Kerosene

Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum. It is widely used as a fuel in industry as well as households. Its name derives from Greek: κηρός (keros) meaning wax, and was registered as a trademark by Canadian geologist and inventor Abraham Gesner in 1854 before evolving into a genericized trademark. It is sometimes spelled kerosine in scientific and industrial usage.[1] The term kerosene is common in much of Argentina, Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand, and the United States,[2][3] while the term paraffin (or a closely related variant) is used in Chile, eastern Africa, South Africa, Norway, and in the United Kingdom.[4] The term lamp oil, or the equivalent in the local languages, is common in the majority of Asia. Liquid paraffin (called mineral oil in the US) is a more viscous and highly refined product which is used as a laxative. Paraffin wax is a waxy solid extracted from petroleum.

Kerosene is widely used to power jet engines of aircraft (jet fuel) and some rocket engines and is also commonly used as a cooking and lighting fuel and for fire toys such as poi. In parts of Asia, kerosene is sometimes used as fuel for small outboard motors or even motorcycles.[5] World total kerosene consumption for all purposes is equivalent to about 1.2 million barrels (50 million U.S. gallons; 42 million imperial gallons; 190 million liters) per day.[6]

To prevent confusion between kerosene and the much more flammable and volatile gasoline, some jurisdictions regulate markings or colorings for containers used to store or dispense kerosene. For example, in the United States, Pennsylvania requires that portable containers used at retail service stations for kerosene be colored blue, as opposed to red (for gasoline) or yellow (for diesel fuel).[7]

Kerosene bottle
An Australian kerosene bottle, containing blue-dyed kerosene

Properties

Kerosene is a low viscosity, clear liquid formed from hydrocarbons obtained from the fractional distillation of petroleum between 150 and 275 °C (300 and 525 °F), resulting in a mixture with a density of 0.78–0.81 g/cm3 (0.45–0.47 oz/cu in) composed of carbon chains that typically contain between 10 and 16 carbon atoms per molecule.[8] It is miscible in petroleum solvents but immiscible in water.

The American Society for Testing and Materials standard specification D-3699-78 recognizes two grades of kerosene: grades 1-K (less than 0.04% sulfur by weight) and 2-K (0.3% sulfur by weight). 1-K grade kerosene burns cleaner with fewer deposits, fewer toxins, and less frequent maintenance than 2-K grade kerosene, and is the preferred grade of kerosene for indoor kerosene heaters and stoves.[9]

Regardless of crude oil source or processing history, kerosene's major components are branched and straight chain alkanes and naphthenes (cycloalkanes), which normally account for at least 70% by volume. Aromatic hydrocarbons in this boiling range, such as alkylbenzenes (single ring) and alkylnaphthalenes (double ring), do not normally exceed 25% by volume of kerosene streams. Olefins are usually not present at more than 5% by volume.[10]

The flash point of kerosene is between 37 and 65 °C (100 and 150 °F), and its autoignition temperature is 220 °C (428 °F).[11] The pour point of kerosene depends on grade, with commercial aviation fuel standardized at −47 °C (−53 °F).

1-K grade kerosene freezes around −40 °C (−40 °F, 233 K).[12]

Heat of combustion of kerosene is similar to that of diesel fuel; its lower heating value is 43.1 MJ/kg (around 18,500 Btu/lb), and its higher heating value is 46.2 MJ/kg (19,900 Btu/lb).[13]

In the United Kingdom, two grades of heating oil are defined. BS 2869 Class C1 is the lightest grade used for lanterns, camping stoves, wick heaters, and mixed with gasoline in some vintage combustion engines as a substitute for tractor vaporising oil. BS 2869 Class C2 is a heavier distillate, which is used as domestic heating oil. Premium kerosene is usually sold in 5-or-20-liter (1.1 or 4.4 imp gal; 1.3 or 5.3 U.S. gal) containers from hardware, camping and garden stores and is often dyed purple. Standard kerosene is usually dispensed in bulk by a tanker and is undyed.

National and international standards define the properties of several grades of kerosene used for jet fuel. Flash point and freezing point properties are of particular interest for operation and safety; the standards also define additives for control of static electricity and other purposes.

History

Al-RaziInGerardusCremonensis1250
Persian scholar Rāzi (or Rhazes) was the first to distill kerosene in the 9th century. He is depicted here in a manuscript by Gerard of Cremona.
Abraham Gesner Photo
Abraham Gesner first distilled kerosene from bituminous coal and oil shale experimentally in 1846; commercial production followed in 1854
Kerosene queue
A queue for kerosene. Moscow, Russia, 1920s

The process of distilling crude oil/petroleum into kerosene, as well as other hydrocarbon compounds, was first written about in the 9th century by the Persian scholar Rāzi (or Rhazes). In his Kitab al-Asrar (Book of Secrets), the physician and chemist Razi described two methods for the production of kerosene, termed naft abyad ("white naphtha"), using an apparatus called an alembic. One method used clay as an absorbent, whereas the other method used ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac). The distillation process was repeated until most of the volatile hydrocarbon fractions had been removed and the final product was perfectly clear and safe to burn. Kerosene was also produced during the same period from oil shale and bitumen by heating the rock to extract the oil, which was then distilled.[14] During the medieval Chinese Ming Dynasty, the Chinese made use of kerosene through extracting and purifying petroleum and then converted it into lamp fuel.[15] The Chinese made use of petroleum for lighting lamps and heating homes as early as 1500 BC.[16]

