Kealakekua Bay

Kealakekua Bay is located on the Kona coast of the island of Hawaiʻi about 12 miles (19 km) south of Kailua-Kona. Settled over a thousand years ago, the surrounding area contains many archeological and historical sites such as religious temples (heiaus) and also includes the spot where the first documented European to reach the Hawaiian islands, Captain James Cook, was killed. It was listed in the National Register of Historic Places listings on the island of Hawaii in 1973 as the Kealakekua Bay Historical District.[2] The bay is a marine life conservation district, a popular destination for kayaking, scuba diving, and snorkeling.[3]

Kealakekua Bay Historic District
Kealakekua Bay in the morning
A photo of Kealakekua Bay in the morning
Kealakekua Bay is located in Hawaii
Kealakekua Bay
LocationKona District, Hawaii, United States
Coordinates19°28′17″N 155°54′29″W / 19.47139°N 155.90806°W
Area375 acres (152 ha)
Built1500-1749
Architectural styleAncient Hawaii
NRHP reference #73000651[1]
Added to NRHPDecember 12, 1973

Ancient history

Settlement on Kealakekua Bay has a long history. Hikiau Heiau was a luakini temple of Ancient Hawaii at the south end of the bay, at coordinates 19°28′31″N 155°55′9″W / 19.47528°N 155.91917°W, associated with funeral rites.[4] The large platform of volcanic rock was originally over 16 feet (4.9 m) high, 250 feet (76 m) long, and 100 feet (30 m) wide.[5] The sheer cliff face called Pali Kapu O Keōua overlooking the bay was the burial place of Hawaiian royalty. The name means "forbidden cliffs of Keōua "[6] in honor of Keōua Nui. He was sometimes known as the "father of kings" since many rulers were his descendants. The difficulty in accessing the cliff kept the exact burial places secret.

The village of Kaʻawaloa was at the north end of the bay in ancient times, where the Puhina O Lono Heiau was built, along with some royal residences. The name of the village means "the distant Kava", from the medicinal plant used in religious rituals.[7][8] The name of the bay comes from ke ala ke kua in the Hawaiian Language which means "the god's pathway." [9] This area was the focus of extensive Makahiki celebrations in honor of the god Lono. Another name for the area north of the bay was hale ki'i, due to the large number of wood carvings, better known today as "tiki".[10]

Captain Cook and Kalaniʻōpuʻu

John Webber - 'Kealakekua Bay and the village Kowroaa', 1779, ink, ink wash and watercolor
Kaʻawaloa in 1779 by John Webber, artist aboard Cook's ship

Although there are theories that Spanish or Dutch sailors might have stopped here much earlier, the first documented European to arrive was Captain James Cook.[11] He and his crews on the Resolution and Discovery sighted Kealakekua Bay on the morning of January 17, 1779. He estimated several thousand people lived in the two villages, and many thousand more in the surrounding areas. On January 28, he performed the first Christian service on the islands, for the funeral of a crew member who had died.[5]

Cook had entered the bay during Makahiki a traditionally peaceful time. Cook and his men were welcomed, given much food and gifts from the island and treated as honored guests. John Ledyard, the only American on board Cook's third voyage, gives a detailed account of these events in his journals. Cook and his crew stayed for several weeks, returning to sea shortly after the end of the festival. After suffering damage to the mast during a storm, the ships returned two weeks later on February 12. This time, already fraying relations came to a head.

One of Cook's captains accused a native chieftain of stealing the Resolution's jolly boat. The boat was soon found unstolen and the native chief soured from the false accusation. Cook himself attempted to barter for the wood used to border the natives "Morai" or sacred burial ground for certain high-ranking individuals. The native chiefs were mortified at this offer and refused to accept it. Cook later took the wood anyway, against the will of native chieftains. With a damaged mast, fraying relations with the natives and being heavily outnumbered, Cook attempted to lure Hawaiian chief Kalaniʻōpuʻu aboard his ship to hold him hostage in order to induce 'good behavior among the natives.' Tensions mounted as Cook attempted to trick the chief, and natives surrounded the beach. Cook fired the first shot, and his men quickly shot several more natives. As Cook and his men attempted to retreat, Cook was stabbed through the chest by a native chief with an iron dagger which had been traded from Cook's own ship previously in the same visit. The majority of Cook's body was never recovered. Since Cook's men felt they could not leave without resupplying fresh water and further repair of their damaged mast, they shot dozens more natives with their own muskets and the ships cannons and burned a portion of Kireekakooa, one of the towns in the bay. Cook's death was depicted in a series of paintings called Death of Cook. The monument is accessed by a one-hour hike from the road or by crossing the bay by boat.

