Kempton Park Reservoirs are a Site of Special Scientific Interest in the London Borough of Hounslow and Kempton Park in Surrey. It is owned by Thames Water. It is part of South West London Waterbodies Ramsar site and Special Protection Area Kempton Park East reservoir is also a local nature reserve.
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View through the fence of Kempton Park East Reservoir
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The facilities at Kempton Park were established in 1897 by the New River company, which was incorporated into the Metropolitan Water Board in 1903. Kempton Park East and Kempton Park West Reservoirs were completed in 1907. A third smaller reservoir, Red House Reservoir, was also constructed, being supplied by the Staines Reservoirs Aqueduct which passed between the other reservoirs on its way to Hampton Water Treatment Works. The pumping station was opened in 1929. The two triple expansion steam engines were designed and manufactured by Worthington-Simpson. They are thought to have been the second largest such engines in the world. They continued to be used until 1980. They and the building they are in have now become the Kempton Park Steam Engines museum.
Kempton Park West Reservoir was closed and emptied completely. Kempton Park East Reservoir was closed in 1980, drained in 1982 and in 1996 had some of the embankments removed to comply with the requirements of The Reservoirs Act for redundant reservoirs. However it has retained a residual amount of water, supplemented by rainfall and since 1996 has been managed actively as a nature reserve. It is kept locked and there is no public access.
Works have been undertaken to protect and improve the habitats for wetland birds, including refuge islands, deep water channels and reed beds. Waders that breed regularly include northern lapwing, common redshank, ringed plover and little ringed plover. The first successful inland breeding in the British Isles of pied avocet was at this reservoir. Other birds recorded include smew, garganey, Temminck's stint, spotted crake and red-necked phalarope.
Red House Reservoir is still operational as a water storage facility. It is secluded and set in woodland which is popular with bats, water voles, grass snakes, newts, frogs and toads. Bats include common noctule (Nyctalus noctula), serotine (Eptesicus serotinus), Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentoni) and pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus).
The A316, known in parts as the Great Chertsey Road, is a major road in England, which runs from the A315 Chiswick High Road, Turnham Green, Chiswick to join head-on the M3 motorway at Sunbury-on-Thames. Its initial London section Chiswick Lane (to the Hogarth Roundabout) heads south — following this it is a mostly straight dual carriageway aligned WSW.Borough of Spelthorne
in the historic County of Middlesex
Spelthorne is a local government district and borough in Surrey County Council, in the historic County of Middlesex England. It contains the towns and villages of Ashford, Laleham, Shepperton, Staines-upon-Thames, Stanwell and Sunbury-on-Thames. It is the northernmost local government district in Surrey.
Boroughs adjacent to Spelthorne are Runnymede and Elmbridge to the south in Surrey, the unitary boroughs of Windsor and Maidenhead and Slough to the west, and Hillingdon, Hounslow and Richmond upon Thames to the north and east in Greater London.Kempton Park, Surrey
Kempton Park formerly also a larger manor known as Kempton today refers to Kempton Park Racecourse in the Spelthorne district of Surrey which was in the Medieval period a private parkland, the remaining parkland of its royal manor.
Kempton appears on the Middlesex Domesday Map as Chenetone a later variant of which was Chennestone, with early royal references to Kenyngton a source of some confusion which may relate instead to Kennington; the first Kempton Park was inclosed by royal licence in 1246. Aside from the park, its land was for much of its history a slightly less valuable, smaller manor than that of Sunbury. Most of the ward of Sunbury East was in medieval times was part of Kempton as was the land of the Stain Hill Reservoirs and Kempton Park Reservoirs.List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Greater London
Greater London is split by the River Thames. The London region has a population of 7,512,400 within an area of 1,579 km2, making it the second-largest populated region in the United Kingdom. However, even though it is one of the largest urban conglomerations in Europe, almost two-thirds of London is made up of greenspace and wetlands, consisting primarily of extensive areas of green belt, large parks and the Thames basin. As of January 2016, there are 37 sites designated within this Area of Search, 30 of which have been designated for their biological interest and 7 for their geological interest.In England, the body responsible for designating Sites of Special Scientific Interests is Natural England, which chooses sites because of their fauna, flora, geological or physiographical features. Natural England took over the role of designating and managing SSSIs from English Nature in October 2006 when it was formed from the amalgamation of English Nature, parts of the Countryside Agency and the Rural Development Service. The data in the table is taken from Natural England's website in the form of citation sheets for each SSSI.List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Surrey
In England, Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) are designated by Natural England, which is responsible for protecting England's natural environment. Designation as an SSSI gives legal protection to the most important wildlife and geological sites. As of May 2019, there are 62 Sites of Special Scientific Interest in the county, 52 of which have been designated for their biological interest, 8 for their geological interest, and 2 for both biological and geological interest.