Illuminating oil from coal and oil shale

Although "coal oil" was well known by industrial chemists at least as early as the 1700s as a byproduct of making coal gas and coal tar, it burned with a smoky flame that prevented its use for indoor illumination. In cities, much indoor illumination was provided by piped-in coal gas, but outside the cities, and for spot lighting within the cities, the lucrative market for fueling indoor lamps was supplied by whale oil, specifically that from sperm whales, which burned brighter and cleaner.[17]

Canadian geologist Abraham Gesner claimed that in 1846, he had given a public demonstration in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island of a new process he had discovered.[note 1] He heated coal in a retort, and distilled from it a clear, thin fluid that he showed made an excellent lamp fuel. He coined the name "kerosene" for his fuel, a contraction of keroselaion, meaning wax-oil.[18] The cost of extracting kerosene from coal was high.

Gesner recalled from his extensive knowledge of New Brunswick's geology a naturally occurring asphaltum called albertite. He was blocked from using it by the New Brunswick coal conglomerate because they had coal extraction rights for the province, and he lost a court case when their experts claimed albertite was a form of coal.[19] In 1854, Gesner moved to Newtown Creek, Long Island, New York. There, he secured backing from a group of businessmen. They formed the North American Gas Light Company, to which he assigned his patents.

Despite clear priority of discovery, Gesner did not obtain his first kerosene patent until 1854, two years after James Young's United States patent.[20][21] Gesner's method of purifying the distillation products appears to have been superior to Young's, resulting in a cleaner and better-smelling fuel. Manufacture of kerosene under the Gesner patents began in New York in 1854 and later in Boston—being distilled from bituminous coal and oil shale.[18] Gesner registered the word "Kerosene" as a trademark in 1854, and for several years, only the North American Gas Light Company and the Downer Company (to which Gesner had granted the right) were allowed to call their lamp oil "Kerosene" in the United States.[22]

In 1848, Scottish chemist James Young experimented with oil discovered seeping in a coal mine as a source of lubricating oil and illuminating fuel. When the seep became exhausted, he experimented with the dry distillation of coal, especially the resinous "boghead coal" (torbanite). He extracted a number of useful liquids from it, one of which he named paraffine oil because at low temperatures, it congealed into a substance that resembled paraffin wax. Young took out a patent on his process and the resulting products in 1850, and built the first truly commercial oil-works in the world at Bathgate in 1851, using oil extracted from locally mined torbanite, shale, and bituminous coal. In 1852, he took out a United States patent for the same invention. These patents were subsequently upheld in both countries in a series of lawsuits, and other producers were obliged to pay him royalties.[18]

Kerosene from petroleum

In 1851, Samuel Martin Kier began selling lamp oil to local miners, under the name "Carbon Oil". He distilled this by a process of his own invention from crude oil. He also invented a new lamp to burn his product.[23] He has been dubbed the Grandfather of the American Oil Industry by historians.[24] Since the 1840s, Kier's salt wells were becoming fouled with petroleum. At first, Kier simply dumped the useless oil into the nearby Pennsylvania Main Line Canal, but later he began experimenting with several distillates of the crude oil, along with a chemist from eastern Pennsylvania.[25]

Ignacy Łukasiewicz, a Polish pharmacist residing in Lviv, and his Hungarian partner Jan Zeh had been experimenting with different distillation techniques, trying to improve on Gesner's kerosene process, but using oil from a local petroleum seep. Many people knew of his work, but paid little attention to it. On the night of 31 July 1853, doctors at the local hospital needed to perform an emergency operation, virtually impossible by candlelight. They therefore sent a messenger for Łukasiewicz and his new lamps. The lamp burned so brightly and cleanly that the hospital officials ordered several lamps plus a large supply of fuel. Łukasiewicz realized the potential of his work and quit the pharmacy to find a business partner, and then travelled to Vienna to register his technique with the government. Łukasiewicz moved to the Gorlice region of Poland in 1854, and sank several wells across southern Poland over the following decade, setting up a refinery near Jasło in 1859.[26]

The petroleum discovery at the Drake Well in western Pennsylvania in 1859 caused a great deal of public excitement and investment drilling in new wells, not only in Pennsylvania, but also in Canada, where petroleum had been discovered at Oil Springs, Ontario in 1858, and southern Poland, where Ignacy Łukasiewicz had been distilling lamp oil from petroleum seeps since 1852. The increased supply of petroleum allowed oil refiners to entirely side-step the oil-from-coal patents of both Young and Gesner, and produce illuminating oil from petroleum without paying royalties to anyone. As a result, the illuminating oil industry in the United States completely switched over to petroleum in the 1860s. The petroleum-based illuminating oil was widely sold as Kerosene, and the trade name soon lost its proprietary status, and became the lower-case generic product "kerosene".[27] Because Gesner’s original Kerosene had been also known as "coal oil," generic kerosene from petroleum was commonly called "coal oil" in some parts of the United States well into the 20th century.

