Kedarnath

Kedarnath is a town in the Indian state of Uttarakhand and has gained importance because of Kedarnath Temple. It is a nagar panchayat in Rudraprayag district. The most remote of the four Chota Char Dham sites, Kedarnath is located in the Himalayas, about 3,583 m (11,755 ft) above sea level near Chorabari Glacier, the head of river Mandakini, and is flanked by snow-capped peaks, most prominently Kedarnath mountain. The nearest road head is at Gaurikund.

The town suffered extensive destruction during June 2013 from flash floods caused by torrential rains in Uttarakhand state.

Kedarnath
Town
Kedarnath
Kedarnath
Kedarnath is located in Uttarakhand
Kedarnath
Kedarnath
Location in Uttarakhand, India
Kedarnath is located in India
Kedarnath
Kedarnath
Kedarnath (India)
Coordinates: 30°44′N 79°04′E / 30.73°N 79.07°ECoordinates: 30°44′N 79°04′E / 30.73°N 79.07°E
CountryIndia
StateUttarakhand
DistrictRudraprayag
Area
 • Total2.75 km2 (1.06 sq mi)
Elevation
3,553 m (11,657 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total612
 • Density220/km2 (580/sq mi)
Language
 • OfficialHindi, Garhwali
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Pin Code
246445
Vehicle registrationUK-13
Websiteuk.gov.in

Etymology

The name "Kedarnath" means "the lord of the field": it derives from the Sanskrit words kedara ("field") and natha ("lord"). The text Kashi Kedara Mahatmya states that it is so called because "the crop of liberation" grows here.[1]

Mt.Kedarnath
Himalayan mountains range in Kedarnath, Uttarakhand.

History

Kedarnath has been a pilgrimage centre since the ancient times, although it is not certain who constructed the original Kedarnath temple and when. A mythological account ascribes the temple's construction to the legendary Pandava brothers mentioned in the Mahabharata.[2][3] However, the Mahabharata does not mention any place called Kedarnath. One of the earliest references to Kedarnath occurs in the Skanda Purana (c. 7th-8th century), which names Kedara (Kedarnath) as the place where Shiva released the holy water from his matted hair, resulting in the formation of the Ganges river.[4]

According to the hagiographies based on Madhava's Sankshepa-shankara-vijaya, the 8th century philosopher Adi Shankara died at Kedaranatha (Kedarnath); although other hagiographies, based on Anandagiri's Prachina-Shankara-Vijaya, state that he died at Kanchi. The ruins of a monument marking the purported resting place of Shankara are located at Kedarnath.[5] Kedarnath was definitely a prominent pilgrimage centre by the 12th century, when it is mentioned in Kritya-kalpataru written by the Gahadavala minister Bhatta Lakshmidhara.[6]

Location

Kedarnath and Kedar Dome, Uttarakhand India November 2013
A view of Kedarnath and Kedar Dome (2013)

Kedarnath is located at a distance of 223 km from Rishikesh in Uttarakhand and close to the source of Mandakini river at a height of 3,583 m (11,755 ft) above sea level.[7] The township itself cannot be called attractive, as it is built on a barren stretch of land on the shores of Mandakini river but the surrounding scenery of Himalayas and green pastures makes it a very attractive place for pilgrimage and trekking. Behind the town and Kedarnath temple, stands the majestic Kedarnath peak 6,940 m (22,769 ft), Kedar Dome 6,831 m (22,411 ft) and other peaks of the range.[7][8]

Demographics

As of 2001 India census,[9] Kedarnath had a population of 479. Males constitute 98% of the population and females 2%. Kedarnath has an average literacy rate of 63%: male literacy is 63%, and female literacy is 36%. In Kedarnath, none of the population is under 6 years of age. The floating population from May to October every year is more than 5000 per day.

Climate

During winter due to snowfall, the Temple is closed and no one stays in Kedarnath. For six months (November to April) the Palki with the utsava murti of Lord Kedarnath is transferred to a place near Guptakashi called Ukhimath. People shift their settlement too from Kedarnath to nearby villages. Around 360 families of Tirtha Purohit of 55 villages and other nearby villages are dependent on Kedarnath for livelihood.

