Kedah (/ˈkeɪdɑː/; Malay pronunciation: [kəˈdɑh]; Jawi: قدح), also known by its honorific Darul Aman or "Abode of Safety", is a state of Malaysia, located in the northwestern part of Peninsular Malaysia. The state covers a total area of over 9,000 km², and it consists of the mainland and the Langkawi islands. The mainland has a relatively flat terrain, which is used to grow rice, while Langkawi is an archipelago, most of which are uninhabited islands.
Kedah was previously known as Kadaram (Tamil: கடாரம்; kadāram) by the ancient and medieval Tamils, Kataha or Kalahbar (Arabic: قتح; qataḥa or Arabic: قلحبر; qalaḥbar) by the Arabs, and Syburi (Thai: ไทรบุรี; RTGS: Sai Buri) by the Siamese when it was under their influence.
To the north, Kedah borders the state of Perlis and shares an international boundary with the Songkhla and Yala provinces of Thailand. It borders the states of Perak to the south and Penang to the southwest.
|Kedah Darul Aman|
قدح دار الامن
"Kedah Aman Makmur Harapan Bersama Makmurkan Kedah"
|Anthem: Allah Selamatkan Sultan Mahkota |
(English:"God Save the Crowned Sultan")
( الله سلامتکن سولطن)
|Royal capital||Anak Bukit|
|• Type||Parliamentary constitutional monarchy|
|• Menteri Besar||Mukhriz Mahathir (PH-PPBM)|
|• Total||9,500 km2 (3,700 sq mi)|
|• Density||199/km2 (520/sq mi)|
|Human Development Index|
|• HDI (2010)||0.800 (very high) (11th)|
05xxx to 09xxx
|Calling code||04 |
08 (Kulim and Langkawi )
|ISO 3166 code||MY-02|
|Vehicle registration||K (Mainland Kedah) |
KV (Langkawi Island)
|Accession into the Federation of Malaya||1948|
|Independence as part of the Federation of Malaya||31 August 1957|
Archaeological evidence found in Bujang Valley (Malay:Lembah Bujang) reveals that a Hindu–Buddhist kingdom ruled ancient Kedah possibly as early as 110 A.D. The discovery of temples, jetty remains, iron smelting sites, and clay brick monuments dating back to 110 A.D shows that a maritime trading route with south Indian Tamil kingdoms was already established since that time. The discoveries in Bujang Valley also made the ancient Kedah as the oldest civilisation of Southeast Asia.
Reference to ancient Kedah was first mentioned in a Tamil poem Paṭṭiṉappālai written at the end of the 2nd century A.D. It described goods from Kadaram "heaped together in the broad streets" of Chola capital. Other than Kadaram, Kedah was known with different names at varying times in Indian literature; Kataha-Nagara (in Kaumudi Mahotsava drama), Anda-Kataha (in Agni Purana), Kataha-Dvipa (in Samarāiccakahā), and Kataha (in Kathasaritsagara). In the middle eastern literature, ancient Kedah was referred as Qilah by Ibn Khordadbeh in Kitāb al Masālik w'al Mamālik, Kalah-Bar by Soleiman Siraf & Abu Zaid al Hassan in Silsilat-al-Tawarikh (travels in Asia), and Kalah by Abu-Dulaf Misa'r Ibn Muhalhil in Al-Risalah al-thaniyah. The famous Tang dynasty Buddhist monk, Yi Jing who visited Malay archipelago between 688–695, also mentioned about a kingdom known as Ka-Cha in the northern part of Malay peninsular, which according to him was 30 days sail from Bogha (Palembang), the capital of Sribogha (Srivijaya).
In the 7th and 8th centuries, Kedah was under the loose control of Srivijaya. Indian and Arab sources consider Kedah to be one of the two important sites during the Srivijaya period, often calling the king of the straits "the ruler of Srivijaya and Kataha". In 1025, Rajendra Chola, the Chola king from Coromandel in South India, captured Kedah in his invasion of Srivijaya and occupied it for some time. A second invasion was led by Virarajendra Chola of the Chola dynasty who conquered Kedah in the late 11th century. During the reign of Kulothunga Chola I Chola overlordship was established over the Sri Vijaya province Kedah in the late 11th century.