In the United Kingdom, manufacturing oil from coal (or oil shale) continued into the early 20th century, although increasingly overshadowed by petroleum oils.

As kerosene production increased, whaling declined. The American whaling fleet, which had been steadily growing for 50 years, reached its all-time peak of 199 ships in 1858. By 1860, just two years later, the fleet had dropped to 167 ships. The Civil War cut into American whaling temporarily, but only 105 whaling ships returned to sea in 1866, the first full year of peace, and that number dwindled until only 39 American ships set out to hunt whales in 1876.[28] Kerosene, made first from coal and oil shale, then from petroleum, had largely taken over whaling’s lucrative market in lamp oil.

Electric lighting started displacing kerosene as an illuminant in the late 19th century, especially in urban areas. However, kerosene remained the predominant commercial end-use for petroleum refined in the United States until 1909, when it was exceeded by motor fuels. The rise of the gasoline-powered automobile in the early 20th century created a demand for the lighter hydrocarbon fractions, and refiners invented methods to increase the output of gasoline, while decreasing the output of kerosene. In addition, some of the heavier hydrocarbons that previously went into kerosene were incorporated into diesel fuel. Kerosene kept some market share by being increasingly used in stoves and portable heaters.[29]

In 2013, kerosene made up about 0.1 percent by volume of petroleum refinery output in the United States.[30]

Use

As fuel

Heating and lighting

Fuels for heating

At one time the fuel, also known as heating oil in the UK and Ireland, was widely used in kerosene lamps and lanterns. Although it replaced whale oil, the 1873 edition of Elements of Chemistry said, "The vapor of this substance [kerosene] mixed with air is as explosive as gunpowder."[31] This may have been due to the common practice of adulterating kerosene with cheaper but more volatile hydrocarbon mixtures, such as naphtha.[32] Kerosene was a significant fire risk; in 1880, nearly two of every five New York City fires were caused by defective kerosene lamps.[33]

In less-developed countries kerosene is an important source of energy for cooking and lighting. It is used as a cooking fuel in portable stoves for backpackers. As a heating fuel, it is often used in portable stoves, and is sold in some filling stations. It is sometimes used as a heat source during power failures.

Kerosene truck Aichi Japan
A truck delivering kerosene in Japan

Kerosene is widely used in Japan as a home heating fuel for portable and installed kerosene heaters. In Japan, kerosene can be readily bought at any filling station or be delivered to homes.[34] In the United Kingdom and Ireland, kerosene is often used as a heating fuel in areas not connected to a gas pipeline network. It is used less for cooking, with LPG being preferred because it is easier to light. Kerosene is often the fuel of choice for range cookers such as Rayburn. Additives such as RangeKlene can be put into kerosene to ensure that it burns cleaner and produces less soot when used in range cookers.[35]

The Amish, who generally abstain from the use of electricity, rely on kerosene for lighting at night.

Kerosene Storage Tank
Kerosene Storage Tank

More ubiquitous in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, kerosene space heaters were often built into kitchen ranges, and kept many farm and fishing families warm and dry through the winter. At one time, citrus growers used a smudge pot fueled by kerosene to create a pall of thick smoke over a grove in an effort to prevent freezing temperatures from damaging crops. "Salamanders" are kerosene space heaters used on construction sites to dry out building materials and to warm workers. Before the days of electrically lighted road barriers, highway construction zones were marked at night by kerosene fired, pot-bellied torches. Most of these uses of kerosene created thick black smoke because of the low temperature of combustion.

A notable exception, discovered in the early 19th century, is the use of a gas mantle mounted above the wick on a kerosene lamp. Looking like a delicate woven bag above the woven cotton wick, the mantle is a residue of mineral materials (mostly thorium dioxide), heated to incandescence by the flame from the wick. The thorium and cerium oxide combination produces both a whiter light and a greater fraction of the energy in the form of visible light than a black body at the same temperature would. These types of lamps are still in use today in areas of the world without electricity, because they give a much better light than a simple wick-type lamp does. Recently, a multipurpose lantern that doubles as a cook stove has been introduced in India in areas with no electricity.[36]

Cooking

Rippingille Albion Lamp Coy c1900 advert
Advertisement for an oil stove, from the Albion Lamp Company, Birmingham, England, c. 1900

In countries such as India and Nigeria, kerosene is the main fuel used for cooking, especially by the poor, and kerosene stoves have replaced traditional wood-based cooking appliances. As such, increase in the price of kerosene can have a major political and environmental consequence. The Indian government subsidizes the fuel to keep the price very low, to around 15 U.S. cents per liter as of February 2007, as lower prices discourage dismantling of forests for cooking fuel.[37] In Nigeria an attempt by the government to remove a fuel subsidy that includes kerosene met with strong opposition.[38]

Kerosene is used as a fuel in portable stoves, especially in Primus stoves invented in 1892. Portable kerosene stoves earn a reputation of reliable and durable stove in everyday use, and perform especially well under adverse conditions. In outdoor activities and mountaineering, a decisive advantage of pressurized kerosene stoves over gas cartridge stoves is their particularly high thermal output and their ability to operate at very low temperature in winter or at high altitude. Wick stoves like Perfection's or wickless like Boss continue to be used by the Amish and off grid living and in natural disasters where there is no power available.