2013 flash floods

On 16 June 2013 at approximately 7:30 p.m., a landslide occurred near Kedarnath Temple with loud thunder followed by gushing of huge amount of waters from Chorabari Tal or Gandhi Tal down Mandakini River at about 8:30 p.m. which washed away everything in its path. On 17 June 2013 at approximately 6:40 a.m., waters rushed down from Chorabari Tal or Gandhi Sarovar bringing along with its flow huge amount of silt, rocks, and boulders. A huge boulder got stuck behind Baba Kedarnath Temple, protecting it from the ravages of the flood's fury. The flood water gushed on both sides of the temple destroying everything in its path.[10][11] Thus in the middle of pilgrimage season, torrential rains, cloud bursts and resulting flash floods nearly destroyed the town of Kedarnath. The town was the worst affected area by the floods.[12] Thousands of people were killed and thousands of others (mostly pilgrims) were reported missing or stranded due to landslides around Kedarnath. Although the surrounding area and compound of the Kedarnath temple were destroyed, the temple itself survived.[13][14] The rescue operation resulted in more than 100,000 people being airlifted with the help of mainly the Private Helicopter Operators who began the rescue mission voluntarily without any clear directives from the State Government or the Ministry of Defence. The Indian Army and Indian Air Force helicopters arrived much after the Private Helicopter Operators had already begun the massive air-rescue mission. Dare-devil helicopter pilots, mostly ex-Indian Air Force and Ex-Army Aviation officers flew relentlessly. Capt. Unni Krishnan from Prabhatam Aviation & Capt. Bhatnagar from Premair were few such outstanding pilots who landed at the Sh. Kedarnath Ji right-ridge at dusk hours - 1910hrs (almost 35 minutes after 'sunset') to pick-up the 'last' batch of survivors for the day. The NDRF represented by a commandant and another junior officer arrived at the Sh. Kedarnath Ji 'right-ridge' unprepared with a malfunctioning satellite phone. They, later next-day, however, brought in more men and supplies. The first Indian Army officer to arrive at the Sh. Kedarnath Ji 'right-ridge' was a Captain from the Assam Rifles regiment. He single-handedly displayed exemplary courage in rescuing many survivors by climbing up steep slopes and fractures along the Rambara ridge-line. His cool demeanor and stable poise, even under such intense and perilous circumstances, are proof of the impeccable training & discipline imbibed within him. The Indian Army later launched a massive rescue effort with thousands of its brave-heart men and vital equipment. The Indo-Tibetan Border Police and the reserve battalions of the Uttarakhand Police displayed outstanding courage in the rescue mission. A Eurocopter AS350 B3 helicopter, each, of the private helicopter operators - Prabhatam Aviation & Simm Samm Aviation, were lost during the rescue mission without any reported casualties. An Indian Air Force helicopter (Mi 17) also crashed during this exercise killing all 20 people on board (all of them were soldiers involved in relief and rescue work). The Air Force dropped logs to build pyres for mass cremations of the victims.[12] It was reported that previously uncollected bodies were still being found one year after the tragedy.[15]

Temple in the aftermath of the flood
Kedarnath Temple in the aftermath of the flood

Places of interest

Other than Kedarnath temple, on the eastern side of the town is Bhairava temple[7] and the deity of this temple, the Bhairava, is believed to protect the town during winter months. About 6 km upstream from the town, lies Chorabari Tal, a lake cum glacier also called Gandhi Sarovar.[7] Near Kedarnath, there is a cliff called Bhairav Jhamp.[7]