According to Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa or the Kedah Annals, Kedah was founded by a Hindu king named Merong Mahawangsa. According to the text further, the Sultanate of Kedah started in year 1136 when King Phra Ong Mahawangsa converted to Islam and adopted the name Sultan Mudzafar Shah. However, an Acehnese account gave a date of 1474 for the year of conversion to Islam by the ruler of Kedah. This later date accords with an account in the Malay Annals where a raja of Kedah visited Malacca during the reign of its last sultan seeking the honour of the royal band that marks the sovereignty of a Muslim ruler.
It was later under Siam, until it was conquered by the Malay sultanate of Malacca in the 15th century. In the 17th century, Kedah was attacked by the Portuguese after their conquest of Malacca, and by Aceh. In the hope that Great Britain would protect what remained of Kedah from Siam, the sultan handed over Penang and then Province Wellesley to the British at the end of the 18th century. The Siamese nevertheless invaded Kedah in 1821, and it remained under Siamese control under the name of Syburi. In 1896, Kedah along with Perlis and Setul was combined into the Siamese province of Monthon Syburi which lasted until transferred to the British by the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909.
In World War II, Kedah (along with Kelantan) was the first part of Malaya to be invaded by Japan. The Japanese returned Kedah to their Thai allies who had it renamed Syburi, but it returned to British rule after the end of the war. Kedah was a reluctant addition to the Federation of Malaya in 1948.
Since 1958, the hereditary Sultan of Kedah has been Tuanku Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah. The Kedah Sultanate began when the 9th Kedah Maharaja Derbar Raja or Phra Ong Mahawangsa, converted to Islam and changed his name to Sultan Mudzafar Shah I. Since then there have been 27 Sultans who ruled Kedah.
The Pedu Lake is the largest man-made lake in the state.
Kedah has a relatively heterogeneous populace constituted by three major ethnic groups; the Malays, Chinese and Indians as well as some Malaysian Siamese ethnic groups, similar to most of the other Malaysian states. Prior to the formation of the Federation of Malaya, there was an ethnic group known as the Sam Sam people. They are culturally Malay Muslim but speak Siamese language. Most of these communities are almost extinct due to assimilation with the Malays. In some places in Kedah, the Sam Sam people still retain their Siamese language as their mother tongue. These communities can be found in Pendang District, Kuala Nerang District and Kubang Pasu District (Changlun, Kodiang, Jitra, Wang Tepus, Guar Napai, Malau, Ason and Napoh). Kedah has a very small Orang Asli community. Orang Asli only can be found in the Baling district.
Like most parts of Malaysia, Kedah is home to various languages and dialects. The majority language of Kedah is Kedah Malay, known natively by locals as Pelat Utagha (Northern dialect), it is a distinct variety of Malay which also serves as the state's main lingua franca and is used by almost all Kedahans regardless of race. Kedah Malay has many sub-dialects which differs from district to district and is also spoken outside of its boundaries such as Penang, Perlis, northern Perak and even as far as Satun in Thailand and Tanintharyi in Myanmar. Besides Kedah Malay, another distinct variety of Malay known as Baling Malay (Cakak Baling) is mainly spoken in Baling district as well as some parts of Sik and Yan districts. Baling, along with Grik Malay is part of Reman Malay, an offshoot of Kelantan-Pattani Malay of which it was descended from the people of the Kingdom of Reman of which once ruled the Baling and Grik regions before it was dissolved and became part of three distinct political entities namely Kedah, Perak and Yala (Thailand).