Transportation

In the mid-20th century, kerosene or tractor vaporising oil (TVO) was used as a cheap fuel for tractors. The engine would start on gasoline, then switch over to kerosene once the engine warmed up. A heat valve on the manifold would route the exhaust gases around the intake pipe, heating the kerosene to the point where it was vaporized and could be ignited by an electric spark.

In Europe following the Second World War, automobiles were similarly modified to run on kerosene rather than gasoline, which they would have to import and pay heavy taxes on. Besides additional piping and the switch between fuels, the head gasket was replaced by a much thicker one to diminish the compression ratio (making the engine less powerful and less efficient, but able to run on kerosene). The necessary equipment was sold under the trademark "Econom".[39]

During the fuel crisis of the 1970s, Saab-Valmet developed and series-produced the Saab 99 Petro that ran on kerosene, turpentine or gasoline. The project, codenamed "Project Lapponia", was headed by Simo Vuorio, and towards the end of the 1970s, a working prototype was produced based on the Saab 99 GL. The car was designed to run on two fuels. Gasoline was used for cold starts and when extra power was needed, but normally it ran on kerosene or turpentine. The idea was that the gasoline could be made from peat using the Fischer–Tropsch process. Between 1980 and 1984, 3,756 Saab 99 Petros and 2,385 Talbot Horizons (a version of the Chrysler Horizon that integrated many Saab components) were made. One reason to manufacture kerosene-fueled cars was that in Finland kerosene was less heavily taxed than gasoline.[40]

Kerosene is used to fuel smaller-horsepower outboard motors built by Yamaha, Suzuki, and Tohatsu. Primarily used on small fishing craft, these are dual-fuel engines that start on gasoline and then transition to kerosene once the engine reaches optimum operating temperature. Multiple fuel Evinrude and Mercury Racing engines also burn kerosene, as well as jet fuel.[41]

Today, kerosene is mainly used in fuel for jet engines in several grades. One highly refined form of the fuel is known as RP-1, and is often burned with liquid oxygen as rocket fuel. These fuel grade kerosenes meet specifications for smoke points and freeze points. The combustion reaction can be approximated as follows, with the molecular formula C12H26 (dodecane):

2 C12H26(l) + 37 O2(g) → 24 CO2(g) + 26 H2O(g); H˚ = -7513 kJ

In the initial phase of liftoff, the Saturn V launch vehicle was powered by the reaction of liquid oxygen with RP-1.[42] For the five 6.4 meganewton sea-level thrust F-1 rocket engines of the Saturn V, burning together, the reaction generated roughly 1.62 × 1011 watts (J/s) (162 gigawatt) or 217 million horsepower.[42]

Kerosene is sometimes used as an additive in diesel fuel to prevent gelling or waxing in cold temperatures.[43]

Ultra-low sulfur kerosene is a custom-blended fuel used by the New York City Transit Authority to power its bus fleet. The transit agency started using this fuel in 2004, prior to the widespread adoption of ultra-low-sulfur diesel, which has since become the standard. In 2008, the suppliers of the custom fuel failed to tender for a renewal of the transit agency's contract, leading to a negotiated contract at a significantly increased cost.[44]

JP-8, (for "Jet Propellant 8") a kerosene-based fuel, is used by the United States military as a replacement in diesel fueled vehicles and for powering aircraft. JP-8 is also used by the U.S. military and its NATO allies as a fuel for heaters, stoves, tanks and as a replacement for diesel fuel in the engines of nearly all tactical ground vehicles and electrical generators.

In chemistry

Kerosene is used as a diluent in the PUREX extraction process, but it is increasingly being supplanted by dodecane. In X-ray crystallography, kerosene can be used to store crystals. When a hydrated crystal is left in air, dehydration may occur slowly. This makes the color of the crystal become dull. Kerosene can keep air from the crystal.

It can be also used to prevent air from re-dissolving in a boiled liquid,[45] and to store alkali metals such as potassium, sodium, and rubidium (with the exception of lithium, which is less dense than kerosene, causing it to float).[46]

In entertainment

Kerosene is often used in the entertainment industry for fire performances, such as fire breathing, fire juggling or poi, and fire dancing. Because of its low flame temperature when burnt in free air, the risk is lower should the performer come in contact with the flame. Kerosene is generally not recommended as fuel for indoor fire dancing, as it produces an unpleasant (to some) odor, which becomes poisonous in sufficient concentration. Ethanol was sometimes used instead, but the flames it produces look less impressive, and its lower flash point poses a high risk.

In industry

As a petroleum product miscible with many industrial liquids, kerosene can be used as both a solvent, able to remove other petroleum products, such as chain grease, and as a lubricant, with less risk of combustion when compared to using gasoline. It can also be used as a cooling agent in metal production and treatment (oxygen-free conditions).[47]

In the petroleum industry, kerosene is often used as a synthetic hydrocarbon for corrosion experiments to simulate crude oil in field conditions.