Kedarnath in 1860

Kedarnath in 1860's

BhairavnathJi

Bhootnath Ji considered as the protector of the area

Lord-Kedarnath-Darshan-2014

Darshan at Lord Kedarnath

Kedarnath 009

Water Fall

See also

References

  1. ^ Diana L. Eck (2013). Banaras: City of Light. Knopf Doubleday. pp. 185–186. ISBN 978-0-307-83295-5.
  2. ^ J. Gordon Melton; Martin Baumann, eds. (2010). Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices. 1 (A-B) (2nd ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 1624. ISBN 978-1-59884-204-3.
  3. ^ James G. Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M. Rosen. pp. 363–364. ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8.
  4. ^ Alex McKay (2015). Kailas Histories: Renunciate Traditions and the Construction of Himalayan Sacred Geography. BRILL. p. 135. ISBN 978-90-04-30618-9.
  5. ^ N. V. Isaeva (1993). Shankara and Indian Philosophy. SUNY Press. pp. 90–91. ISBN 978-0-7914-1282-4.
  6. ^ Edward Quinn (2014). Critical Companion to George Orwell. Infobase. p. 232. ISBN 978-1-4381-0873-5.
  7. ^ a b c d e Abram, David (2003). The Rough guide to India (2003 ed.). New York: Rough Guides. pp. 354–355. ISBN 9781843530893.
  8. ^ Kala, CP (2014). "Deluge, disaster and development in Uttarakhand Himalayan region of India: challenges and lessons for disaster management". International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. 8: 143–152. doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2014.03.002.
  9. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
  10. ^ "[First-person Account] 'How I Survived 16 June Fury At Kedarnath' - Manoj Rawat - Tehelka - Investigations, Latest News, Politics, Analysis, Blogs, Culture, Photos, Videos, Podcasts". www.tehelka.com.
  11. ^ "Uttarakhand floods: Survivors of Kedarnath recount ordeal".
  12. ^ a b https://www.economist.com/news/asia/21580209-natural-disaster-aggravated-poor-response-high-and-wet Floods in India: High and wet
  13. ^ "Monsoon fury leaves Kedarnath shrine submerged in mud and slush". The Indian Express. 19 June 2013.
  14. ^ "Thousands missing near Kedarnath shrine".
  15. ^ "Exclusive: Dead bodies of pilgrims found in Kedarnath, one year after Uttarakhand tragedy", News Nation, 13 June 2014
  • Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend (ISBN 0-500-51088-1) by Anna Dhallapiccola

External links

2013 North India floods

In June 2013, a multi-day cloudburst centered on the North Indian state of Uttarakhand caused devastating floods and landslides becoming the country's worst natural disaster since the 2004 tsunami. The reason the floods occurred was that the rainfall received was on a larger scale than the regular rainfall the state usually received. The debris blocked up the rivers, causing major overflow. The main day of the flood was 16 June 2013. Though some parts of Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh in India experienced the heavy rainfall, some regions of Western Nepal, and some parts of Western Tibet also experienced heavy rainfall, over 89% of the casualties occurred in Uttarakhand. As of 16 July 2013, according to figures provided by the Government of Uttarakhand, more than 5,700 people were "presumed dead." This total included 934 local residents.Destruction of bridges and roads left about 300,000 pilgrims and tourists trapped in the valleys leading to three of the four Hindu Chota Char Dham pilgrimage sites. The Indian Air Force, the Indian Army, and paramilitary troops evacuated more than 110,000 people from the flood ravaged area.

Badrinath Temple

Badrinath or Badrinarayan Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Vishnu which is situated in the town of Badrinath in Uttarakhand, India. The temple and town form one of the four Char Dham and Chota Char Dham pilgrimage sites. The temple is also one of the 108 Divya Desams dedicated to Vishnu, who is worshipped as Badrinath—holy shrines for Vaishnavites. It is open for six months every year (between the end of April and the beginning of November), because of extreme weather conditions in the Himalayan region. The temple is located in Garhwal hill tracks in Chamoli district along the banks of Alaknanda River at an elevation of 3,133 m (10,279 ft) above the mean sea level. It is one of the most visited pilgrimage centers of India, having recorded 1,060,000 visits.