Turmoil

Kealakekua Bay heiau illustration.jpeg
An illustration of the Hikiau heiau at Kealakekua Bay, by William Ellis

When Kalaniʻōpuʻu died in 1782, his oldest son Kiwalaʻo officially inherited the kingdom, but his nephew Kamehameha I became guardian of the god Kūkaʻilimoku. A younger son, Keōua Kuahuʻula, was not happy about this and provoked Kamehameha. Their forces met just south of the bay at the battle of Mokuʻōhai.[12] Kamehameha won control of the west and north sides of the island, but Keōua escaped. It would take over a decade to consolidate Kamehameha's control.

In 1786, merchant ships of the King George's Sound Company under command of the maritime fur traders Nathaniel Portlock and Captain George Dixon anchored in the harbor, but avoided coming ashore. They had been on Cook's voyage when he was killed by natives. In December 1788, the Iphigenia under William Douglas arrived with Chief Kaʻiana, who had already traveled to China.

The first American ship was probably the Lady Washington around this time under Captain John Kendrick. Two sailors, Parson Howel and James Boyd, left the ship (in 1790 or when it returned in 1793) and lived on the island.[11]

In March 1790, the American ship Eleanora arrived at Kealakekua Bay and sent a British sailor ashore named John Young, to determine whether the sister ship, the schooner Fair American, had arrived for its planned rendezvous. Young was detained by Kamehameha's men to prevent the Eleanora's Captain Simon Metcalfe from hearing the news of the destruction of the Fair American, and the death of Metcalfe's son, Thomas Humphrey Metcalfe, after the massacre at Olowalu. Young and Isaac Davis, the lone survivor of the Fair American, slowly adjusted to the island lifestyle. They instructed Hawaiians in the use of the captured cannon and muskets, becoming respected advisers to Kamehameha.[13] In 1791 Spanish explorer Manuel Quimper visited on the ship Princess Royal.[11]

More visitors

Priests traveling across kealakekua bay for first contact rituals
Priests traveling across the bay for first contact rituals, by John Webber

George Vancouver arrived in March 1792 to winter in the islands with a small fleet of British ships. He had been a young midshipman on Cook's fatal voyage 13 years earlier and commanded the party that attempted to recover Cook's remains.[14] He avoided anchoring in Kealakekua Bay, but met some men in canoes who were interested in trading. The common request was for firearms, which Vancouver resisted. One included chief Kaʻiana, who would later turn against Kamehameha.

Vancouver suspected Kaʻiana intended to seize his ships, so left him behind and headed up the coast. There he was surprised to encounter a Hawaiian who in broken English introduced himself as "Jack", and told of traveling to America on a fur-trading ship. Through him, Vancouver met Keʻeaumoku Pāpaʻiahiahi, who gave him a favorable impression of Kamehameha (his son-in-law). He spent the rest of the winter in Oʻahu.[14]

Vancouver returned in February 1793; this time he picked up Keʻeaumoku and anchored in Kealakekua Bay. When Kamehameha came to greet the ship, he brought John Young, now fluent in the Hawaiian language, as an interpreter. This greatly helped to develop a trusted trading relationship. The Hawaiians presented a war game, which was often part of the Makahiki celebration. Impressed by the warriors' abilities, Vancouver fired off some fireworks at night to demonstrate his military technology.[14] Vancouver presented some cattle which he had picked up in California. They were weak and barely alive, so he convinced Kamehameha to avoid killing them for ten years.