Others

Kerosene can be applied topically to hard-to-remove mucilage or adhesive left by stickers on a glass surface (such as in show windows of stores).[45]

It can be used to remove candle wax that has dripped onto a glass surface; it is recommended that the excess wax be scraped off prior to applying kerosene via a soaked cloth or tissue paper.[45]

It can be used to clean bicycle and motorcycle chains of old lubricant before relubrication.[45]

It can also be used to thin oil based paint used in fine art. Some artists even use it to clean their brushes; however, it leaves the bristles greasy to the touch.

Toxicity

Ingestion of kerosene is harmful or fatal. Kerosene is sometimes recommended as a folk remedy for killing head lice, but health agencies warn against this as it can cause burns and serious illness. A kerosene shampoo can even be fatal if fumes are inhaled.[48][49]

People can be exposed to kerosene in the workplace by breathing it in, swallowing it, skin contact, and eye contact. The US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has set a recommended exposure limit of 100 mg/m3 over an 8-hour workday.[50]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Kerosene". Webster's New World College Dictionary.
  2. ^ "Kerosene". Oxford English Dictionary.
  3. ^ Anonymous (August 2006). "Environmental Protection Agency lists new kerosene-labeling rules". National Petroleum News. 98 (9). Retrieved 14 December 2012.
  4. ^ What is Kerosene – Ingoe Oils Ltd. Ingoeoils.co.uk. Retrieved on 2015-06-02,
  5. ^ "Kerosene Outboard Motors". Retrieved 25 October 2011.
  6. ^ International Energy Statistics. United States Department of Energy
  7. ^ "Pennsylvania Combustible and Flammable Liquids Act". Retrieved 28 April 2014.
  8. ^ Collins, Chris (2007). "Implementing Phytoremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons". Methods in Biotechnology. Humana Press (23): 99–108. ISBN 1-58829-541-9.
  9. ^ "1301:7-5-10 Fuel for kerosene heaters". Baldwin's Ohio Monthly Record. Banks-Baldwin Law. 2: 1109. 1984.
  10. ^ American Institute of Petroleum (September 2010). "Kerosene/Jet Fuel Assessment Document" (PDF). EPA. p. 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  11. ^ "Kerosene". Retrieved 10 June 2009.
  12. ^ "Ask.com". Retrieved 14 December 2015.
  13. ^ Annamalai, Kalyan; Ishwar Kanwar Puri (2006). Combustion Science and Engineering. CRC Press. p. 851. ISBN 978-0-8493-2071-2.
  14. ^ Bilkadi, Zayn. "The Oil Weapons". Saudi Aramco World. 46 (1): 20–27.
  15. ^ Feng, Lianyong; Hu, Yan; Hall, Charles A. S; Wang, Jianliang (2013). The Chinese Oil Industry: History and Future. Springer (published 28 November 2012). p. 2. ISBN 978-1441994097.
  16. ^ Chang, Samuel Hsu; Robinson, Paul R. (2006). Practical Advances in Petroleum Processing. 1. Springer. p. 2.
  17. ^ Samuel T. Pees, Whale oil versus the others, Petroleum History Institute, accessed 17 November 2014.
  18. ^ a b c Russell, Loris S. (2003). A Heritage of Light: Lamps and Lighting in the Early Canadian Home. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-3765-8.
  19. ^ Black, Harry (1997). Canadian Scientists and Inventors. Pembroke Publishers. ISBN 1-55138-081-1.
  20. ^ Gesner, Abraham, "Improvement in kerosene burning-fluids," U.S. Patent no.s 11,203 ; 11,204 ; 11,205 (issued: 27 June 1854).
  21. ^ Young, James, "Improvement in making paraffine-oil," U.S. Patent no. 8,833 (issued: 23 March 1852).
  22. ^ Asbury, Herbert (1942). The golden flood: an informal history of America's first oil field. Alfred A. Knopf. p. 35.
  23. ^ World, American Manufacturer and Iron (1901). Greater Pittsburgh and Allegheny County, Past, Present, Future; The Pioneer Oil Refiner. The American Manufacturer and Iron World.
  24. ^ McInnis, Karen. "Kier, Samuel Martin- Bio". biography. The Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved 12 December 2008.
  25. ^ Harper, J. A. (1995). "Samuel Kier – Medicine Man & Refiner". Pennsylvania Geology. Oil Region Alliance of Business, Industry & Tourism. 26 (1). Archived from the original (Excerpt from Yo-Ho-Ho and a Bottle of Unrefined Complex Liquid Hydrocarbons) on 15 March 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2008.
  26. ^ Steil, Tim; Luning, Jim (2002). Fantastic Filling Stations. MBI Publishing. pp. 19–20. ISBN 0-7603-1064-5.
  27. ^ Paul Lucier, Scientists & Swindlers (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 2008)232–233.
  28. ^ United States Bureau of the Census, 1960, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1957, p.445.
  29. ^ Harold F. Williamson and others, The American Petroleum Industry: the Age of Energy, 1899–1959 (Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern Univ. Press, 1963) 170, 172, 194, 204.
  30. ^ US EIA, Refinery yield, accessed 29 Nov. 2014.
  31. ^ Cooley, Le Roy Clark (1873). Elements of Chemistry: for Common and High Schools. Scribner, Armstrong. p. 98.
  32. ^ Crew, Benjamin Johnson; Ashburner, Charles Albert (1887). A Practical Treatise on Petroleum. Baird. pp. 395. This reference uses "benzene" in the obsolescent generic sense of a volatile hydrocarbon mixture, now called benzine, petroleum ether, ligroin, or naphtha, rather than the modern meaning of benzene as the specific aromatic hydrocarbon C6H6.
  33. ^ Bettmann, Otto (1974). The Good Old Days – They Were Terrible!. Random House. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-394-70941-3.
  34. ^ "Heating Your Home in Winter: Kerosene Fan Heater". Nagoya International Center.
  35. ^ "Additives (KeroKlene and Range Klene)". Craggs Energy. Retrieved 2017-05-30.
  36. ^ Lanstove:A lamp that's also a stove. Ibnlive.in.com (2011-02-14). Retrieved on 2015-06-02.
  37. ^ Bradsher, Keith (28 July 2008). "Fuel Subsidies Overseas Take a Toll on U.S." New York Times.
  38. ^ Ibikun, Yinka (25 July 2011). "Nigeria Kerosene Too Expensive For Oil-Rich Country's Poor". Huffington Post.
  39. ^ Baer, Frederick H. (December 1951). "Report from abroad on kerosene-fed cars". Popular Science December 1951. Bonnier Corporation. p. 193.
  40. ^ Bakrutan: "Saab 99 Petro" by Petri Tyrkös, n. 4, 2008
  41. ^ Banse, Timothy (7 July 2010). "Kerosene Outboards: An Alternative Fuel?". Marine Engine Digest.
  42. ^ a b Ebbing, Darrell (2007-12-03). General Chemistry. Cengage Learning. pp. 251–. ISBN 978-1-111-80895-2.
  43. ^ Kerosene blending, (pdf from EPA)
  44. ^ "How a Plan for Bus Fuel Grew Expensive". The New York Times. 25 September 2008.
  45. ^ a b c d Kerosene: Other uses: Miscellaneous. Oilfielddirectory.com. Retrieved on 2015-06-02.
  46. ^ "S and P Block Elements – Solved Problems for IIT JEE - askIITians". www.askiitians.com.
  47. ^ "Oil atomisation puts a different face on iron alloy powders". Metal Powder Report. 59 (10): 26–06. 2004. doi:10.1016/S0026-0657(04)00279-6.
  48. ^ Levine, Michael D.; Gresham, Chip, III (30 April 2009). "Toxicity, Hydrocarbons". emedicine. Retrieved 1 December 2009.
  49. ^ Mahdi, Awad Hassan (1988). "Kerosene Poisoning in Children in Riyadh". Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. Oxford University Press. 34 (6): 316–318. doi:10.1093/tropej/34.6.316. PMID 3221417. Retrieved 1 December 2009. Radiological signs of pneumonia were shown in nine out of 27 patients who had chest X-rays. There was one death.
  50. ^ "CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Kerosene". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2015-11-06.