The image of the presiding deity worshipped in the temple is a 1 m (3.3 ft) tall, the black stone statue of Vishnu in the form of Badrinarayan. The statue is considered by many Hindus to be one of eight swayam vyakta kshetras, or self-manifested statues of Vishnu.Mata Murti Ka Mela, which commemorates the descent of river Ganges on mother earth, is the most prominent festival celebrated in the Badrinath Temple. Although Badrinath is located in North India, the head priest, or Rawal, is traditionally a Nambudiri Brahmin chosen from the South Indian state of Kerala. The temple was included in the Uttar Pradesh state government Act No. 30/1948 as Act no. 16,1939, which later came to be known as Shri Badarinath and Shri Kedarnath Mandir Act. The committee nominated by the state government administers both the temples and has seventeen members on its board.

The temple is mentioned in ancient religious texts like Vishnu Purana and Skanda Purana. It is glorified in the Divya Prabandha, an early medieval Tamil canon of the Azhwar saints from the 6th–9th centuries AD.

Bhaktivinoda Thakur

Bhaktivinoda Thakur (Bengali pronunciation: [bʱɔktibinodo tʰakur] (listen)), also written Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura) (2 September 1838 – 23 June 1914), born Kedarnath Datta (Kedarnath Datta, Bengali: [kedɔrnɔtʰ dɔtto]), was a Hindu philosopher, guru and spiritual reformer of Gaudiya Vaishnavism who effected its resurgence in India in late 19th and early 20th century and was hailed by contemporary scholars as the most influential Gaudiya Vaishnava leader of his time. He is also credited, along with his son Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati, with pioneering the propagation of Gaudiya Vaishnavism in the West and its eventual global spread.Kedarnath Datta was born on 2 September 1838 in the town of Birnagar, Bengal Presidency, in a traditional Hindu family of wealthy Bengali landlords. After a village schooling, he continued his education at Hindu College in Calcutta, where he acquainted himself with contemporary Western philosophy and theology. There he became a close associate of prominent literary and intellectual figures of the Bengal Renaissance, such as Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, and Sisir Kumar Ghosh. At 18, he began a teaching career in rural areas of Bengal and Orissa until he became an employee with the British Raj in the Judicial Service, from which he retired in 1894 as District Magistrate.

Kedarnath Datta belonged to the kayastha community of Bengali intellectual gentry that lived during the Bengal Renaissance and attempted to rationalise their traditional Hindu beliefs and customs. In his youth he spent much time researching and comparing various religious and philosophical systems, both Indian and Western, with a view of finding among them a comprehensive, authentic and intellectually satisfying path. He tackled the task of reconciling Western reason and traditional belief by dividing religion into the phenomenal and the transcendent, thus accommodating both modern critical analysis and Hindu mysticism in his writings. Kedarnath's spiritual quest finally led him at the age of 29 to become a follower of Caitanya Mahaprabhu (1486–1533). He dedicated himself to a deep study and committed practice of Caitanya's teachings, soon emerging as a reputed leader within the Caitanya Vaishnava movement in Bengal. He edited and published over 100 books on Vaishnavism, including major theological treatises such as Krishna-samhita (1880), Caitanya-sikshamrita (1886) Jaiva-dharma (1893), Tattva-sutra (1893), Tattva-viveka (1893), and Hari-nama-cintamani (1900). Between 1881 and 1909, Kedarnath also published a monthly journal in Bengali entitled Sajjana-toshani ("The source of pleasure for devotees"), which he used as the prime means for propagating Caitanya's teachings among the bhadralok. In 1886, in recognition of his prolific theological, philosophical and literary contributions, the local Gaudiya Vaishnava community conferred upon Kedarnath Datta the honorific title of Bhaktivinoda.In his later years Bhaktivinoda founded and conducted nama-hatta – a travelling preaching program that spread theology and practice of Caitanya throughout rural and urban Bengal, by means of discourses, printed materials and Bengali songs of his own composition. He also opposed what he saw as apasampradayas, or numerous distortions of the original Caitanya teachings. He is credited with the rediscovery of the lost site of Caitanya's birth, in Mayapur near Nabadwip, which he commemorated with a prominent temple.Bhaktivinoda Thakur pioneered the spread of Caitanya's teachings in the West, sending in 1880 copies of his works to Ralph Waldo Emerson in the United States and to Reinhold Rost in Europe. In 1896 another publication of Bhaktivinoda, a book in English entitled Srimad-Gaurangalila-Smaranamangala, or Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, His life and Precepts was sent to several academics and libraries in Canada, Britain and Australia.The revival of Gaudiya Vaishnavism effected by Bhaktivinoda spawned one of India's most dynamic preaching missions of the early 20th century, the Gaudiya Matha, headed by his son and spiritual heir, Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati. Bhaktisiddhanta's disciple A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami (1896–1977) continued his guru's Western mission when in 1966 in the United States he founded ISKCON, or the Hare Krishna movement, which then spread Gaudiya Vaishnavism globally.