Surrey is a county in South East England. It has an area of 642 square miles (1,660 square kilometres) and an estimated population of 1.1 million as of 2017. It is bordered by Greater London, Kent, East Sussex, West Sussex, Hampshire and Berkshire. Its top level of government is provided by Surrey County Council and the lower level by eleven boroughs and districts, Elmbridge, Epsom and Ewell, Guildford, Mole Valley, Reigate and Banstead, Runnymede, Spelthorne, Surrey Heath, Tandridge, Waverley and Woking.Fourteen sites are also Special Protection Areas, six are Special Areas of Conservation, six are Ramsar sites, eleven are Nature Conservation Review sites, ten are Geological Conservation Review sites, twelve are Local Nature Reserves, three are National Nature Reserves and one is on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens. Five include Scheduled Monuments and twenty-six are managed by the Surrey Wildlife Trust.List of local nature reserves in Greater London
London is one of the largest urban areas in Europe, with an area of 1,572 km2 (607 sq mi). Its boundaries were set in 1965 when Greater London, which covers the 32 London boroughs and the City of London, was created. Almost two-thirds of it is green space and wetlands. Its population according to the 2011 census was 8.17 million.Local nature reserve (LNR) is a statutory designation by local authorities which gives protection to wildlife habitats and natural features. It allows local authorities to apply local bye-laws to manage and protect sites. The local authority must have a legal interest in the site, by owning or leasing it or having a nature reserve agreement with the owner. As of January 2016, Natural England gives details of 144 local nature reserves declared by local authorities in Greater London, which are listed below.The largest site, at 97.31 hectares (240.5 acres), is Brent Reservoir, most of which is a Site of Special Scientific Interest for its breeding wetland birds, especially great crested grebes, and for its marsh plant life. The smallest is Burnt Ash Pond at 0.13 hectares (0.32 acres), an old farm pond in the middle of a residential area. The longest is Parkland Walk, a linear site of 7.2 kilometres (4.5 mi) along the route of an old railway line. Perivale Wood is one of the oldest nature reserves in Britain. It has been managed by the Selborne Society since 1902, and was designated an LNR in 1974. The newest LNRs are Coldfall Wood, Alexandra Palace and Park and Masons Field, all declared in 2013. Several sites, including Camley Street Natural Park in Kings Cross and Frays Valley, are managed by the London Wildlife Trust.Littleton, Spelthorne
Littleton is a village in the borough of Spelthorne, Surrey, England. Its amenities are a Church of England parish church, village green and Shepperton Studios. It covers the narrow east-west strip of land between all parts of Shepperton Green to the south and the Queen Mary Reservoir to its north, having contributed most of the land to the reservoir in 1931 and having historically reached to the River Thames at Chertsey Bridge.
Contiguous with Shepperton Green which has a parade of shops, the divide is the River Ash, a stream. It borders Laleham to the west and Charlton which is also in the post town of Shepperton, centred 0.5 miles (800 m) to the north-east and which has one of the nearest pubs. London Heathrow Airport is centred 5 miles (8 km) north. The River Thames is about 2.5 miles (4 km) south. Sunbury Golf Course is beyond the M3 motorway in land of Charlton manor which as the name denotes, lay within Sunbury. That land and Upper Halliford, beyond, is however since the early 20th century also within Shepperton's postal boundaries. The nearest station is Shepperton railway station.
For centuries Littleton covered about 1.8 square miles (4.7 km2) until the construction of the reservoir and ecclesiastical expansion of Shepperton – either way it covers no more than a fifth of its former land. The decision to name Shepperton Studios by that name rather than Littleton and the fact of Shepperton railway station being a terminus of a commuter line and being a borderline town (with Christmas and summer fairs, a high street, but no street market) make some people omit the word 'Littleton' from their address altogether. A notice board advertises events primarily in adjoining places. Littleton recreation ground is immediately across the stream to the south-west which was once part of the place. The village has a well-documented history. The parish church of St Mary Magdalene is a Grade I listed building.London water supply infrastructure
London's water supply infrastructure has developed over the centuries in line with the expansion of London. For much of London's history, private companies supplied fresh water to various parts of London from wells, the River Thames and in the three centuries after the construction in 1613 of the New River, the River Lea, which has springs that divert alongside Hertford at an elevation of 40 metres AOD. Further demand prompted new conduits and sources, particularly in the 150 years to 1900 as the Agricultural and Industrial Revolution caused a boom in London's population and housing.