Notes

  1. ^ In his book of 1861 and its second edition of 1865, Gesner claimed to have demonstrated liquid kerosene – an "oil" – in 1846 during his public lectures on Prince Edward's Island. However, John Butt characterized Gesner's book as " … a piece of propaganda designed to get people to believe that he had been constantly interested in inventing burning oil from 1846 to 1854." Butt also stated that "No independent documentary proof has ever been produced to support Gesner's claim." Furthermore, "He [Gesner] omitted to mention that kerosene had first been used to describe an illuminating gas." As late as 1850, Gesner promoted his "kerosene" as an illuminating gas:

External links

Baku–Batumi pipeline

The Baku–Batumi pipeline is the name given to several pipelines and pipeline projects to transport kerosene and crude oil from the Caspian region to the Georgian Batumi oil terminal at the Black Sea. When first constructed in 1906, it was the world's longest kerosene pipeline.

Balls Head Bay

Balls Head Bay is a bay located to the west of the Waverton Peninsula and west of Balls Head and to the east of Berry Island, on the north of Sydney Harbour.

Previously known as Oyster Bay, Wollstonecraft Bay, Sugarworks Bay, Powder Works Bay and Kerosene Bay. The naval base HMAS Waterhen is located within the bay.

Ships were broken up and burnt to the waterline in the bay.

Fan heater

A fan heater, also called a blow heater, is a heater that works by using a fan to pass air over a heat source (e.g. a heating element). This heats up the air, which then leaves the heater, warming up the surrounding room. They can heat an enclosed space such as a room faster than a heater without fan, but, like any fan, create audible noise.

Hartley Vale, New South Wales

Hartley Vale is a small village in the Blue Mountains area of New South Wales, Australia. It is approximately 150 kilometres west of Sydney and 12 kilometres south-east of Lithgow. It is in the local government area of the City of Lithgow.

Jet fuel

Jet fuel, aviation turbine fuel (ATF), or avtur, is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines. It is colorless to straw-colored in appearance. The most commonly used fuels for commercial aviation are Jet A and Jet A-1, which are produced to a standardized international specification. The only other jet fuel commonly used in civilian turbine-engine powered aviation is Jet B, which is used for its enhanced cold-weather performance.