Bhaktivinoda wrote an autobiographical account titled Svalikhita-jivani that spanned the period from his birth in 1838 until retirement in 1894. He died in Calcutta on 23 June 1914 at age 75. His remains were interred near Mayapur, West Bengal.

Chota Char Dham

The Chota Char Dham (literally translated as 'the small four abodes/seats', meaning 'the small circuit of four abodes/seats'), is an important Hindu pilgrimage circuit on the under upgradation Chardham Road Highway and under construction Chota Char Dham Railway in the Indian Himalayas. Located in the Garhwal region of the state of Uttarakhand (formerly the northwestern section of Uttar Pradesh), the circuit consists of four sites—Yamunotri, Gangotri, Kedarnath, and Badrinath. Badrinath is also one of the four destinations (with each destination being in different corners of the country) of the longer Char Dham from which the Chota Char Dham likely draws its name.The Annual Char Dham Yatra resumed in May 2014, after remaining suspended since the outbreak of 2013 Uttarakhand floods. The footfall has now improved due to proactive measures taken by the government of Uttarakhand.

Akha-Trij or Akha-Teej (Julian and Gregorian Calendars, May) marks the beginning of the Char Dham Yatra. The ‘Yatra’ typically closes 2 days after Diwali, on the day of Bhai-Bij (or Bhai Dooj).

Also, there are chances of roadblocks due to heavy rainfall in late July and August. In May and June, tourists flock in large numbers. So, there is very little time offered for ‘Darshan’. So, it is best to take the Char Dham Yatra in mid May to July and September - October.

Jyotirlinga

A Jyotirlinga or Jyotirlingam, is a devotional representation of the Supreme God Shiva. Jyoti means 'radiance' and lingam the 'Image or Sign' of Shiva; Jyotir Lingam thus means the Radiant Sign of The Almighty Shiva. There are twelve traditional Jyotirlinga shrines in India.

Kalpeshwar

Kalpeshwar (Sanskrit: कल्पेश्वर) is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva located at an elevation of 2,200 m (7,217.8 ft) in the picturesque Urgam valley in the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand state in India. The temple's ancient legend linked to the Pandavas, heroes of epic Mahabharata eminence is the fifth temple of the Panch Kedars (five temples) of Shiva's five anatomical divine forms; the other four temples in the order of their worship are Kedarnath, Rudranath, Tungnath and Madhyamaheshwar temples; all in the Kedar Khand region of the Garhwal Himalayas. Kalpeshwar is the only Panch Kedar temple accessible throughout the year. At this small stone temple, approached through a cave passage, the matted tress (jata) of Lord Shiva is worshipped. Hence, Lord Shiva is also called as Jatadhar or Jateshwar. Earlier it was approachable only by 12 km (7.5 mi) trek from the nearest road head of Helang on the Rishikesh-Badrinath road but now the road goes up to Devgram village from where the trek now is just 300 metres. This road is good for bikes or cars with good ground clearance as it is half kuccha road which may get damaged during monsoons. Small cars can be taken except in monsoons.