Besides Malay, there are also various minority languages spoken throughout Kedah, Aslian languages such as Jahai, Kensiu and Kintaq are spoken by the small Orang Asli populations mostly in the inland region. The Chinese in Kedah also speaks various varieties of Chinese such as Mandarin, Hokkien (majority), Teochew, Cantonese and so on. There are also a small but well established Indian community mostly of ethnic Tamil and Punjabis and also smaller number of Telugus who speak their own respective languages. Kedah is also home to a large community of ethnic Siamese of which it has its own distinct dialect of the Thai language which is different from ones spoken in Kelantan (which also has a large Siamese population) and Standard Thai.
The population of Kedah in 2015 was 2,071,900. It was made up of 76% Bumiputra (Malays and others), 12.7% Chinese, 6.9% Indian, 0.9% others and 3.4% non-Malaysian. The following is based on 2015 figures from the Department of Statistics Malaysia.
|Ethnic groups in Kedah, 2015|
As of 2010 the population of Kedah is 77.2% Muslim, 14.2% Buddhist, 6.7% Hindu, 0.8% Christian, 0.6% unknown / none, 0.3% Taoist or Chinese religion followers, 0.1% followers of other religions, and 0.1% non-religious.
Statistics from the 2010 Census indicate that 94.3% of the Chinese population are identified as Buddhists, with significant minorities of adherents identifying as Christians (2.4%), Chinese folk religions (2.4%) and Muslims (0.4%). The majority of the Indian population are Hindus (91.7%), with a significant minorities of numbers identifying as Christians (3.7%), Muslims (2.4%) and Buddhists (1.3%). The non-Malay bumiputera community are predominantly Christians (39.7%), with significant minorities identifying as Muslims (26.9%) and Buddhists (26.3%). All Malays are Muslims.
Kedah's Constitution was promulgated by its Ruler in July 1950. The various provisions laid down in the Constitution include the role and powers of the Monarch, the State Parliament and the State's Civil Service.
The Sultan of Kedah is the constitutional ruler of the State. His position is hereditary and he holds office for life. The Ruler is the head of the religion of Islam in the State and the executive power of the state government is vested in him. The current Sultan is Tunku Mahmud Sallehuddin, who has reigned on September 12, 2017 after his elder brother Abdul Halim of Kedah died on September 11, 2017.
The State Executive Council, which along with the Sultan is Kedah's executive branch of government. It is composed of the Menteri Besar, who is its chairman and Kedah's head of government, and ten other members. The Menteri Besar and other members of the council are appointed by the Sultan of Kedah from members of the Dewan Undangan Negeri (State Assembly).
|Pakatan Harapan||Mukhriz Mahathir||Government||18||19|
|Gagasan Sejahtera||Ahmad Fakhruddi Sheikh Fakhrurazi||Opposition||15||15|
|Barisan Nasional||Ahmad Basah Md Hanipah||3||2|
The state also has a legislative branch, called the State assembly. It is similar to the Parliament but is limited to making laws relating to the state. Its members are elected in elections which are usually held simultaneously with federal elections. The term of each state assembly member is limited to five years. The state assembly must be dissolved before or once it expires its term for a fresh election to elect its members.
Kedah is considered the "rice bowl" (Malay: Jelapang Padi) of Malaysia, accounting for about half of Malaysia's total production of rice. In 2008, the state government banned the conversion of paddy fields to housing and industrial lots to protect the rice industry.
Tourism, particularly on the island of Langkawi is of growing importance.
More recently, Kedah has forged its economy towards the automotive and aerospace industries with Modenas and Asian Composites setting up bases here. One of the main advantages is the low labour costs and the infrastructure in place with the North–South Expressway and the Penang International Airport close by. In 1996, the Kulim Hi-Tech Park was officially opened as the first high technology industrial park in Malaysia. The Park comprises a total land area of approximately 14.5 square kilometres (5.6 mi²).
According to the Ninth Malaysia Plan, this economic area is part of the Northern Corridor Economic Region (NCER). The Northern Corridor Economic Region is one of three development regions formed in Peninsular Malaysia; other development regions being the Iskandar Malaysia (or South Johor Economic Region) and the East Coast Development Region.