Jet fuel is a mixture of a large number of different hydrocarbons. Because the exact composition of jet fuel varies widely based on petroleum source, it is impossible to define jet fuel as a ratio of specific hydrocarbons. Jet fuel is therefore defined as a performance specification rather than a chemical compound. Furthermore, the range of molecular mass between hydrocarbons (or different carbon numbers) is defined by the requirements for the product, such as the freezing point or smoke point. Kerosene-type jet fuel (including Jet A and Jet A-1) has a carbon number distribution between about 8 and 16 (carbon atoms per molecule); wide-cut or naphtha-type jet fuel (including Jet B), between about 5 and 15.

Kerosene heater

A kerosene heater, also known as a paraffin heater, is typically a portable, unvented, kerosene-fueled, space (i.e., convectional) heating device. In Japan and other countries, they are a primary source of home heat. In the United States and Australia, they are a supplemental heat or a source of emergency heat during a power outage. Most kerosene heaters produce between 3.3 and 6.8 kW (11000 to 23000 BTU per hour).

Kerosene lamp

A kerosene lamp (also known as a paraffin lamp in some countries) is a type of lighting device that uses kerosene (paraffin) as a fuel. Invented by the Polish pharmacist Ignacy Łukasiewicz in 1853, kerosene lamps have a wick or mantle as light source, protected by a glass chimney or globe; lamps may be used on a table, or hand-held lanterns may be used for portable lighting. Like oil lamps, they are useful for lighting without electricity, such as in regions without rural electrification, in electrified areas during power outages, at campsites, and on boats. There are three types of kerosene lamp: flat-wick, central-draught (tubular round wick), and mantle lamp. Kerosene lanterns meant for portable use have a flat wick and are made in dead-flame, hot-blast, and cold-blast variants.

Pressurized kerosene lamps have a gas generator and gas mantle; these are known as Petromax, Tilley lamps, or Coleman lamps, among other manufacturers. They produce more light per unit of fuel than wick-type lamps, but are more complex and expensive in construction and more complex to operate. A hand-pump pressurizes air, which forces liquid fuel from a reservoir into a gas generator. Vapor from the gas generator burns, heating a mantle to incandescence and also providing heat to the gas generator.

The first description of a simple lamp using crude mineral oil was provided by Persian alchemist al-Razi (Rhazes) in 9th century Baghdad, who referred to it as the "naffatah" in his Kitab al-Asrar (Book of Secrets). In 1846 Abraham Pineo Gesner invented a substitute for whale oil for lighting, distilled from coal. Later made from petroleum, kerosene became a popular lighting fuel. Modern and most popular versions of the kerosene lamp were later constructed by Polish inventor and pharmacist Ignacy Łukasiewicz.

Kerosene lamps are widely used for lighting in rural areas of Africa and Asia, where electricity is not distributed or is too costly. Kerosene lamps consume an estimated 77 billion litres of fuel per year, equivalent to 1.3 million barrels of oil per day, comparable to annual U.S. jet-fuel consumption of 76 billion litres per year.

Miranda Lambert

Miranda Leigh Lambert (born November 10, 1983) is an American country music singer and songwriter. In 2003, she finished in third place of the television program Nashville Star, a singing competition which aired on the USA Network. Outside her solo career, she is a member of the Pistol Annies alongside Ashley Monroe and Angaleena Presley. Lambert has been honored by the Grammy Awards, the Academy of Country Music Awards, and the Country Music Association Awards.

Lambert's debut album Kerosene (2005) was certified Platinum in the United States and produced the singles "Me and Charlie Talking", "Bring Me Down", "Kerosene", and "New Strings". All four singles reached the top 40 on the Billboard Hot Country Songs. Her second album, Crazy Ex-Girlfriend, was released in early 2007. Three of its singles ("Famous in a Small Town", "Gunpowder & Lead", and "More Like Her") peaked within the top 20 on the country songs chart, with "Gunpowder & Lead" becoming her first top 10 entry in July 2008. Her third album, Revolution, was released in September 2009. Two of its songs – "The House That Built Me" and "Heart Like Mine" – topped the Hot Country Songs chart.2011's Four the Record, included the singles "Baggage Claim", "Over You", "Fastest Girl in Town", "Mama's Broken Heart", and "All Kinds of Kinds". Lambert released her fifth album, Platinum, in 2014. The record won the Grammy Award for Best Country Album, and the album's lead single "Automatic" reached top 5 on the Country charts. Her sixth studio album, The Weight of These Wings, was released on November 18, 2016, and subsequently certified Platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA).

RD-0124

The RD-0124 (GRAU Index 14D23) is a rocket engine burning liquid oxygen and kerosene in a staged combustion cycle. RD-0124 engines are used on the Soyuz-2.1b and Soyuz-2-1v. A slight variation of the engine, the RD-0124A, is used on the Angara rocket family URM-2 upper stage. RD-0124 is developed by Chemical Automatics Design Bureau.

RD-180

The RD-180 (РД-180, Ракетный Двигатель-180, Rocket Engine-180) is a rocket engine designed and built in Russia. It features a dual combustion chamber, dual-nozzle design and is fueled by a kerosene/LOX mixture. Currently, RD-180 engines are used for the first stage of the US Atlas V launch vehicle.

