◌̃ COMBINING TILDE and U+007E ~ TILDE (as a spacing character), and there are additional similar characters for different roles. In lexicography, the latter kind of tilde and the swung dash (⁓) are used in dictionaries to indicate the omission of the entry word.

Topographic prominence

In topography, prominence measures the height of a mountain or hill's summit relative to the lowest contour line encircling it but containing no higher summit within it. It is a measure of the independence of a summit. A peak's key col (highest gap between two mountains) is a unique point on this contour line and the parent peak is some higher mountain, selected according to various objective criteria.

Transport Layer Security

Transport Layer Security (TLS), and its now-deprecated predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), are cryptographic protocols designed to provide communications security over a computer network. Several versions of the protocols find widespread use in applications such as web browsing, email, instant messaging, and voice over IP (VoIP). Websites can use TLS to secure all communications between their servers and web browsers.

The TLS protocol aims primarily to provide privacy and data integrity between two or more communicating computer applications. When secured by TLS, connections between a client (e.g., a web browser) and a server (e.g., should have one or more of the following properties:

The connection is private (or secure) because symmetric cryptography is used to encrypt the data transmitted. The keys for this symmetric encryption are generated uniquely for each connection and are based on a shared secret that was negotiated at the start of the session (see § TLS handshake). The server and client negotiate the details of which encryption algorithm and cryptographic keys to use before the first byte of data is transmitted (see § Algorithm below). The negotiation of a shared secret is both secure (the negotiated secret is unavailable to eavesdroppers and cannot be obtained, even by an attacker who places themselves in the middle of the connection) and reliable (no attacker can modify the communications during the negotiation without being detected).

The identity of the communicating parties can be authenticated using public-key cryptography. This authentication can be made optional, but is generally required for at least one of the parties (typically the server).

The connection is reliable because each message transmitted includes a message integrity check using a message authentication code to prevent undetected loss or alteration of the data during transmission.In addition to the properties above, careful configuration of TLS can provide additional privacy-related properties such as forward secrecy, ensuring that any future disclosure of encryption keys cannot be used to decrypt any TLS communications recorded in the past.TLS supports many different methods for exchanging keys, encrypting data, and authenticating message integrity (see § Algorithm below). As a result, secure configuration of TLS involves many configurable parameters, and not all choices provide all of the privacy-related properties described in the list above (see the § Key exchange (authentication), § Cipher security, and § Data integrity tables).

Attempts have been made to subvert aspects of the communications security that TLS seeks to provide, and the protocol has been revised several times to address these security threats (see § Security). Developers of web browsers have also revised their products to defend against potential security weaknesses after these were discovered (see TLS/SSL support history of web browsers).The TLS protocol comprises two layers: the TLS record and the TLS handshake protocols.

TLS is a proposed Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard, first defined in 1999 and updated in RFC 5246 (August 2008) and RFC 6176 (March 2011). It builds on the earlier SSL specifications (1994, 1995, 1996) developed by Netscape Communications

for adding the HTTPS protocol to their Navigator web browser.

USB flash drive

A USB flash drive, also known as a thumb drive, pen drive, gig stick, flash stick, jump drive, disk key, disk on key (after the original M-Systems DiskOnKey drive from 2000), flash-drive, memory stick (not to be confused with the Sony Memory Stick), USB key, USB stick or USB memory, is a data storage device that includes flash memory with an integrated USB interface. It is typically removable, rewritable and much smaller than an optical disc. Most weigh less than 1 oz (28 grams). Since first appearing on the market in late 2000, as with virtually all other computer memory devices, storage capacities have risen while prices have dropped. As of March 2016, flash drives with anywhere from 8 to 256 GB were frequently sold, while 512 GB and 1 TB units were less frequent. As of 2018, 2TB flash drives were the largest available in terms of storage capacity. Some allow up to 100,000 write/erase cycles, depending on the exact type of memory chip used, and are thought to last between 10 and 100 years under normal circumstances (shelf storage time).

USB flash drives are often used for storage, data back-up and transfer of computer files. Compared with floppy disks or CDs, they are smaller, faster, have significantly more capacity, and are more durable due to a lack of moving parts. Additionally, they are immune to electromagnetic interference (unlike floppy disks), and are unharmed by surface scratches (unlike CDs). Until about 2005, most desktop and laptop computers were supplied with floppy disk drives in addition to USB ports, but floppy disk drives became obsolete after widespread adoption of USB ports and the larger USB drive capacity compared to the 1.44 MB 3.5-inch floppy disk.

USB flash drives use the USB mass storage device class standard, supported natively by modern operating systems such as Windows, Linux, macOS and other Unix-like systems, as well as many BIOS boot ROMs. USB drives with USB 2.0 support can store more data and transfer faster than much larger optical disc drives like CD-RW or DVD-RW drives and can be read by many other systems such as the Xbox One, PlayStation 4, DVD players, automobile entertainment systems, and in a number of handheld devices such as smartphones and tablet computers, though the electronically similar SD card is better suited for those devices.

A flash drive consists of a small printed circuit board carrying the circuit elements and a USB connector, insulated electrically and protected inside a plastic, metal, or rubberized case, which can be carried in a pocket or on a key chain, for example. The USB connector may be protected by a removable cap or by retracting into the body of the drive, although it is not likely to be damaged if unprotected. Most flash drives use a standard type-A USB connection allowing connection with a port on a personal computer, but drives for other interfaces also exist. USB flash drives draw power from the computer via the USB connection. Some devices combine the functionality of a portable media player with USB flash storage; they require a battery only when used to play music on the go.

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