The state has a campus of Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM), which is located in Bandar Baru Sintok. It was formally incorporated on 16 February 1984. The University was established with the specific mission of providing a leadership role for management education in the country. The academic establishments in UUM include College of Business (COB), College of Law, Government and International Studies (COLGIS) and College of Arts and Sciences (CAS).
Kedah also has several public universities and colleges such as Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) in Merbok, the Malaysian Spanish Institute of Universiti Kuala Lumpur (UniKL MSI) and the Polytechnic Institute of Sultanah Bahiyah (PSB) in Kulim, the Asian Institute of Medicine, Science and Technology (AIMST University) in Bedong, Kolej Universiti Insaniah (KUIN) in Mergong and the Polytechnic Institute of Sultan Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah (POLIMAS) in Jitra.
There are 2 teacher training institution in Kedah, Institut Pendidikan Guru Kampus Sultan Abdul Halim (IPGKSAH) in Sungai Petani and Institut Pendidikan Guru Kampus Darul Aman (IPGKDA) in Bandar Darulaman that are set up by the government to provide teaching courses for trainee teachers.
Private universities and colleges that are located in Kedah include the Open University of Malaysia (OUM) Regional Learning Center for the state of Kedah and Perlis at Sungai Petani, the Albukhary International University in Alor Setar, Pusat Bahasa Titian Jaya the PTPL College and the Cosmopoint College.
Kedah houses three technical institutes that are affiliated with MARA, that is Institut Kemahiran MARA Sungai Petani, Institut Kemahiran MARA Alor Setar and Institut Kemahiran MARA Sik.
This state also has several secondary islamic schools such as Tahfiz Model Ulul Albab or TMUA.
Consists of several private and public primary school or secondary school. Public secondary school such as SMK Taman Jelutong, Keat Hwa Secondary School, Convent Secondary School (Formerly known as St. Nicholas Convent Secondary School), Kolej Sultan Abdul Hamid, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Sultan Badlishah, Sin Min Secondary School, Chio Min Secondary School, SMK Sultanah Asma, SMK Convent Father Barre, SMK Khir Johari, SMK Tunku Ismail, SMK Aman Jaya, SMK Bedong, SMK Bakar Arang, SMK Darulaman, SMK Ibrahim, K Jit, SMK Mahsuri, SMK Tunku Panglima Besar, Keat Hwa Secondary School, SMK Guar Chempedak, SMK Yan etc. Private secondary school such as Keat Hwa High School, Sin Min High School and SM Sin Min.
Tourism is mainly concentrated on Langkawi Island, the largest island in the archipelago. There are some places of interest on the mainland as well.
The Langkawi International Airport is located at Padang Matsirat and it is also considered a tourist attraction as the Langkawi International Maritime and Aerospace Exhibition takes place every 2 years near the airport. The airport handled almost 1.2 million passengers and over 41,000 aircraft movements in 2008. It serves as the primary gateway into Langkawi.
Places of interest
In 2006, Kedah hosted the 11th Sukma Games. The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Darul Aman Stadium in Alor Setar. Football is the most favorite sport in kedah as well as sepak raga. Kedah FA is a professional football team in Malaysian that represent the state of Kedah and under the supervision of Kedah Football Association. Kedah FA currently play in the Malaysia Super League, and they are the only team in the history of Malaysian football to ever achieved a double treble titles in 2006–07 and 2007–08 seasons.