The RD-180 is derived from the RD-170/RD-171 line of rocket engines, which were used in the Soviet Energia launch vehicle, and are still in use in the Russian/Ukrainian Zenit launch vehicles.

RD-191

The RD-191 is a high performance single-combustion chamber rocket engine, developed in Russia. It is derived from the RD-170 originally used in the Energia launcher.

The RD-191 is fueled by a kerosene / LOX mixture and uses an oxygen-rich staged combustion cycle.

RD-193

The RD-193 is a high performance single-combustion chamber rocket engine, developed in Russia from 2011 to 2013. It is derived from the RD-170 originally used in the Energia launcher.

The RD-193 is fueled by a kerosene / LOX mixture and uses an oxygen-rich staged combustion cycle.

RD-193 was proposed as a replacement for the NK-33, which is being used in the Soyuz-2-1v vehicle.

RD-8

The RD-8 (Russian: РД-8 and GRAU Index: 11D513) is a Ukrainian liquid propellant rocket engine burning LOX and RG-1 (a rocket grade kerosene) in an oxidizer rich staged combustion cycle. It has a four combustion chambers that provide thrust vector control by gimbaling each of the nozzles in a single axis ±33°. It was designed in Dnipropetrovsk by the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau as the vernier thruster of the Zenit (GRAU: 11K77) second stage. As such, it has always been paired with the RD-120 engine as main propulsion.It can only be started once, and as a high altitude engine it has a thrust of 78.45 kN (17,640 lbf) and a specific impulse of 342 s (3.35 km/s). It is the first ever steering engine to use the staged combustion cycle, and as such is the basis for a family of planned engines for the Mayak launch vehicle family.The engine itself is built like a hollow cylinder, with a cylindrical space in the center so the RD-120 nozzle can pass through.

RD-810

The RD-810 (РД-810) is a Ukrainian liquid propellant rocket engine burning LOX and Kerosene (RG-1) in a staged combustion cycle. It has a single combustion chamber that provides thrust vector control by gimbaling of the nozzle in two axis by +/- 8°. It is being designed in Ukraine by Yuzhnoye Design Bureau for the prospective first stage propulsion of the Mayak rocket family.The RD-810 as well as the RD-801 are being designed based on the work of the RD-8 vernier and the maintenance and improvement of the RD-120 engines. The RD-810 can be used stand alone on a Mayak or could be used in a module of four called RD-810M to replace the RD-170 on the Zenit.

RP-1

RP-1 (alternately, Rocket Propellant-1 or Refined Petroleum-1) is a highly refined form of kerosene outwardly similar to jet fuel, used as rocket fuel. RP-1 has a lower specific impulse than liquid hydrogen (LH2), but is cheaper, stable at room temperature, far less of an explosion hazard, and far denser. RP-1 is significantly more powerful than LH2 by volume. RP-1 also has a fraction of the toxicity and carcinogenic hazards of hydrazine, another room-temperature liquid fuel.

RS-56

RS-56 was an American liquid fueled rocket engine, developed by Rocketdyne. RS-56 was derived from the RS-27 rocket engine. Two variants of this engine were built, both for use on the Atlas II rocket series. The first, RS-56-OBA, was a booster engine, while the RS-56-OSA was designed for use as a sustainer and produced lower thrust but at a higher specific impulse.

SCE-200

The SCE-200 is an Indian under development liquid-fuel rocket engine burning liquid oxygen(LOX) and RP-1 kerosene in a oxidizer-rich staged combustion cycle. This engine is expected to power Indian Space Research Organization's upcoming Unified Launch Vehicle (ULV) and Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). It is being developed by the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre, a subsidiary of ISRO. But before that it will be tested on a GSLV Mk III by replacing the L110 stage powered by the Vikas engine with an SC-200 stage powered by SCE-200 engine and a 200 tonne propellant load.

Solar Tuki

A solar tuki is a rechargeable solar lighting system that is being implemented in Nepal to replace kerosene lamps commonly used by villagers. It includes two lamps that have white LED lights powered by an individual solar panel. In 2004, Engineers Anil Chitrakar and Babu Raj Shrestha collaborated with their respective organizations, Environmental Camps for Conservation Awareness and Centre for Renewable Energy, to produce, distribute, and further the development of the solar tuki in Nepal. Their organizations sell the solar tuki systems, including solar panel, for $28 U.S. dollars, and the individual lamp is sold for $11.

Solar lamp

A solar lamp also known as solar light or solar lantern, is a lighting system composed of an LED lamp, solar panels, battery, charge controller and there may also be an inverter. The lamp operates on electricity from batteries, charged through the use of solar photovoltaic panel.

Solar-powered household lighting can replace other light sources like candles or kerosene lamps. Solar lamps have a lower operating cost than kerosene lamps because renewable energy from the sun is free, unlike fuel. In addition, solar lamps produce no indoor air pollution unlike kerosene lamps. However, solar lamps generally have a higher initial cost, and are weather dependent.

Solar lamps for use in rural situations often have the capability of providing a supply of electricity for other devices, such as for charging cell phones. American investors have been working towards developing a $10 / unit solar lantern for replacement of kerosene lamps.

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