Kedarnath (film)

Kedarnath (Hindi pronunciation: [keːdaːɾnaːtʰ]) is a 2018 Indian Hindi-language romantic drama disaster film written, directed and co-produced by Abhishek Kapoor. Featuring Sushant Singh Rajput and newcomer Sara Ali Khan in lead roles, it tells an inter-faith love story between a wealthy Hindu girl whose family owns a lodge and shops near the historic Kedarnath Temple in the Uttarakhand mountains and a humble Muslim boy who is a 'pithoo' (porter) working in the same vicinity. As their relationship grows closer, the pair face many obstacles, including familial disapproval and contrasting backgrounds; when the sudden rains of the 2013 Uttarakhand floods devastate the region, the couple are forced to survive against the elements and face the ultimate test of their love.The film is produced by Ronnie Screwvala of RSVP Movies and Abhishek Kapoor of Guy in the Sky Pictures, along with Pragya Kapoor and Abhishek Nayyar; it was co-written with Kapoor by Kanika Dhillon. The film's production began in June 2017, and principal photography commenced on 5 September 2017. The film released on 7 December 2018 to mixed reviews, with praise directed towards Khan's debut performance.

Kedarnath Agarwal

Kedarnath Agarwal (also spelled as Agrawal and Aggarwal) (1911–2000) was a Hindi language poet and writer.

Kedarnath Singh

Kedarnath Singh (7 July 1934 – 19 March 2018) was an Indian poet who wrote in Hindi. He was also an eminent critic and essayist. He was awarded the Jnanpith Award (2013), Sahitya Akademi Award (1989) in Hindi for his poetry collection, Akaal Mein Saras (Cranes in Drought).

Kedarnath Temple

Kēdārnāth Mandir (Kedarnath Temple) is a Hindu temple (shrine) dedicated to Lord Shiva. Located on the Garhwal Himalayan range near the Mandakini river, Kedarnath is located in the state of Uttarakhand, India. Due to extreme weather conditions, the temple is open to the general public only between the months of April (Akshaya Tritriya) and November (Kartik Purnima, the autumn full moon). During the winters, the vigrahas (deities) from Kedarnath temple are carried down to Ukhimath and where the deity is worshiped for the next six months. Kedarnath is seen as a homogenous form of Lord Shiva, the 'Lord of Kedar Khand', the historical name of the region.The temple is not directly accessible by road and has to be reached by a 22 kilometres (14 mi) uphill trek from Gaurikund. Pony and manchan service is available to reach the structure. According to Hindu legends, the temple was initially built by Pandavas, and is one of the twelve Jyotirlingas, the holiest Hindu shrines of Shiva. It is one of the 275 Paadal Petra Sthalams, expounded in Tevaram. Pandavas were supposed to have pleased Shiva by doing penance in Kedarnath. The temple is one of the four major sites in India's Chota Char Dham pilgrimage of Northern Himalayas. This temple is the highest among the 12 Jyotirlingas. Kedarnath was the worst affected area during the 2013 flash floods in North India. The temple complex, surrounding areas, and Kedarnath town suffered extensive damage, but the temple structure did not suffer any "major" damage, apart from a few cracks on one side of the four walls which was caused by the flowing debris from the higher mountains. A large rock among the debris acted as a barrier, protecting the temple from the flood. The surrounding premises and other buildings in the market area were heavily damaged.

Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary

Kedarnath Wild Life Sanctuary, also called the Kedarnath Musk Deer Sanctuary, is a wildlife sanctuary declared under Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 and located in Uttarakhand, India. Its alternate name comes from its primary purpose of protecting the endangered Himalayan musk deer. Consisting of an area of 975 km2 (376 sq mi), it is the largest protected area in the western Himalayas. It is internationally important for the diversity of its flora and fauna (particularly of ungulate species).Located in the Himalayan Highlands with an elevation ranging from 1,160 m (3,810 ft) (near Phata) to the Chaukhamba peak at 7,068 m (23,189 ft), it was a notified reserve forest between 1916 and 1920. It was changed to a sanctuary on 21 January 1972, and has been designated a "Habitat/Species Management Area" by the IUCN. Since 1972, the area of the park has expanded from 967–975 ha (2,390–2,409 acres).The sanctuary straddles a geographically diverse landscape and transitional environment. IUCN has reported that "From 44.4% to 48.8% of the sanctuary is forested, 7.7% comprises alpine meadows and scrub, 42.1% is rocky or under permanent snow and 1.5% represents formerly forested areas that have been degraded."The sanctuary takes its name from the famous Hindu temple of Kedarnath which is just outside its northern border. The entire 14 km (9 mi) route from Gaurikund to Kedarnath temple (3,584 m or 11,759 ft) passes through the sanctuary.

Madhyamaheshwar

Madhyamaheshwar (Sanskrit: मध्यमहेश्वर) or Madmaheshwar is a Hindu temple dedicated to god Shiva, located in the Mansoona village of Garhwal Himalayas in Uttarakhand, India. Situated at an elevation of 3,497 m (11,473.1 ft), it is the fourth temple to be visited in the Panch Kedar pilgrimage circuit, comprising five Shiva temples in the Garhwal region. The other temples in the circuit include: Kedarnath, Tungnath and Rudranath to be visited before Madmaheshwar and Kalpeshwar to be visited after Madmaheshwar. The middle (madhya) or belly part or navel (nabhi) of the bull, considered a divine form of Shiva, is worshipped at this temple, believed to be built by the Pandavas, the heroes of the Hindu epic Mahabharata.

Panch Kedar

Panch Kedar (Sanskrit: पञ्चकेदार) refers to five Hindu temples or holy places of the Shaivite sect dedicated to god Shiva. They are located in the Garhwal Himalayan region in Uttarakhand, India. They are the subject of many legends that directly link their creation to Pandavas, the heroes of the Hindu epic Mahabharata.The five temples designated in the strict pecking order to be followed for pilgrimage for worship are the Kedarnath (Sanskrit: केदारनाथ) at an altitude of 3,583 m (11,755 ft), the Tungnath (तुंगनाथ)(3,680 m or 12,070 ft), Rudranath (रुद्रनाथ) (2,286 m or 7,500 ft), Madhyamaheshwar (मध्यमहेश्वर) or Madmaheshwar (3,490 m or 11,450 ft) and Kalpeshwar (कल्पेश्वर) (2,200 m or 7,200 ft). The Kedarnath is the main temple, which is part of four Chota Char Dhams (literally 'the small four abodes/seats') or pilgrimage centers of the Garhwal Himalayas; the other three dhams are the Badrinath, Yamunotri and Gangotri. Kedarnath is also one of the twelve Jyotirlingas.The Garhwal region is also called the Kedar-Khanda after Kedar — the local name for Lord Shiva. The region abounds in emblems and aniconic forms of Shiva sect of Lord Shiva, much more than the Vaishnava sect. The western part of this region in particular, which constitutes half of Chamoli district being known as Kedar-Kshetra or Kedar mandala, encompasses in its ambit all the five temples constituting the Panch Kedar.Visitors to Kedarnath shrine, the first of the Panch Kedar temples for which records are available, was an impressive 557,923 in 2007 as against 87,629 in 1987, a quantum jump in 20 years.

Rudranath

Rudranath (Sanskrit: रुद्रनाथ) is a Hindu temple dedicated to god Shiva, located in the Garhwal Himalayan mountains in Uttarakhand, India. Located at 3,600 metres (11,800 ft) above sea level, this natural rock temple is situated within a dense forest of rhododendron dwarfs and Alpine pastures. The temple is the third temple to be visited in the Panch Kedar pilgrimage circuit, comprising five Shiva temples in the Garhwal region. The other temples in the circuit includes: Kedarnath and Tungnath to be visited before Rudranath and Madhyamaheshwar or Madmaheshwar and Kalpeshwar to be visited after Rudranath. The face (mukha) of god Shiva is worshipped as "Nilkanth Mahadeva" here. Trek starts from Sagar village which is approx 03 km from Gopeshwar. The other trek starts from Mandal which is 12 km from Gopeshwar. This trek goes through Anusuya devi temple. Trek is very hard with a distance of approx 24 km.