Al-Sultan Al-Mu’tassimu Billahi Muhibbuddin Tuanku Al-Haj Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Badlishah (Jawi:zالمرحوم سلطان عبدالحاليم معظم شاه ابن المرحوم سلطان بدليشاه; z28 November 1927 – 11 September 2017) was the 28th Sultan of Kedah, reigning from 1958 to 2017. He served as the fifth Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia from 1970 to 1975, and as the 14th Yang di-Pertuan Agong from 2011 to 2016. He was the first person to reign as Yang di-Pertuan Agong twice, as well as the oldest elected to the office. Immediately prior to his death, he was the second longest-reigning living monarch in the world after Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom.Alor Setar
Alor Setar (Jawi: الور ستار), formerly known as Alor Star from 2004 to 2008, is the state capital of Kedah, Malaysia. It is the second-largest city in the state after Sungai Petani and one of the most-important cities on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. It sits along the country's longest expressway, located 400 km (250 mi) from Kuala Lumpur and 79 km (49 mi) north of George Town, Penang. The city is home to the Central State Administration Centre and is the administrative centre of Kota Setar District.
Alor Setar, known as the Tip of Malaysia, is one of the most unusual cities in Malaysia because the public and private sectors operate from Sunday to Thursday every week, observing a Friday–Saturday weekend, along with Kelantan, Terengganu and Johor.
Its location along the main travel route from Malaysia to Thailand has long made it a major transportation hub in the northern Malay Peninsula. At present, the city covers a land area of 666 km2 (257 sq mi), which is occupied by more than 300,000 inhabitants (as per the 2010 census). At the local-government level, Alor Setar is administered by the Alor Setar City Council.
The city is served by the Sultan Abdul Halim Airport, which began operations in 2006. The airport is not served by any commercial international flights; however, there are special seasonal flights to Saudi Arabia for Muslim pilgrims performing the Hajj. The city is connected to other parts of Peninsular Malaysia by the North–South Expressway, the Shahab Perdana Bus Station and the Alor Setar railway station. The city's Kuala Kedah Jetty is served by ferries linking the city with the resort island of Langkawi.
Alor Setar is the birthplace of two Malaysian prime ministers, YTM Tunku Abdul Rahman and Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad.Ayer Hitam (Kedah state constituency)
Ayer Hitam is a state constituency in Kedah, Malaysia, that is represented in the Kedah State Legislative Assembly.Gurun (state constituency)
Gurun is a state constituency in Kedah, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Kedah State Legislative Assembly.Jalan Gunung Jerai
Jalan Gunung Jerai, Federal Route 252 (formerly Kedah state route K159), is a federal road in Mount Jerai, Kedah, Malaysia. It is a main route to Mount Jerai. The Kilometre Zero is at Guar Chempedak.Jalan Langgar (Kedah)
Jalan Langgar, Federal Route 256, is a federal road in Kedah, Malaysia. The Kilometre Zero of the Federal Route 256 is located at Langgar west junctions.Jitra (state constituency)
Jitra is a state constituency in Kedah, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Kedah State Legislative Assembly.Kedah FA
Kedah Football Association (Malay: Persatuan Bola Sepak Kedah) is a football association that supervises football in the state of Kedah, Malaysia.
Kedah FA is a professional football team from Malaysia that is based in Alor Setar. It represents the state of Kedah, under the supervision of Kedah Football Association. Kedah FA currently plays in the Malaysia Super League, and they are the only team in the history of Malaysian football to have achieved treble titles twice, in 2006–07 and 2007–08 seasons.Kedah Malay
Kedah Malay or Kedahan (Also known as Pelat Utara or Loghat Utara 'Northern Dialect') also referred in Thailand as "Syburi Malay" (ภาษามลายูไทรบุรี) is a variety of the Malayan languages mainly spoken in the northwestern northern Malaysian states of Perlis, Kedah, Penang, and northern Perak and in the southern Thai provinces of Trang, Satun and parts of Yala, the usage of Kedahan Malay was historically prevalent in southwestern Thailand before being superseded by the Thai language. Enclaves of Kedahan Malay language can be found in Kawthaung District in Myanmar, Jaring Halus, Langkat in Indonesia and Bangkok, Thailand, mostly by the descendants of historical settles from Kedah.
Kedah Malay can be divided into several dialects, namely Kedah Persisiran (standard), Baling or Kedah Hulu, Kedah Utara, Perlis-Langkawi, Penang and some others outside Malaysia. See Malayan languages for a comparison of Kedah Persisiran, Penang and Baling dialects.