Scottish doctor James Lind had recommended the use of citrus juice to prevent scurvy on long voyages. The botanist Archibald Menzies had picked up some citrus fruit seeds in South Africa, and dropped them off here, so that future ships might be able to replenish their stocks at the Hawaiian islands.[15]

Kealakekua Bay, by Rufus Anderson
Ships in the bay (sketch by Rufus Anderson)

Vancouver left in March 1793 after visiting the other islands to continue his expedition, and returned again January 13, 1794. He still hoped to broker a truce between Kamehameha and the other islands. His first step was to reconcile Kamehameha with Queen Kaʻahumanu. He dropped off more cattle and sheep from California, and discovered a cow left the year before had delivered a calf. The cattle became feral and eventually became pests. They were not controlled until the "Hawaiian Cowboys," known as the Paniolo, were recruited.

The ship's carpenters instructed the Hawaiians and the British advisers how to build a 36-foot (11 m) European-style ship, which they named the Britania. On February 25, 1794, Vancouver gathered leaders from around the island onto his ship and negotiated a treaty. Although this treaty was sometimes described as "ceding" Hawaii to Great Britain, the treaty was never ratified by the British parliament.[14]

Decline

For the next few years, Kamehameha was engaged in his war campaigns, and then spent his last years at Kamakahonu to the north. By this time other harbors such as Lahaina and Honolulu became popular with visiting ships. By 1804, the heiau was falling into disuse. In 1814, a British ship HMS Forester arrived in the midsts of a mutiny. Otto von Kotzebue arrived in 1816 on a mission from the Russian Empire.[11]

When Kamehameha I died in 1819, his oldest son Liholiho officially inherited the kingdom, calling himself Kamehameha II. His nephew Keaoua Kekuaokalani inherited the important military and religious post of guardian of Kūkaʻilimoku. However, true power was held by Kamehameha's widow Queen Kaʻahumanu. She had been convinced by Vancouver and other visitors that the European customs should be adopted. In the ʻAi Noa she declared an end to the old Kapu system.

Kekuaokalani was outraged by this threat to the old traditions, which still were respected by most common people. He gathered religious supporters at Kaʻawaloa, threatening to take the kingdom by force, as happened 37 years earlier. After a failed attempt to negotiate peace, he marched his army north to meet Kalanimoku's troops who were gathered at Kamakahonu. They met in the Battle of Kuamoʻo. Both sides had muskets, but Kalanimoku had cannon mounted on double-hulled canoes. He devastated the fighters for the old religion, who still lie buried in the lava rock.[16]

Starr 000621-1281 Prosopis pallida
The former village of Kaʻawaloa is now overgrown with Kiawe trees

The wood Kiʻi carvings were burned, and the temples fell into disrepair. A small Christian church was built in 1824 in Kaʻawaloa by the Hawaiian missionaries, and the narrow trail widened to a donkey cart road in the late 1820s, but the population declined due largely to introduced diseases and people shifted to other areas.

In 1825, Admiral Lord Byron (cousin of the famous poet) on the ship HMS Blonde erected a monument to Cook and took away many of the old, sacred artifacts.[17] The last royalty known to live here was high chief Naihe, known as the "national orator," and his wife Chiefess Kapiʻolani, early converts to Christianity.[18] In 1829, she was saddened to see that the destruction of the temples included desecrating the bones of her ancestors at the Puʻuhonua o Hōnaunau. She removed the remains of the old chiefs and hid them in the Pali Kapu O Keōua cliffs before ordering this last temple to be destroyed. The bones were later moved to the Royal Mausoleum of Hawaii in 1858, under direction of King Kamehameha IV.[19]

In 1839 a massive stone church was built just south of the bay. It fell into ruin, and a smaller building called Kahikolu Church was built in 1852. This also fell into ruin, but has been rebuilt.[20] In 1894 a wharf was constructed at the village at the south of the bay, now called Napoʻopoʻo. A steamer landed in the early 20th century when Kona coffee became a popular crop in the upland areas.[4]

A large white stone monument was built on the north shore of the bay in 1874 on the order of Princess Likelike and was deeded to the United Kingdom in 1877. The chain around the monument is supported by four cannon from the ship HMS Fantome; they were placed with their breaches embedded in the rock in 1876.[21] It marks the approximate location of Cook's death. It is located at coordinates 19°28′52.7″N 155°56′0.4″W / 19.481306°N 155.933444°W.