A crisis point was reached in the mid 19th century with biology proving outbreaks of cholera and other disease arose from commercial extraction of water from the Tideway, where the city once had its main filter beds and purification buildings. The Metropolis Water Act 1852 allowed all water extractors three years to find wells or non-tidal sources. London's water businesses (known also as undertakings) nationalised as the Metropolitan Water Board and then re-privatised. The population of Greater London is currently supplied by four private companies: Thames Water, Affinity Water, Essex and Suffolk Water and Sutton and East Surrey Water.
Most of the four companies' non-tidal Thames and Lea sites have current works and reservoirs for supplying domestic drinking water, drawing on rainwater across the Thames Basin. They have been supplemented in the 21st century by a slightly costlier extraction process operated most in drier seasons from the Tideway at Beckton. Pipes of a total length of greater than 13,000 miles (20,920 km) are under the city's streets. These are supported by pumping, testing and access stations and together provide for a relatively consistent and uniform supply of water which is highly regulated by water regulations.Middlesex
Middlesex (; abbreviation: Middx) is an historic county in southeast England. It is now almost entirely within the wider urbanised area of London. Its area is now also mostly within the ceremonial county of Greater London, with small sections in other neighbouring ceremonial counties. It was established in the Anglo-Saxon system from the territory of the Middle Saxons, and existed as an official unit until 1965. The county includes the rivers Colne and Lea and a ridge of hills as the other boundaries. The largely low-lying county, dominated by clay in its north and alluvium on gravel in its south, is the second smallest by area of England's historic counties, after Rutland.The City of London was a county in its own right from the 12th century and was able to exert political control over Middlesex. Westminster Abbey dominated most of the early financial, judicial and ecclesiastical aspects of the county. As London grew into Middlesex, the Corporation of London resisted attempts to expand the city boundaries into the county, which posed problems for the administration of local government and justice. In the 18th and 19th centuries the population density was especially high in the southeast of the county, including the East End and West End of London. From 1855 the southeast was administered, with sections of Kent and Surrey, as part of the area of the Metropolitan Board of Works. When county councils were introduced in England in 1889 about 20% of the area of Middlesex, along with a third of its population, was transferred to the new County of London and the remainder became an administrative county governed by the Middlesex County Council that met regularly at the Middlesex Guildhall in Westminster, in the County of London. The City of London, and Middlesex, became separate counties for other purposes and Middlesex regained the right to appoint its own sheriff, lost in 1199.
In the interwar years suburban London expanded further, with improvement and expansion of public transport, and the setting up of new industries. After the Second World War, the population of the County of London and inner Middlesex was in steady decline, with high population growth continuing in the outer parts. After a Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London, almost all of the original area was incorporated into an enlarged Greater London in 1965, with the rest transferred to neighbouring counties. Since 1965 various areas called Middlesex have been used for cricket and other sports. Middlesex was the former postal county of 25 post towns.Queen Mary Reservoir
The Queen Mary Reservoir is one of the largest of London's reservoirs supplying fresh water to London and parts of surrounding counties and is in the borough of Spelthorne in Surrey. The reservoir covers 707 acres (2.86 km2) and lies 450 ft (140 m) above the surrounding area.Shepperton
Shepperton is a suburban village in the borough of Spelthorne, in the county of Surrey in England, 15 miles (24 km) southwest of Charing Cross, London, bounded by the Thames to the south and much of the east and which is in the northwest bisected by the M3 motorway. Shepperton is equidistant between the towns of Chertsey and Sunbury-on-Thames. Shepperton is mentioned in a document of 959 AD and in the Domesday Book, where it was an agricultural village.
In the early 19th century resident writers and poets included Haggard, Peacock, Meredith and Shelley, attracted by the Thames beside which they and other wealthy residents lived, painted at Walton Bridge here in 1754 by Canaletto and in 1805 by Turner. Its accessibility was improved by Sunbury Lock and Shepperton Lock built in the 1810s supporting the trade and agricultural barges and later the use of residential narrowboats.
The suburbanisation of Shepperton began late for Middlesex, in the latter part of the 19th century, with the construction in 1864 of its railway — the owner of its manor, William Schaw Lindsay sponsored the venture which had aims to be extended via Chertsey and connect to the South Western Main Line. Shepperton's proximity to burgeoning London led to small businesses being established along its high street by the end of the century.