Rudraprayag

Rudraprayag is a town and a municipality in Rudraprayag district in the Indian state of Uttarakhand. Rudraprayag is one of the Panch Prayag (five confluences) of Alaknanda River, the point of confluence of rivers Alaknanda and Mandakini. Kedarnath, a Hindu holy town is located 86 km from Rudraprayag. The man eating Leopard of Rudraprayag hunted and written about by Jim Corbett dwelled here.

Santragachi Kedarnath Institution, Howrah

Santragachi Kedarnath Institution (or Santragachi K.N. Institution), abbreviated as S.K.N.I, is a Government-sponsored, Bengali medium, higher secondary school located in Santragachi, Howrah in the state of West Bengal, India.Previously the school was named Santagachi Minor School, that was the first vernacular Bengali medium school of Howrah city. Though the original institution was founded in 1857, the establishment year of Kedarnath Institution is considered as 1925. Howrah's first Indian chairman and vice-chairman Kedarnath Bhattacharya founded it in 1957 and the professor of Ashutosh College, Ashutosh Mukherjee laid the foundation stone in 1920.

Sara Ali Khan

Sara Ali Khan (pronounced [saːɾaː əˈli ˈxaːn]; born 12 August 1995) is an Indian actress who works in Hindi films. A member of the Pataudi family, she is the daughter of actors Amrita Singh and Saif Ali Khan and the paternal granddaughter of Mansoor Ali Khan Pataudi and Sharmila Tagore. After graduating from Columbia University, Khan ventured into acting by playing the leading lady in the 2018 films Kedarnath and Simmba. Both films were commercially successful and the former earned her the Filmfare Award for Best Female Debut.

Tungnath

Tungnath is one of the highest Shiva temples in the world and is the highest of the five Panch Kedar temples located in the mountain range of Tunganath in Rudraprayag district, in the Indian state of Uttarakhand. The Tunganath (literal meaning: Lord of the peaks) mountains form the Mandakini and Alaknanda river valleys. It is located at an altitude of 3,680 m (12,073 ft), and just below the peak of Chandrashila. The temple is believed to be 5000 years old and is the third (Tritiya Kedar) in the pecking order of the Panch Kedars. It has a rich legend linked to the Pandavas, heroes of the Mahabharata epic.

Ukhimath

Ukhimath (also written Okhimath) is a small town and a Hindu pilgrimage site in Rudraprayag district, Uttarakhand, India. It is situated at an elevation of 1311 meters and at a distance of 41 km from Rudraprayag. During the winters, the idols from Kedarnath temple, and Madhyamaheshwar are brought to Ukhimath and worshipped here for six months. Ukhimath can be used as center destination for visiting different places located nearby, i.e. Madhmaheshwar (Second kedar), Tungnath (Third kedar) and Deoria Tal (a natural fresh water lake) and many other picturesque places. According to Hindu Mythology, Wedding of Usha (Daughter of Vanasur) and Anirudh (Grandson of Lord Krishna) was solemnized here. By name of Usha this place was named as Ushamath, now known as Ukhimath. King Mandhata penances Lord Shiva here. During winter the Utsav Doli of Lord Kedarnath is brought from Kedarnath to this place. Winter puja of Lord Kedarnath and year-round puja of Lord Omkareshwar is performed here. This temple is situated at Ukhimath which is at a distance of 41 km from Rudraprayag.Ukhimath has many other ancient temples dedicated to several Gods and Goddesses such as Usha, Shiva, Aniruddha, Parvati and Mandhata. Situated on the road connecting Guptkashi with Gopeshwar, the holy town is mainly inhabited by the head priests of Kedarnath known as Rawals.

Ukhimath has an All India Radio Relay station known as Akashvani Ukhimath. It broadcasts on FM frequencies.

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