Cook Monument Kealakekua
Cook Monument on the northern shore of the bay

The Cook monument is unreachable by road; this remote location is accessible only by water or an hour-long hike along a moderately steep trail. Many visitors have rented kayaks and paddled across the bay, about 1.5 miles (2.4 km) from its southern end. State conservation regulations prohibit kayaks, stand-up paddleboards, surfboards, and bodyboards from entering the bay unless part of a tour with a licensed local operator. The pier at Napoʻopoʻo can be accessed down a narrow road off the Hawaii Belt Road.[22] The beach sand was mostly removed by Hurricane Iniki in 1992. Boat tours are also available, leaving from Honokōhau harbor, Keauhou Bay, and the Kailua pier.

A short single-day eruption of Mauna Loa volcano took place underwater within Kealakekua Bay in 1877, and within a mile of the shoreline; curious onlookers approaching the area in boats reported unusually turbulent water and occasional floating blocks of hardened lava.[23]

Hawaiian Spinner Dolphins frequent Kealakekua Bay, especially in the morning. The bay serves as a place for them to rest and feed, and as a nursery for mothers and their calves. Due to the calm water conditions, extensive coral reef, and thriving underwater life, Kealakekua Bay offers some of the best snorkeling and diving in Hawaii, especially in the shallow waters adjacent to the monument.[24][25] The bay is a protected marine environment so visitors can snorkel but no fishing is allowed in this area.[26]

About 180 acres (0.73 km2) around the bay was designated a State Historic Park in 1967, and it was added as a Historic District to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973 as site 73000651.[1] The 315 acres (1.27 km2) of the bay itself were declared a Marine Life Conservation District in 1969.[27]

A narrow one-lane road to the south leads to Puʻuhonua o Hōnaunau National Historical Park, which contains more historic sites.

In popular culture

References

  1. ^ a b National Park Service (2010-07-09). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
  2. ^ B. Jean Martin (September 30, 1971). "Kealakekua Bay Historical District nomination form". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-11-23.
  3. ^ "Coral Reef Network". coralreefnetwork.com.
  4. ^ a b Kealakekua Bay brochure at the official State Park web site
  5. ^ a b Van James, Ancient Sites of Hawaiʻi, 1995, Mutual Publishing, ISBN 978-1-56647-200-5 Page 94
  6. ^ Lloyd J. Soehren (2010). "lookup of Palikapuokeoua ". in Hawaiian Place Names. Ulukau, the Hawaiian Electronic Library. Retrieved November 17, 2010.
  7. ^ John R. K. Clark (2004). "lookup of Kaʻawaloa ". in Hawai'i Place Names: Shores, Beaches, and Surf Sites. Ulukau, the Hawaiian Electronic Library, University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved November 17, 2010.
  8. ^ Lloyd J. Soehren (2010). "lookup of Kaʻawaloa ". in Hawaiian Place Names. Ulukau, the Hawaiian Electronic Library. Retrieved November 17, 2010.
  9. ^ Lloyd J. Soehren (2010). "lookup of Kealakekua Bay ". in Hawaiian Place Names. Ulukau, the Hawaiian Electronic Library. Retrieved November 17, 2010.
  10. ^ Lloyd J. Soehren (2010). "lookup of Halekii ". in Hawaiian Place Names. Ulukau, the Hawaiian Electronic Library. Retrieved November 17, 2010.
  11. ^ a b c d Henry B. Restarick (1928). "Historic Kealakekua Bay". Papers of the Hawaiian Historical Society. Honolulu: The Bulletin Publishing Company. hdl:10524/964.
  12. ^ Thomas S.Dye (2003) Archaeological Survey of a Portion of Keʻei Makai
  13. ^ "A Cultural History of Three Traditional Hawaiian Sites on the West Coast of Hawaiʻi Island" by Diane Lee Rhodes, on National Park Service web site
  14. ^ a b c d Cummins Speakman and Rhoda Hackler (1989). "Vancouver in Hawaii". Hawaiian Journal of History. Hawaiian Historical Society, Honolulu. 23. hdl:10524/121.
  15. ^ "Early Plant Introductions in Hawaiʻi" by Kenneth M. Nagata, Hawaiian Journal of History, 1985
  16. ^ Hiram Bingham I (1848). A Residence of Twenty-one Years in the Sandwich Islands. Sherman Converse, New York.
  17. ^ Rowland Bloxam (1920). "Visit of H.M.S. Blonde to Hawaii in 1825". All about Hawaii: Thrum's Hawaiian annual and standard guide. Thomas G. Thrum, Honolulu: 66–82.
  18. ^ Rufus Anderson (1865). Hawaiian Islands:Their Progress and condition under missionary labors. Gould and Lincoln.
  19. ^ Alexander, William DeWitt (1894). "The "Hale o Keawe" at Honaunau, Hawaii". Journal of the Polynesian Society. London: E. A. Petherick. 3: 159–161.
  20. ^ Lois M. Humphrey (May 26, 1982). "Kahikolu Church nomination form". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-10-15.
  21. ^ Thomas George Thrum, ed. (1912), "Cook's Monument at Kealakekua", Hawaiian Almanac and Annual, p. 69
  22. ^ Shoreline access map at Hawaiʻi County web site
  23. ^ John Watson (18 July 1997). "Lava Flow Hazard Zone Maps: Mauna Loa". United States Geological Survey. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  24. ^ "Let's Go Hawaii". letsgo-hawaii.com. Archived from the original on 2006-03-21.
  25. ^ "Hawaii's top snorkeling spots". lovebigisland.com. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
  26. ^ "Division of Aquatic Resources". Division of Aquatic Resources. Retrieved 2018-04-03.
  27. ^ [1] Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources web site
  28. ^ "My Little Grass Shack in Kealakekua Hawai`i; Noble's "Hawaiian Favorites"". Hawaiian Music and Hula Archives. Miller Music Corp. 1933. Retrieved 2009-11-23.