With its film studios and production facilities and electrified railway since the 1930s many more homes have been constructed; its population rose from 1,810 residents in the early 20th century to a little short of 10,000 in 2011. It is an age-diverse commuter settlement. Expansion continues in the form of occasional new housing developments; curtailed by natural considerations — much of the land is formed of protected flood meadows, small lakes or fertile alluvial soil farmland which in part form a green buffer to its motorway. Its Green Belt has The Swan Sanctuary and two SSSIs, one of which is managed by Surrey Wildlife Trust.Sir Philip Musgrave, 6th Baronet
Sir Philip Musgrave, 6th Baronet (c. 1712 – 5 July 1795) was a British politician.
He inherited his father's title in 1736 He was a Member of Parliament (MP) for Westmorland from 1741 to 1747, during which time he married Jane Turton from Orgreave, Staffordshire on 24 June 1742.He inherited Kempton manor and park in Middlesex from the family of his mother Julia Chardin. She was the eldest daughter of Jean Chardin, a luminary Persia and Near East traveller and the Court Jeweller, whose son and sole heir John became a baronet but died childless in 1755 having bought the estate in 1741.Notable issue:
Henrietta Musgrave m. 1774 Sir John Morris, 1st Baronet, British industrialist, active in copper-smelting and coal-mining in Swansea, South Wales after which part of the settlement, Morriston became named.
Sir John Chardin Musgrave, 7th Bt. (1757–1806)David Barttelot gives a year of his living at his northern manor, Eden Hall, Edenhall, Cumberland as his north of England home: 1794, which was during the period from the reign of Henry VI of England until the early 1900s a Musgrave home. He died on 5 July 1795 at his manorial Middlesex estate Kempton Park (Kempton Manor House) which was sold by his son three years later to the Hounslow Heath gunpowder mills owner, Edmund Hill. Within a century Kempton Park Racecourse was set up in part of the grounds the remainder of which was non-arable woodland and pasture, much of which became the Kempton Park Reservoirs SSSI.Sunbury-on-Thames
Sunbury-on-Thames is a suburban village in the borough of Spelthorne, in the historic County of Middlesex and administrative county of Surrey in England. It extends from the left bank of the River Thames and the south-west of the Greater London boundary and is approximately 13 miles (21 km) from Charing Cross, London. Suburban neighbourhoods make up most of its area, Lower Sunbury, added to which is part of the Metropolitan Green Belt including Kempton Park. The town centre is by the London end of the M3 motorway, elsewhere are three shopping parades and riverside public houses. In tourism Lower Sunbury holds an annual fair and regatta each August.
Sunbury railway station is on a branch line from London Waterloo. Lower Sunbury contains most of the town's parks, pubs and listed buildings, Kempton Park Racecourse, served by its own railway station and a public walled garden which has a large millennium tapestry in its art gallery/café. Offices and hotels form part of its labour-importing economy. Most of Sunbury's riverside forms privately owned houses or lodges with gardens, including Wheatley's Ait and Sunbury Court Island which are attached by footbridges. Many schools are based in the town including large secondary schools in the Catholic and Anglican traditions; some maintain sixth form colleges.
Sunbury adjoins other settlements Feltham to the north, Hampton to the east, Ashford to the northwest, Shepperton to the southwest and Walton-on-Thames to the south on the opposite bank of the Thames.Upper Halliford
Upper Halliford is a small linear village, part of the Shepperton post town, in the borough of Spelthorne, Surrey, England within the Metropolitan Green Belt. Its railway station is on the northern boundary and by part of Sunbury on Thames (which remains its Anglican parish) on a branch line from London; the M3 is just beyond. Upper Halliford is within the circle of the M25. Its closest settlements are Shepperton, Charlton and Walton on Thames.
The village is partially on and partially by the A244 which alternates here between a dual carriageway and a single carriageway. All of the settled area is however on or beside a single carriageway as the corollary dual carriageway section takes through traffic around the south, village green part of the settlement. Part of this brief dual section has been harmonised to one lane, and Walton Bridge to the south along with almost all of the route is not dualled. No high rise buildings are in the village. Mid-rise flats are near to the village green and it has a conservation area.Wraysbury
Wraysbury is a village and civil parish in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead in England. It is under the western approach path of London Heathrow airport. It is located on the east bank of the River Thames, roughly midway between Windsor and Staines-upon-Thames, and 18 miles (29 km) west by south-west of London.
Historically part of Buckinghamshire, Wraysbury was made part of the new non-metropolitan Berkshire in 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972. The Wraysbury Reservoir is located to the east, in the Spelthorne district of Surrey.
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