The main characteristic of Kedah Malay is the -a final vocal is pronounced as /ɑ/ such as /a/ in "dark", which is varied from standard Malay -a that pronounced as /a/. Other characteristics of the dialect are final consonant -r is pronounced as -q and final consonant -s is pronounced as -ih (e.g.:Lapar = Lapaq (Hungry), Lepas = Lepaih (release, after) ) while initial and middle r are guttural. Speakers in Trang are most heavily influenced by Thai language.Kedah Sultanate
The Kedah Sultanate is a Muslim dynasty located in the Malay Peninsula. Originally an independent state, it became a British Protectorate in 1909. Its monarchy was abolished after it was added to the Malayan Union but was restored and added to the Malayan Union's successor, the Federation of Malaya.
The information regarding the formation of this sultanate and the history before and after its creation comes from the "Kedah Annals". The Kedah Annals were written in the eighteenth century, over a supposed millennium after the formation of the Kedah Kingdom. It describes the first king of Kedah as arriving on the shores of Kedah as a result of an attack by a mythical gigantic beast. It states that the nation was founded by the offspring of Alexander the Great; who maintained ties with Rome throughout his reign (oddly two centuries after the decline of the Roman Empire due to sacks by the Visigoths and Vandals in 410 and 455).
The Kedah Annals also provide us with very unreliable information regarding the sultans of Kedah. Listing the first sultan of Kedah as Sultan Mudzafar Shah I centuries before the partitioning of the Abbasid Caliphate into distinct sultanates and almost three centuries prior to the contradicting claims of the Terengganu Inscription Stone. This claim also directly contradicts the fact that the Buddhist Srivijaya kingdom was in direct control of Kedah at the time that Sultan Mudzafar Shah I allegedly converted the region to a sultanate.Kota Darul Aman (state constituency)
Kota Darul Aman is a state constituency in Kedah, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Kedah State Legislative Assembly.Kota Siputeh (state constituency)
Kota Siputeh is a state constituency in Kedah, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Kedah State Legislative Assembly.Kuala Kedah (federal constituency)
Kuala Kedah is a federal constituency in Kedah, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Dewan Rakyat since 1959.
The federal constituency was created in the 1958 redistribution and is mandated to return a single member to the Dewan Rakyat under the first past the post voting system.Kuala Nerang (state constituency)
Kuala Nerang is a state constituency in Kedah, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Kedah State Legislative Assembly.Kupang (state constituency)
Kupang is a state constituency in Kedah, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Kedah State Legislative Assembly.Langkawi
Langkawi, officially known as Langkawi, the Jewel of Kedah (Malay: Langkawi Permata Kedah), is a district and an archipelago of 99 islands (+ 5 small islands visible only at low tide) in the Andaman Sea some 30 km off the mainland coast of northwestern Malaysia. The islands are a part of the state of Kedah, which is adjacent to the Thai border. On 15 July 2008, Sultan Abdul Halim of Kedah consented to the change of name to Langkawi Permata Kedah in conjunction with his golden jubilee celebration. By far the largest of the islands is the eponymous Langkawi Island (Pulau Langkawi), with a population of some 64,792; the only other inhabited island being nearby Tuba Island.
Langkawi is also an administrative district, with the town of Kuah as its largest town. Pentai Cenang is the most popular beach and tourist area in Langkawi, with tens of thousands of visitors each year.
Langkawi is a duty-free island.Pengkalan Kundor (state constituency)
Pengkalan Kundor is a state constituency in Kedah, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Kedah State Legislative Assembly.Sungai Limau (state constituency)
Sungai Limau is a state constituency in Kedah, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Kedah State Legislative Assembly.Tokai (state constituency)
Tokai is a state constituency in Kedah, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Kedah State Legislative Assembly.
Places adjacent to Kedah
State of Kedah
Capital: Alor Setar