External links

Coordinates: 19°28′34″N 155°55′37″W / 19.476°N 155.927°W

2006 Kiholo Bay earthquake

The 2006 Kiholo Bay earthquake occurred on October 15 at 07:07:49 local time with a moment magnitude of 6.7 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe). The shock was centered 21 kilometers (13 mi) southwest of Puakō and 21 km (13 mi) north of Kailua-Kona, Hawaiʻi, just offshore of the Kona Airport, at a depth of 29 km (18 mi). It produced several aftershocks, including one that measured a magnitude of 6.1 seven minutes after the main shock. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center measured a small, nondestructive tsunami of 4 in (100 mm) on the coast of the Big Island.

Battle of Kealakekua Bay

The Battle of Kealakekua Bay was a battle in 1779 in Hawaii, in which British explorer Captain James Cook was killed.

Captain Cook, Hawaii

Captain Cook is a census-designated place (CDP) in Hawaiʻi County, Hawaiʻi, in the United States, located in the District of South Kona. The community, within the land division of Kealakekua, is so named because the post office for the area was located in the Captain Cook Coffee Co. during the early 1900s. As of the 2010 census the CDP population was 3,429, up from 3,206 at the 2000 census.

Death of Cook

Death of Cook is the name of several paintings depicting the 1779 death of the first European visitor to the Hawaiian Islands, Captain James Cook at Kealakekua Bay.

Most of these paintings seem to go back to an original by John Cleveley the Younger, painted in 1784, although other versions, like that of John Webber, stood model for later copies too. Such artworks were reproduced in paint and engraving over the course of modern world history. The much more famous reproductions, like the one at the Honolulu Museum of Art (allegedly based on the Cleveley version), often depicted Cook as a peacemaker trying to stop the fighting between his sailors and the native Hawaiians that they had challenged in combat.

However, in 2004, the original Cleveley painting was discovered in a private collection belonging to a family since 1851. Cleveley's brother was a member of Cook's crew, and the painting is said to concur with eyewitness accounts. The original depicted Cook involved in hand-to-hand combat with the native Hawaiians. The discovery of the original painting has not changed the way most historians view Cook's relationship with the Hawaiians, as during his last voyage, Cook was reported by his contemporaries to have become irrationally violent.The original watercolour painting, together with three others in a series by Cleveley, was put up for auction by Christie's auction house in London in 2004. The lot of four paintings sold for £318,850 (USD 572,655).

John Webber

John Webber (London 6 October 1751 – 29 May 1793 London) was an English artist who accompanied Captain Cook on his third Pacific expedition. He is best known for his images of Australasia, Hawaii and Alaska.

John Young (Hawaii)

John Young (c.1742 – 17 December 1835) was a British subject who became an important military advisor to Kamehameha I during the formation of the Kingdom of Hawaii. He was left behind by Simon Metcalfe, captain of the American ship Eleanora, and along with a Welshman Isaac Davis became a friend and advisor to Kamehameha. He brought knowledge of the western world, including naval and land battle strategies, to Kamehameha, and became a strong voice on affairs of state for the Hawaiian Kingdom. He played a big role during Hawaii's first contacts with the European powers. He spent the rest of his life in Hawaiʻi. Between 1802–1812, John Young ruled as Royal Governor of Hawaii Island while King Kamehameha was away on other islands. He organized the construction of the fort at Honolulu Harbor. The Hawaiians gave him the name ʻOlohana based on Young's typical command "All hands (on deck)".

Kapiʻolani (chiefess)

High Chiefess Kapiʻolani (c. 1781–1841) was an important member of the Hawaiian nobility at the time of the founding of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi and the arrival of Christian missionaries. One of the first Hawaiians to read and write and sponsor a church, she made a dramatic display of her new faith which made her the subject of a poem by Alfred, Lord Tennyson.

Kaumahina State Wayside Park

Kaumahina State Wayside Park or Kaumahina State Park, is located in Maui County, Hawaii, 28.3 miles (45.5 km) East of Kahului and 22.4 miles (36.0 km) West of Hana along the Hana Highway. The park consists of 7.8 acres (32,000 m2) of forest and exotic plants. Amenities include a rest stop and scenic views of the northeast Maui coastline and Ke'anae Peninsula.

Kawaihae, Hawaii

For the Hawaiian band, see Kawaihae (band)Kawaihae is an unincorporated community on the west side of the island of Hawaiʻi in the U.S. state of Hawaiʻi, 35 miles (56 km) north of Kailua-Kona.

Kealakekua, Hawaii

Kealakekua is a census-designated place (CDP) in Hawaiʻi County, Hawaiʻi, United States. The population was 2,019 at the 2010 census, up from 1,645 at the 2000 census.

It was the subject of the 1933 popular song, "My Little Grass Shack in Kealakekua, Hawaii" by Bill Cogswell, Tommy Harrison and Johnny Noble, which became a Hawaiian music standard.

Kidnapping of Kalaniʻōpuʻu by James Cook

Captain James Cook's 1779 attempted kidnapping of Kalaniʻōpuʻu, the ruling chief of the island of Hawaii and the decision to hold him in exchange for a stolen long boat (lifeboat) was the fatal error of Cook's final voyage, and ultimately led to his death.

Cook's arrival in Hawaii was followed by mass migrations of Europeans and Americans to the islands that gave rise to the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii, the aboriginal monarchy of the islands, beginning in 1893.

King George's Sound Company

The King George's Sound Company, also known as Richard Cadman Etches and Company after its "prime mover and principal investor", was an English company formed in 1785 for the Maritime Fur Trade on the northwest coast of North America. The company had nine partners in 1785: Richard Cadman Etches (merchant of London), John Hanning (gentleman of Dowlich, Devon), William Etches (merchant of Ashbourne, Derbyshire), Mary Camilla Brook (tea dealer of London), William Etches (merchant of Northampton), John Etches (merchant of London), Nathaniel Gilmour (merchant of Gosport, Hampshire), Nathaniel Portlock (captain), and George Dixon (captain). No change in the list of partners after 1785 has been found.Richard Etches and his associates were able to obtain licenses from the South Sea Company and the East India Company (EIC), the former allowing them to trade and explore, the latter giving permission to sell goods in China.Two ships left England in early 1785, the 320-ton King George under Nathaniel Portlock, and the 200-ton Queen Charlotte under George Dixon, with Portlock in overall command. Both men had sailed with Captain James Cook on his third expedition and were therefore familiar with the region. They crossed the Atlantic Ocean, reaching the Falkland Islands in January 1786, and transited Cape Horn to enter the Pacific Ocean. They reached the Hawaiian islands on 24 May and anchored in Kealakekua Bay (where Cook had been killed in 1779), but did not go ashore. They took on fresh food at other Hawaiian islands and proceeded on to what is now Alaska. After two years of plying the waters, Portlock and Dixon departed North America, reaching Macao in November 1787.From Macao, both vessels returned to England with cargoes for the EIC. The Queen Charlotte went on to make a second voyage for the EIC, but under a new master.

Two other company ships arrived in 1787, reaching the west coast of Vancouver Island in July, the Prince of Wales, commanded by James Colnett, and the Princess Royal, under Charles Duncan. Colnett and Duncan separated in 1788, but eventually rendezvoused and proceeded in early 1789 to Canton to sell their furs at a good profit, making this voyage "one of the more successful ones of the period".In April 1787 Richard Etches dispatched Duke of York, a ship he had acquired, to reinforce the settlement at New Years Harbour (now Puerto Ano Nuevo) on Staten Island (now Isla de los Estados), off Tierra del Fuego. Seal hunters established a factory there in 1786, which was also well-located for vessels rounding Cape Horn to refresh and replenish their water. On 11 September, shortly after she arrived at New Years Harbour, Duke of York was lost. Her crew, however, was saved. The loss of Duke of York ended the factory. The people took to their boats and left the island.The King George's Sound Company merged with that of John Meares on 23 January 1789. The new company placed Colnett in command of the 120-ton Argonaut. However, when Colnett returned to Nootka Sound on Vancouver Island, he became embroiled in the Nootka Crisis; he and his crew were arrested and their ship seized by the Spanish. After a treaty was eventually signed by the Spanish and British, the company tried unsuccessfully to obtain compensation for its losses from the Spanish.

As it turned out, there was no great profit to be made from the trade in sea otter pelts (except by the Russians), and the company ceased sending ships.

Kona District, Hawaii

Kona is a moku or district on the Big Island of Hawaiʻi in the State of Hawaii. In the current system of administration of Hawaiʻi County, the moku of Kona is divided into North Kona District (Kona ‘Akau) and South Kona District (Kona Hema). The term "Kona" is sometimes used inaccurately to refer to its largest town, Kailua-Kona. Other towns in Kona include Kealakekua, Keauhou, Holualoa, Hōnaunau and Honalo.

In the Hawaiian language, kona means leeward or dry side of the island, as opposed to ko‘olau which means windward or the wet side of the island. In the times of Ancient Hawaiʻi, Kona was the name of the leeward district on each major island. In Hawai‘i, the Pacific anticyclone provides moist prevailing northeasterly winds to the Hawaiian islands, resulting in rain when the winds contact the windward landmass of the islands – the winds subsequently lose their moisture and travel on to the leeward (or kona) side of the island. When this pattern reverses, it can produce a Kona storm from the west. Kona has cognates with the same meaning in other Polynesian languages. In Tongan, the equivalent cognate would be tonga; for windward, the associated cognate would be tokelau.

Kona is the home of the world-famous Ironman World Championship Triathlon which is held each year in October in Kailua-Kona.

The Kealakekua Bay State Historical Park marks the place where Captain James Cook was killed in 1779. Puʻuhonua o Hōnaunau National Historical Park and Honokohau Settlement and Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park are in Kona.

The volcanic slopes of Hualālai and Mauna Loa in the Kona district provide an ideal microclimate for growing coffee. Kona coffee is considered one of the premium specialty coffees of the world.In pop culture, the region served as the basis of the Beach Boys' song "Kona Coast" from their 1978 album M.I.U. Album.

Kona is the home of one of the main bases of the international Christian mission organization YWAM, and the University of the Nations, first founded here.

List of bays of the United States

This is a list of bays in the United States.

See also Category:Bays of the United States

MacKenzie State Recreation Area

The MacKenzie State Recreation Area is a park in southern Puna, on Hawaiʻi Island in the US state of Hawaii.

Naihe

Naihe (died 1831) was the chief orator and councilor during the founding of the Kingdom of Hawaii. A champion athlete in his youth, he negotiated for peace at several critical times, and helped preserve the remains of several ancient leaders.

Nathaniel Portlock

Nathaniel Portlock (c. 1748 – 12 September 1817) was a British ship’s captain, maritime fur trader, and author.He entered the Royal Navy in 1772 as an able seaman, serving in HMS St Albans. In 1776 he joined HMS Discovery as master’s mate and served on the third Pacific voyage of James Cook. During the expedition, in August 1779, he was transferred to HMS Resolution.

He passed his lieutenant's examination on 7 September 1780, then served on HMS Firebrand in the Channel fleet.

On Cook's third voyage, furs obtained in present-day British Columbia and Alaska sold for good prices when the expedition called at Macao. In 1785 Richard Cadman Etches and partners, including Portlock and George Dixon formed a partnership, commonly called the King George's Sound Company, to develop the fur trade. Dixon had also served on Resolution in the Pacific Ocean under Cook. In September 1785 Portlock and Dixon sailed from England. Portlock was in command of the larger vessel, the 320-ton (bm) King George, with a crew of 59. Dixon's was in command of the 200-ton (bm) Queen Charlotte, with a crew of 33. Dixon and Portlock sailed together for most of their three-year voyage. They crossed the Atlantic Ocean, reaching the Falkland Islands in January 1786, and transited Cape Horn to enter the Pacific Ocean. They reached the Hawaiian islands on 24 May and anchored in Kealakekua Bay (where Cook had been killed in 1779), but did not go ashore. They took on fresh food at other Hawaiian islands and proceeded on to what is now Alaska. After two years of plying the waters, Portlock and Dixon departed North America, reaching Macao in November 1788.On their return Portlock and Dixon published an account of the voyage, based in part on letters written by William Beresford, the trader on the expedition.Returning to the Royal Navy in 1791, Portlock was appointed to command the brig HMS Assistant, which accompanied Bligh on his second voyage to transport breadfruit plants from Tahiti to the West Indies. Following his return to England in 1793, Portlock was promoted to commander and later commanded the sloop HMS Arrow. In 1799 he was promoted to captain, and served as a Sea Fencibles commander at Poole in 1803, and at Dartmouth from 1805 to 1807. He died on 12 September 1817 in Greenwich Hospital.

His son, Major-General Joseph Ellison Portlock, was a British geologist and soldier.

Portlock Harbor, a bay on the west coast of Alaska's Chichagof Island, was named by Portlock in 1789, following a visit there in August 1787. Portlock, a cannery settlement active in the early and middle 20th century, and Portlock Glacier, both on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula, were named in his honor.

Palaʻau State Park

Palaʻau State Park is a state park located on the Hawaiian island of Molokai.

Third voyage of James Cook

James Cook's third and final voyage (12 July 1776 – 4 October 1780)

took the route from Plymouth via Cape Town and Tenerife to New Zealand and the Hawaiian Islands, and along the North American coast to the Bering Strait.

Its ostensible purpose was to return Omai, a young man from Raiatea, to his homeland, but the Admiralty used this as a cover for their plan to send Cook on a voyage to discover the Northwest Passage. HMS Resolution, to be commanded by Cook, and HMS Discovery, commanded by Charles Clerke, were prepared for the voyage which started from Plymouth in 1776.

Omai was returned to his homeland and the ships sailed onwards, discovering the Hawaiian Archipelago, before reaching the Pacific coast of North America. The two charted the west coast of the continent and passed through the Bering Strait when they were stopped by ice from sailing either east or west. The vessels returned to the Pacific and called briefly at the Aleutians before retiring towards Hawaii for the winter.

At Kealakekua Bay, a number of quarrels broke out between the Europeans and Hawaiians culminating in Cook's death in a violent exchange on 14 February 1779. The command of the expedition was assumed by Charles Clerke who tried in vain to find the passage before his own death. Under the command of John Gore the crews returned to a subdued welcome in London in October 1780.

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